著者
荻原 祐二
出版者
人間環境学研究会
雑誌
人間環境学研究 (ISSN:13485253)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.13, no.2, pp.177-183, 2015 (Released:2015-12-27)

This paper examined the characteristics and patterns of uncommon names in present-day Japan. Uncommon names have increasingly attracted a remarkable amount of attention, both in the academic field and in society at large. In order to capture the underlying nature of the phenomenon of giving uncommon names to babies, it is important as a first step to describe the characteristics of uncommon names and to systematically categorize them within a structured framework. However, past research mostly focused on names that were too unique and unclear about how they were to be read (kirakira names), which reflected partial and potentially misleadingly extreme aspects of the phenomenon. Moreover, previous research has used unique names that were possibly invented and hypothetical, which is not productive to understanding the actual phenomenon of giving uncommon names and might produce/reproduce "anecdotal names" or "urban legend names." Therefore, in this article, names that were uncommon (not too unique) and real (not hypothetical) were examined. It is suggested that there are two ways of giving uncommon names: (1) giving an uncommon reading/pronunciation to Chinese characters and (2) giving uncommon Chinese characters. There are three typical ways of providing uncommon readings: (1-1) abbreviating the common reading of Chinese characters, (1-2) reading Chinese characters with the pronunciation of a foreign word that corresponds to its semantic meaning and (1-3) giving readings based on the semantic meaning of Chinese characters. In contrast, there are two typical ways of giving uncommon Chinese characters: (2-1) giving Chinese characters that are not encountered frequently in daily life and (2-2) including silent Chinese characters that add to the semantic meaning without contributing to the pronunciation. The characteristics of uncommon names and future directions in research investigating uncommon names in Japan were discussed.
著者
八田 武志
出版者
人間環境学研究会
雑誌
人間環境学研究 (ISSN:13485253)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.14, no.2, pp.145-148, 2016 (Released:2017-01-06)

In the context of examination as for the relation between handedness and brain function, many studies have investigated cognitive function of the left-handed people using behavioral measures such as the Stroop test, however the relation still remains unclear. In this study, the relation between handedness and executive function was examined using the Stroop test performances of 100 left-handed (50 males and 50 females) and 100 age-matched right-handed (50 males and 50 females) healthy community dwellers. They were from the database of the Yokumo Study. The mean age of the participants was 61.7 (SD = 10.8). The results of the present study did not show any significant difference either in the color naming speed or the Stroop interference effect size. Possible contribution of aging effects of hemisphere lateralization on cognitive function in upper middle aged left-handedness was discussed.
著者
野村 康
出版者
人間環境学研究会
雑誌
人間環境学研究 (ISSN:13485253)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.11, no.2, pp.91-105, 2013 (Released:2013-12-25)
参考文献数
45

Direct action is often regarded as a response to democratic deficit because it can sensitize the general public to the cause of the marginalized, stimulating communication among individuals of different walks of life in society. However, such theoretical discussion has mainly been limited to domestic situations, despite the development of transnational activism in practice. This paper examines a case of trans-border direct action - a contentious anti-whaling protest by the Sea Shepherd Conservation Society in a town in Japan. It illustrates that trans-border direct action can be detrimental to democracy for sustainability, largely because of the disparity of power related to communication in the global society. Such action might even pave paths for the powerful to pressure the weak. At the international level, the group legitimized its civil and uncivil forms of disobedience by using advanced English language and media skills to overwhelm the voices of local actors. At the local and national levels, the group's action lacked support and legal-democratic efforts through communication and discussion with stakeholders. Thus, the group failed to save the lives of cetaceans and to strengthen anti-whaling activism. Re-examination of the nexus between radical activism, communication and sustainability that involves social and cultural diversity is recommended.
著者
八田 武志 八田 武俊 戸田山 和久 唐沢 穣
出版者
人間環境学研究会
雑誌
人間環境学研究 (ISSN:13485253)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.9, no.1, pp.41-46, 2011 (Released:2011-06-30)
参考文献数
14

