著者
荻原 祐二
出版者
人間環境学研究会
雑誌
人間環境学研究 (ISSN:13485253)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.13, no.2, pp.177-183, 2015 (Released:2015-12-27)
被引用文献数
3 3

This paper examined the characteristics and patterns of uncommon names in present-day Japan. Uncommon names have increasingly attracted a remarkable amount of attention, both in the academic field and in society at large. In order to capture the underlying nature of the phenomenon of giving uncommon names to babies, it is important as a first step to describe the characteristics of uncommon names and to systematically categorize them within a structured framework. However, past research mostly focused on names that were too unique and unclear about how they were to be read (kirakira names), which reflected partial and potentially misleadingly extreme aspects of the phenomenon. Moreover, previous research has used unique names that were possibly invented and hypothetical, which is not productive to understanding the actual phenomenon of giving uncommon names and might produce/reproduce "anecdotal names" or "urban legend names." Therefore, in this article, names that were uncommon (not too unique) and real (not hypothetical) were examined. It is suggested that there are two ways of giving uncommon names: (1) giving an uncommon reading/pronunciation to Chinese characters and (2) giving uncommon Chinese characters. There are three typical ways of providing uncommon readings: (1-1) abbreviating the common reading of Chinese characters, (1-2) reading Chinese characters with the pronunciation of a foreign word that corresponds to its semantic meaning and (1-3) giving readings based on the semantic meaning of Chinese characters. In contrast, there are two typical ways of giving uncommon Chinese characters: (2-1) giving Chinese characters that are not encountered frequently in daily life and (2-2) including silent Chinese characters that add to the semantic meaning without contributing to the pronunciation. The characteristics of uncommon names and future directions in research investigating uncommon names in Japan were discussed.
著者
山田 慎太郎 藤井 聡 宮川 愛由
出版者
人間環境学研究会
雑誌
人間環境学研究 (ISSN:13485253)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.14, no.2, pp.155-164, 2016 (Released:2017-01-06)

A referendum in a manner of direct democracy has been occasionally adopted in Japan for a political decision. However, it may not always maximize public interest, and it may thus lead failure. This referendum failure can easily emerge when those who insist a controversial policy, such as politicians who can benefit from the policy, use sophistry to justify the policy. This is because voters can not rationally judge the policy ouing to the sophistry. In this research we focus on politicians' remarks related to the referendum of "Osaka Metropolis Concept" of which voting day was 17th May, 2015 in Osaka City. We quantitatively analyzed remarks by 2 politicians, who are representative debaters in 2 major political parties in Twitter for a month (from 17th, April, 2015 to 17th, May, 2015), and remarks by them in a debate TV program casted in 12th, February, 2015. The result indicates that sophistry accounted for 33.9 % of the Twitter sentences and 48.0 % of the verbal sentences spoken by a politician who insisted the concept, whereas almost no sophistry (only 0.1 %) for the other politician. This result implies that there was risk that voters might not be able not rationally judge based on such frequent sophistry.
著者
八田 武志 八田 武俊 戸田山 和久 唐沢 穣
出版者
人間環境学研究会
雑誌
人間環境学研究 (ISSN:13485253)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.9, no.1, pp.41-46, 2011 (Released:2011-06-30)
参考文献数
14

The present study examined whether false beliefs on neuroscience among college students can be corrected by the class lecture of neuropsychology. On the basis of a within subjects experimental design, a 21-item questionnaire was administered to 30 female students from a school of psychology during the first class meeting in a semester as the pre-test and at the final class meeting as the post-test. The participants were asked to judge whether each statement was correct or wrong and evaluate the confidence in their response on a 5-point Likert-type scale. The comparison between the pre- and post-tests with respect to the overall correct response rate showed a significant effect. However, further analyses for separate questionnaire items showed that the majority of items did not show any significant change individually between the pre- and post-tests, with only two exceptional items showing the effect. Therefore, it seems reasonable to conclude that the present results suggest the following. That is, although the class lecture of neuro-psychology discussed issues such as the methodology in scientific research, limitations of brain imaging, and refutation of false information in textbooks concerning the right versus left brains, it nevertheless remained to be a difficult task to reduce the misconception of false scientific information among students by lectures in classrooms. We also emphasized the responsibility that mass media is a powerful source of misunderstanding in the scientific knowledge among the general public.
著者
野村 康
出版者
人間環境学研究会
雑誌
人間環境学研究 (ISSN:13485253)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.11, no.2, pp.91-105, 2013 (Released:2013-12-25)
参考文献数
45

