著者
橋本 剛明 白岩 祐子 唐沢 かおり
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.28, no.1, pp.13-23, 2012

The present study examined the determinants of people's attitudes toward the Japanese government's income inequality policies. We focused particularly on people's perceived inequality of opportunity and self-perceptions of social class, and their effects on the perceived responsibility of income inequality. General survey data of 798 individuals indicated that when people perceive education/work opportunities as generally controllable through personal ability and effort, they attribute both onset and offset responsibilities more to the poor and less to the government, consequently showing less support for government intervention. Moreover, people's perception of social class moderated how they view opportunity: only among low-class respondents did the perception that opportunities are influenced by one's parents' income or their gender lead to the perception that opportunity is uncontrollable. High-class individuals, on the other hand, perceived the effects of parental income and gender on opportunity to be independent of the controllability of opportunities, suggesting that they believe that ability and effort hold strong power over general opportunity.
著者
白岩 祐子 荻原 ゆかり 唐沢 かおり
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.28, no.1, pp.41-50, 2012

The present study examined the determinants of the sentencing decision for a fictional murder case in which a member of the victim's family participates. Previous research indicates that people see others as more influenced by a victim's statements than themselves, and we focused on whether this asymmetric cognition makes the sentence more lenient or not. The scenario experiment targeting 147 undergraduate students revealed that the majority of participants viewed others as more affected by the victim's statements, and further found that this asymmetric cognition tended to restrain punishment. Attitudes against the victim participant system lead to denying the impact on the self. These results could support the idea that negative attitudes toward the victim participant system have punishment control through asymmetric cognition. Previous studies concerning judicial decisions focused on the assumption that victim participation arouses the judges' compassion towards the victims, resulting in more uncompassionate sentences for the defendant. On the other hand, this study suggests that victim participation could result in a lenient sentence for the defendant.
著者
白岩 祐子 宮本 聡介 唐沢 かおり
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.27, no.2, pp.109-117, 2012

Previous studies on attribution judgments concerning crime victims have commonly used the term "responsibility" to measure the negative implications regarding victims. However, responsibility is a concept that should be placed upon offenders, not victims. Victims have frequently been judged negatively, but the use of "responsibility" potentially inhibits the accurate understanding of such negative implications. Additionally, in judicial practice, "responsibility" is basically a term attributed to offenders. We therefore observed a certain shortcoming in the current research framework attributing responsibility to victims. Through judicial decisions and interviews with victims, we derived other labels supposedly containing negative victim judgments ("carelessness" and "fault") , and, together with the label "responsibility," considered whether people evaluate the victims using such labels. Moreover, to confirm whether these labels point to qualitatively distinct concepts, we examined their relationships with causal attribution. The results revealed that respondents rated the victim significantly lower on responsibility than the other negative labels, and we also found different prognostic factors for the labels. The implications of the study were discussed.
著者
齋藤 真由 白岩 祐子 唐沢 かおり
出版者
日本グループ・ダイナミックス学会
雑誌
実験社会心理学研究 (ISSN:03877973)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.1704, (Released:2018-01-13)
参考文献数
38

本研究の目的は,市民の司法参加に対する認知構造を,広瀬(1994)の要因関連モデルなどで提出されている3つの評価の枠組みから把握するとともに,それらが参加意欲に与える影響を明らかにすることである。本研究が着目した3つの評価とは,市民における知識や経験の有無に関する「実行可能性評価」,負担感についての「コスト評価」,市民による司法参加の効用についての「ベネフィット評価」である。都内の大学生74名を対象とする予備調査で得られた自由回答をもとに,司法参加に対するさまざまな認知を収集し,上記3つの評価に分類した。本調査は都内の大学生を中心とする206名を対象に実施した。因子分析の結果,実行可能性評価とベネフィット評価に関する因子はそれぞれ4つ,コスト評価に関する因子は1つが得られた。その中でもベネフィット評価に含まれる「親和性の向上」と「透明性の向上」が参加意欲を高め,実行可能性評価に関する「知識・経験の欠如」とコスト評価に関する「責任の重さ」が参加意欲を低下させていることが明らかになった。これらの結果にもとづき,今後研究が進むべき方向性について議論した。
著者
白岩 祐子 唐沢 かおり
出版者
人間環境学研究会
雑誌
人間環境学研究 (ISSN:13485253)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.15, no.1, pp.25-30, 2017 (Released:2017-06-30)