Direct action is often regarded as a response to democratic deficit because it can sensitize the general public to the cause of the marginalized, stimulating communication among individuals of different walks of life in society. However, such theoretical discussion has mainly been limited to domestic situations, despite the development of transnational activism in practice. This paper examines a case of trans-border direct action - a contentious anti-whaling protest by the Sea Shepherd Conservation Society in a town in Japan. It illustrates that trans-border direct action can be detrimental to democracy for sustainability, largely because of the disparity of power related to communication in the global society. Such action might even pave paths for the powerful to pressure the weak. At the international level, the group legitimized its civil and uncivil forms of disobedience by using advanced English language and media skills to overwhelm the voices of local actors. At the local and national levels, the group's action lacked support and legal-democratic efforts through communication and discussion with stakeholders. Thus, the group failed to save the lives of cetaceans and to strengthen anti-whaling activism. Re-examination of the nexus between radical activism, communication and sustainability that involves social and cultural diversity is recommended.
著者
八田 武志
出版者
人間環境学研究会
雑誌
人間環境学研究 (ISSN:13485253)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.14, no.2, pp.145-148, 2016 (Released:2017-01-06)
被引用文献数
2

In the context of examination as for the relation between handedness and brain function, many studies have investigated cognitive function of the left-handed people using behavioral measures such as the Stroop test, however the relation still remains unclear. In this study, the relation between handedness and executive function was examined using the Stroop test performances of 100 left-handed (50 males and 50 females) and 100 age-matched right-handed (50 males and 50 females) healthy community dwellers. They were from the database of the Yokumo Study. The mean age of the participants was 61.7 (SD = 10.8). The results of the present study did not show any significant difference either in the color naming speed or the Stroop interference effect size. Possible contribution of aging effects of hemisphere lateralization on cognitive function in upper middle aged left-handedness was discussed.
著者
永瀬 開
出版者
人間環境学研究会
雑誌
人間環境学研究 (ISSN:13485253)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.15, no.1, pp.35-44, 2017 (Released:2017-06-30)

Previous studies have noted the in emotion regulation difficulties of individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The present review aimed to explore trends in the process of emotion regulation among individuals with ASD. According to previous studies, emotion regulation involves strategies of reappraisal and suppression. The findings were that (a) individuals with ASD experience difficulty in using reappraisal strategies, (b) individuals with ASD exhibit the maladaptive behaviors, so they experience difficulty in using the emotion regulation strategies, (c) individuals with ASD exhibit psychiatric symptoms, so that they experience difficulty in using reappraisal strategies, and (d) emotion regulation intervention for in individuals with ASD involves cognitive behavioral therapy. These findings suggested that further studies are needed to investigate the effectiveness of the psychodramatic method in using reappraisal strategies for individuals with ASD.
著者
竹部 成崇
出版者
人間環境学研究会
雑誌
人間環境学研究 (ISSN:13485253)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.17, no.1, pp.31-38, 2019 (Released:2019-08-05)

Phrases describing “sweetness” are commonly used to express romantic love and the quality of kindness, such as “my sweet love” and “she is a sweetie.” Recent research suggests that the experience of sweetness also affects one’s romantic perceptions and prosociality. However, because previous studies manipulated the experience of sweetness through taste, there exists the possibility that the results were derived not from the experience of sweetness itself but from other factors such as the calories of sweet foods. In addition, some of the findings in previous research, though not exactly the effects of the experience of sweetness, have not been replicated, meaning it is possible that the effects of the experience of sweetness also do not exist. Considering these, this study manipulated the experience of sweetness through scent and tested whether it affects romantic perceptions and prosociality. First, participants smelled a cotton puff on which a sweet scent was (or was not) put. Then, they answered questions regarding romantic interest, evaluation of a relationship with a hypothetical partner, and prosocial intention. The experience of sweetness did affect romantic interest and prosocial intention. However, the effects were contrary to those of previous research: sweet scent decreased romantic interest and prosocial intention. The opposing results may be interpreted by taking into consideration whether “comparison with the self” occurred or not. Specifically, participants in the sweet scent condition of this study felt that they were not sweet compared to the cotton puff because the cotton puff was outside of their bodies and, therefore, reported decreased romantic interest and prosocial intention. On the other hand, participants in the sweet food conditions of previous studies felt that they were sweet like the sweet foods because they had taken the sweetness into themselves and, therefore, reported increased romantic interest and prosocial intention. Overall, this study suggests the flexibility of the effects of the experience of sweetness.
著者
傅 佳慧
出版者
人間環境学研究会
雑誌
人間環境学研究 (ISSN:13485253)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.16, no.1, pp.51-56, 2018 (Released:2018-07-02)

3つのパズルに取り組む際の、2つの東アジア文化圏(日本と中国)における3歳児の行動が観察された。参加者は、日本人(n = 20)および中国(n = 25)の保育園の子どもたちであった。観察された行動項目は、5つの行動、3つの言語表現、及び5つの表情であった。中国の子どもたちは日本の子どもたちよりも行動を多く表出した。異文化間の心理学において、東アジアの文化はしばしば西洋の文化と比較され、ひとくくりとしてまとめられがちである。本研究の結果は、同じ東アジア圏の日本と中国の子どもたちが異なっていることを示しており、東アジア文化は以前の研究で想定されていたよりも複雑であることを示唆している。
著者
川田 稔
出版者
人間環境学研究会
雑誌
人間環境学研究 (ISSN:13485253)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.5, no.2, pp.2_77-2_89, 2007 (Released:2009-06-22)

Nagata Tetsuzan is known as one of the leading figures of the Imperial Army after Manchurian incident. However, it can be said that the full- scale research on him has not been done yet. The author has interpreted so far Nagata's visions and policies during 1920s and Manchurian incident. This paper focuses on the period from April 1932 to August 1933 while he was chief of the intelligence divisions of the general staff to explore what Nagata was thinking particularly in 1933. Those are the times when a committee was organized among chief officials in the war ministry, which brought about contentions between two factions of army officers; the Imperial Way group (Kohdoh-ha) and the Control Faction (Tohsei-ha). And furthermore, during that time, Nagata and his group were clearly coming out with their political stance towards the movement of national reconstruction by younger military officers. This period historically has a significant meaning.
著者
藤井 聡 柴山 桂太 中野 剛志
出版者
人間環境学研究会
雑誌
人間環境学研究 (ISSN:13485253)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.10, no.2, pp.85-90, 2012 (Released:2013-01-11)
参考文献数
15
被引用文献数
1

In this paper, a theoretical hypothesis that public works would have deterrence effects of deflation under the situation that deflation-gap exists was tested empirically. For testing this hypothesis empirically, we used macro-economics data in Japan since 1991 when the huge deflation-gap was brought by the collapse of the babble economy. As a result, we found that 1,000 billions yen's public works increases the GDP deflator by 0.2-0.8 % and increases nominal GDP by about 2,430 billions yen - 4,550 billions yen. This results support the hypothesis that public works would have deterrence effects of deflation under the situation that deflation-gap exists. It was also found that the deflation deterrence effects by the public works was larger than that by the in-crease export.
著者
ペラウスキ マシュー 秋庭 史典
出版者
人間環境学研究会
雑誌
人間環境学研究 (ISSN:13485253)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.7, no.2, pp.95-102, 2009 (Released:2010-01-14)
参考文献数
74
被引用文献数
2 2