Lay person (Juror and citizen judge) have been assumed to decide emotionally rather than rationally, especially in the face of the victim's statements. The previous study, though, does not have support fort this assumption: juror decision making is not always influenced by victim's statements. This study examined the individual sentencing process in a mock trial situation that both Japanese citizen judge system and victim participation system were applied. In particular, the sentencing decision process was examined in terms of vision of the judiciary with a high regard for rational nature. Study1 that 95 undergraduate students participated in revealed that the view of criminal trial which lay weight on rational nature led to lenient sentencing to the defendant. Study 2 (N = 390) shows that the sentencing process noted above result from the motivation to be a "rational judge". Namely, so-called "emotional non-professional" lay person have values of rational nature-oriented to the criminal trial, and they are motivated to decide rationally not emotionally as they confront victim's statements, resulting make the lenient sentencing contrary to the victim's plea. Suggestions for unconformity of previous research and social implications were discussed.
著者
白岩 祐子 唐沢 かおり
出版者
日本グループ・ダイナミックス学会
雑誌
実験社会心理学研究 (ISSN:03877973)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.53, no.1, pp.12-21, 2013 (Released:2013-09-03)
参考文献数
42
被引用文献数
1

近年,裁判員制度や被害者参加制度が刑事裁判に導入され,一般市民の法的判断を規定する要因が注目され始めている。本研究では,被害者参加人のタイプや表出感情,被害者参加制度に対する個人の態度が,量刑判断にどのような影響を及ぼすのかを検討するため,大学生・大学院生などを対象にシナリオ実験を行なった。その結果,誰が被害者参加人を務め,どのような感情を表出するかという要因と,個人の量刑判断との間に関連はみられなかった。また,「他者は自分よりも被害者参加人の言動に影響される」という社会的影響の非対称な認知が確認され,この判断バイアスは,被害者参加制度に対する態度が否定的であるほど大きくなった。さらに,制度に対する態度は,非対称な認知のうち自己への影響認知を媒介して量刑選択に影響を及ぼしていた。具体的には,被害者参加制度に反対するほど被害者参加人の発言による自己への影響が否定され,それによって短い量刑が選択された。以上の結果を踏まえ,量刑判断の規定因研究における展望と課題が議論された。
著者
齋藤 真由 白岩 祐子 唐沢 かおり
出版者
日本グループ・ダイナミックス学会
雑誌
実験社会心理学研究
巻号頁・発行日
2018

<p>本研究の目的は,市民の司法参加に対する認知構造を,広瀬(1994)の要因関連モデルなどで提出されている3つの評価の枠組みから把握するとともに,それらが参加意欲に与える影響を明らかにすることである。本研究が着目した3つの評価とは,市民における知識や経験の有無に関する「実行可能性評価」,負担感についての「コスト評価」,市民による司法参加の効用についての「ベネフィット評価」である。都内の大学生74名を対象とする予備調査で得られた自由回答をもとに,司法参加に対するさまざまな認知を収集し,上記3つの評価に分類した。本調査は都内の大学生を中心とする206名を対象に実施した。因子分析の結果,実行可能性評価とベネフィット評価に関する因子はそれぞれ4つ,コスト評価に関する因子は1つが得られた。その中でもベネフィット評価に含まれる「親和性の向上」と「透明性の向上」が参加意欲を高め,実行可能性評価に関する「知識・経験の欠如」とコスト評価に関する「責任の重さ」が参加意欲を低下させていることが明らかになった。これらの結果にもとづき,今後研究が進むべき方向性について議論した。</p>
著者
橋本 剛明 白岩 祐子 唐沢 かおり
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.28, no.1, pp.13-23, 2012-08-31 (Released:2017-03-01)

The present study examined the determinants of people's attitudes toward the Japanese government's income inequality policies. We focused particularly on people's perceived inequality of opportunity and self-perceptions of social class, and their effects on the perceived responsibility of income inequality. General survey data of 798 individuals indicated that when people perceive education/work opportunities as generally controllable through personal ability and effort, they attribute both onset and offset responsibilities more to the poor and less to the government, consequently showing less support for government intervention. Moreover, people's perception of social class moderated how they view opportunity: only among low-class respondents did the perception that opportunities are influenced by one's parents' income or their gender lead to the perception that opportunity is uncontrollable. High-class individuals, on the other hand, perceived the effects of parental income and gender on opportunity to be independent of the controllability of opportunities, suggesting that they believe that ability and effort hold strong power over general opportunity.
著者
白岩 祐子 小林 麻衣子 唐沢 かおり
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.32, no.1, pp.41-51, 2016-08-25 (Released:2016-08-25)
参考文献数
44

In desperation to learn the details of their case and to achieve the right to know, the families of crime victims in Japan have been taking action to implement the victim participant system in criminal trials. Focusing on the victim participant system, which began in 2008, the present study examined whether or not family members of victims who actually participated in criminal trials felt that their demands to know were fulfilled through the process. We administered a survey targeting 173 individuals whose family member has been the victim of a crime such as murder. The results revealed that their demands were fulfilled as they had expected only when they participated in the trial. Furthermore, we found that such sufficiency level led to their satisfaction with the justice system, while insufficient fulfillment of demands led to an increase in people’s willingness to act toward changing the system. We discussed the social consequences of judicially guaranteeing a victim’s right to know.