In the study of art, the philosophical tradition, and important assumptions within this tradition, forms the basis for psychological conceptions and cognitive models of art perception, implicit goals and approach to art-viewing, and their application to art education and viewer relations. However, the prevalent philosophical conception of art and aesthetic experience, which share the assumption that success or "cognitive mastery" drives aesthetic perception, contains fundamental flaws, which extend to, and ultimately constrain, the study and application of art. While existing conceptions explain how a viewer masters the environment, based upon prior expectations and abilities, they cannot explain how they come to perceive and be transformed by, something new; nor can they account for how this feels. Yet, it is exactly these qualities in art-perception that both philosophers and social scientists agree constitutes the unique "challenge" of art. It is necessary that this be examined, and a solution considered, building from the philosophical basis and then extended to a psychological discussion. We argue that, in opposition to success, a failure- based model, organized around the conflict between self-protection and self-transformation in the processing of discrepancy, is better able to explicitly unite cognition, emotion and physiological effect with perception and evaluation; and allows for needed discussion of perceptual and conceptual change within experience, and a needed distinction between "facile" evaluation and mastery following meta-cognitive reflection and adjustment. We explore both success and failure-based approaches and introduce conceptual and contextual aspects for a five-stage failure-based model of art-perception culminating in "Aesthetic Experience"; discuss the inter-relation of emotional and cognitive factors that may be important for objective research on art evaluation and art education; and clarify the important tie between failure, epiphany and perceptual growth in the experience of art.
著者
八田 武志 八田 武俊 戸田山 和久 唐沢 穣
出版者
人間環境学研究会
雑誌
人間環境学研究 (ISSN:13485253)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.8, no.2, pp.155-161, 2010 (Released:2010-12-29)
参考文献数
10

In Study 1, the degrees of penetration and familiarity of false belief on neuroscience, especially brain imaging, among students were surveyed using a questionnaire technique. A total number of 485 students from medical school, school of nurse sciences, school of psychology, and school of informatics were given 20 items and they were requested to evaluate authenticity of the items and familiarity was rated. The results suggested that as familiarity increased, the tendency for participants to regard the item was correct. In Study 2, the question whether false belief on neuroscience can be modified by a usual class lecture was examined. Degrees of the authenticity evaluation and the familiarity of false information between student groups who took the class of neuropsychology and who did not take the class were compared. Results showed a significant difference in many items between the two groups and suggested a possibility of modifiability even by a class lecture.
著者
野寺 綾 中村 信次
出版者
人間環境学研究会
雑誌
人間環境学研究 (ISSN:13485253)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.15, no.2, pp.127-133, 2017 (Released:2017-12-30)

In this study, we examined the effects social networking service (SNS) applied in academic education on the facilitation of students' positive attitude toward their university. In the targeted class, both the students and teachers were encouraged to use SNS to exchange information. The students' attitudes toward their university were measured by using implicit and explicit methods at the beginning and at the end of the academic period. The results revealed that participants exhibiting low SNS usage tended to have poorer attitudes as evident from both implicit and explicit measures. This suggested that they formed a negative attitude by the end of the session. On the other hand, the worsening of the pro-university attitude was not observed in participants exhibiting high SNS use. The psychological process underlying the positive effects of active SNS usage was discussed.
著者
野村 康
出版者
人間環境学研究会
雑誌
人間環境学研究 (ISSN:13485253)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.14, no.1, pp.75-89, 2016

This is a preliminary discussion on the development and characteristics of anti-whaling activism in Japan with reference to the activism in Norway. Although Japan and Norway are often considered among the greenest countries in the world, both are also known as major whaling nations without strong anti-whaling movements. While there are several important studies on Norway, little attention has been paid to the case of Japan. Drawing on the framing perspective of social movement theory, this article considers how local political conditions have constrained the growth of Japanese anti-whaling activism and shaped its repertoire of activities, which are significantly less radical compared to its international counterparts. The article concludes by showing an agenda for future research about the nature conservation and animal protection movements in Japan, as well as anti-whaling activism itself, by highlighting the importance of a political-cultural perspective in understanding them.
著者
山村 麻予
出版者
人間環境学研究会
雑誌
人間環境学研究 (ISSN:13485253)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.15, no.1, pp.9-15, 2017 (Released:2017-06-30)

Not only prosocial behavior as well as the circumstances when people feel distressed are diverse, but also the action that people chose is different even in the same situation. The idea of "helping strategy" explains how people decide what actions to take when you help others. The main purpose of this study is to clarify that there are differences in helping strategies between students in elementary school and university. Additionally, the correlation between helping strategies and personal characteristics (help-seeking performance and self-esteem) was investigated. The questionnaire survey was conducted in 262 participants (89 elementary school 4th grade, 83 elementary school 6th grade and 90 university students). They were asked to read three stories and then to answer the questions on each story. The result showed that the ideal behavior in the same situation were significantly different between elementary school students and university students. In addition, there were correlation between help strategies and help-seeking performances. It indicates how people have helping strategies may change during developmental process, and also suggests that judgement for helping strategies are affected by cognitive development and environmental change. Moreover, the results from investigation of relationship between helping strategies and help-seeking performance explained that people who are interpersonal dependency tended to help others directly. On the other hand, people who are independent were more able to choose whether to help or not depending on occasions. In previous studies, it has been only argued the relationship between the prosocial behavior and each circumstance. However, our result indicates that it is important to consider helping strategies based on developmental status and personal characteristics. This finding may be potential cornerstone for future moral education and communication training.
著者
池田 佐恵子
出版者
人間環境学研究会
雑誌
人間環境学研究 (ISSN:13485253)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.12, no.2, pp.161-168, 2014 (Released:2014-12-25)

Absolute pitch (AP) is assumed to involve both pitch memory and pitch labeling for musical pitches. While people with AP possess both, non-AP individuals possess only pitch memory. AP possessors are superior to non-AP possessors in pitch labeling accuracy for semitones, but whether this holds true in pitch memory precision that cannot be labeled by a musical pitch name is unclear. In this study, pitch memory for tones subdivided by less than one semitone was compared among accurate AP possessors, inaccurate AP possessors, and non-AP possessors. In experiment 1, participants were given a pitch labeling task, and both accurate and inaccurate AP possessors were superior to non-AP possessors in the precision of pitch memory. However, in experiment 2, in which pitch labeling was not required, inaccurate AP possessors were not superior to non-AP possessors. In addition, the perceptual shift toward low pitch was also observed below the age of twenty years on average.
著者
市原 学 杉村 智子 大坪 靖直 黒川 雅幸 笹山 郁生 永江 誠司
出版者
人間環境学研究会
雑誌
人間環境学研究 (ISSN:13485253)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.6, no.2, pp.2_23-2_26, 2008 (Released:2009-06-03)
参考文献数
11

In a recent article, Killeen (2005) proposed the statistic prep, the probability of replicating an effect, as an alternative to traditional null-hypotheses significant tests (NHST). In this article, two experiments were conducted and their analytical results based on prep and traditional p values were compared: non-significant results based on p values were reinterpreted as meaningful results in light of power analysis, calculating the effect size and prep value. The tendency of p value analyses not to reveal non-significant results (i.e. the file drawer problem) and the improvement of decision-making methods are discussed.
著者
塚本 早織 唐沢 穣
出版者
人間環境学研究会
雑誌
人間環境学研究 (ISSN:13485253)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.13, no.1, pp.13-20, 2015 (Released:2015-06-30)
被引用文献数
1 1

自分とは反対の性格特性を持つ他者が,異なる民族の一員であった場合,人はその性格の違いを民族性が原因であるかのように解釈する場合がある。日常生活においてみられるこのような過度な一般化は、民族に関する偏ったステレオタイプを形成する一因となる。本研究は、個人の特徴に関する知識が、カテゴリーに関する知識へと一般化される状況と、それに影響を与える個人差要因に着目した実証的研究を行った。個人差要因として、心理的本質主義信念を測定し、民族カテゴリーに行動や認知の原因となる本質的因子の存在を錯覚しやすい人ほど、他民族他者と自身の違いを民族性の違いとして一般化する傾向が強いと予測した。実験参加者は全て日本人学生であったが、実験参加のパートナーという名目で「留学生」(実験1ではインドネシア国籍、実験2では中国国籍)あるいは「日本人」の実験協力者と同時に実験に参加した。実験では、参加者および実験協力者に対して認知傾向を調べるテストを行い、テスト後に偽のフィードバックを与えた。フィードバックとして、パートナー間にみられる認知傾向の類似性(同じ・異なる)を操作した。その結果、パートナー間の類似性に関する情報を日本人および留学生全般に一般化する程度は、パートナーの国籍とフィードバックの類似性の組み合わせによって異なることが明らかとなった。具体的には、留学生パートナーとの間に認知傾向の違いが告げられた参加者において、その違いを日本人および留学生カテゴリーに一般化し、民族間の差異を過度に推測する傾向がみられた。同様の一般化傾向は、日本人パートナーと同じ認知傾向があると告げられた参加者にもみられた。しかし、留学生との違いを民族間の差異に一般化した前者の場合のみ、その程度が心理的本質主義信念の強さと関連していることが明らかになった。本研究により、異なる民族他者との交流で得られる些細な情報からも、民族に関するステレオタイプが形成される可能性が示唆され、それには民族カテゴリーに関する信念の個人差が影響を与えることが明らかとなった。
著者
後藤 崇志 田口 真奈
出版者
人間環境学研究会
雑誌
人間環境学研究 (ISSN:13485253)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.16, no.1, pp.17-23, 2018 (Released:2018-07-02)

近年、インターネット上で学びを進めることが可能な大規模公開オンライン講義(MOOC)と呼ばれる形態の講義が広まっている。本研究では受講者の社会経済的背景と内発的動機づけ・外発的動機づけの高さとの関連を検討した。研究1では1つのコースの受講者1,633名から得られた質問紙データを分析し、国民1人あたりの国内総生産(GDP)が低い国からの受講者は外発的動機づけが高い傾向にあることが示された。研究2では、研究1で扱ったコースを含めた7つのコースのデータについてメタ分析的手法を用いて検討を行った。その結果、国民1人あたりの国内総生産(GDP)が低い国からの受講者は内発的動機づけが低く、外発的動機づけが高い傾向にあることが示された。また、ジニ係数が高く、経済格差の大きい国からの受講者は外発的動機づけが高い傾向にあることも示された。以上より、社会経済的にあまり富んでいない国からの受講者は、MOOCを通じてキャリアを向上させようとするような外発的動機づけが高い傾向にあることが示された。これらの結果を踏まえ、MOOCに期待される役割のひとつである、教育機会の格差是正の実現可能性について論じる。
著者
川田 桂
出版者
人間環境学研究会
雑誌
人間環境学研究 (ISSN:13485253)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.8, no.2, pp.133-145, 2010 (Released:2010-12-29)
参考文献数
53

This paper analyzes about Uyagan that is the local belief at village of Karimata, Shimajiri in northern Miyako Island and Ogami Island area, Okinawa Prefecture. These area where tells Uyagan, Kamiuta is sung at the service. So it has been handed down orally. The purpose of this paper is to consider the total image of Uyagan especially from the content of the Uyagan and Kamiuta at Karimata area in Miyako Island. The ritual in Uyagan is held by women who stay those areas. God possess special women who service Uyagan. It is the taboo to speak the details out. So the concrete details are not known except those women.