The present study examined whether false beliefs on neuroscience among college students can be corrected by the class lecture of neuropsychology. On the basis of a within subjects experimental design, a 21-item questionnaire was administered to 30 female students from a school of psychology during the first class meeting in a semester as the pre-test and at the final class meeting as the post-test. The participants were asked to judge whether each statement was correct or wrong and evaluate the confidence in their response on a 5-point Likert-type scale. The comparison between the pre- and post-tests with respect to the overall correct response rate showed a significant effect. However, further analyses for separate questionnaire items showed that the majority of items did not show any significant change individually between the pre- and post-tests, with only two exceptional items showing the effect. Therefore, it seems reasonable to conclude that the present results suggest the following. That is, although the class lecture of neuro-psychology discussed issues such as the methodology in scientific research, limitations of brain imaging, and refutation of false information in textbooks concerning the right versus left brains, it nevertheless remained to be a difficult task to reduce the misconception of false scientific information among students by lectures in classrooms. We also emphasized the responsibility that mass media is a powerful source of misunderstanding in the scientific knowledge among the general public.
著者
山田 慎太郎 藤井 聡 宮川 愛由
出版者
人間環境学研究会
雑誌
人間環境学研究 (ISSN:13485253)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.14, no.2, pp.155-164, 2016 (Released:2017-01-06)

A referendum in a manner of direct democracy has been occasionally adopted in Japan for a political decision. However, it may not always maximize public interest, and it may thus lead failure. This referendum failure can easily emerge when those who insist a controversial policy, such as politicians who can benefit from the policy, use sophistry to justify the policy. This is because voters can not rationally judge the policy ouing to the sophistry. In this research we focus on politicians' remarks related to the referendum of "Osaka Metropolis Concept" of which voting day was 17th May, 2015 in Osaka City. We quantitatively analyzed remarks by 2 politicians, who are representative debaters in 2 major political parties in Twitter for a month (from 17th, April, 2015 to 17th, May, 2015), and remarks by them in a debate TV program casted in 12th, February, 2015. The result indicates that sophistry accounted for 33.9 % of the Twitter sentences and 48.0 % of the verbal sentences spoken by a politician who insisted the concept, whereas almost no sophistry (only 0.1 %) for the other politician. This result implies that there was risk that voters might not be able not rationally judge based on such frequent sophistry.
著者
川田 稔
出版者
人間環境学研究会
雑誌
人間環境学研究 (ISSN:13485253)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.5, no.2, pp.2_77-2_89, 2007 (Released:2009-06-22)

Nagata Tetsuzan is known as one of the leading figures of the Imperial Army after Manchurian incident. However, it can be said that the full- scale research on him has not been done yet. The author has interpreted so far Nagata's visions and policies during 1920s and Manchurian incident. This paper focuses on the period from April 1932 to August 1933 while he was chief of the intelligence divisions of the general staff to explore what Nagata was thinking particularly in 1933. Those are the times when a committee was organized among chief officials in the war ministry, which brought about contentions between two factions of army officers; the Imperial Way group (Kohdoh-ha) and the Control Faction (Tohsei-ha). And furthermore, during that time, Nagata and his group were clearly coming out with their political stance towards the movement of national reconstruction by younger military officers. This period historically has a significant meaning.
著者
藤井 聡 柴山 桂太 中野 剛志
出版者
人間環境学研究会
雑誌
人間環境学研究 (ISSN:13485253)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.10, no.2, pp.85-90, 2012 (Released:2013-01-11)
参考文献数
15
被引用文献数
1 or 0

In this paper, a theoretical hypothesis that public works would have deterrence effects of deflation under the situation that deflation-gap exists was tested empirically. For testing this hypothesis empirically, we used macro-economics data in Japan since 1991 when the huge deflation-gap was brought by the collapse of the babble economy. As a result, we found that 1,000 billions yen's public works increases the GDP deflator by 0.2-0.8 % and increases nominal GDP by about 2,430 billions yen - 4,550 billions yen. This results support the hypothesis that public works would have deterrence effects of deflation under the situation that deflation-gap exists. It was also found that the deflation deterrence effects by the public works was larger than that by the in-crease export.
著者
永瀬 開
出版者
人間環境学研究会
雑誌
人間環境学研究 (ISSN:13485253)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.15, no.1, pp.35-44, 2017 (Released:2017-06-30)

Previous studies have noted the in emotion regulation difficulties of individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The present review aimed to explore trends in the process of emotion regulation among individuals with ASD. According to previous studies, emotion regulation involves strategies of reappraisal and suppression. The findings were that (a) individuals with ASD experience difficulty in using reappraisal strategies, (b) individuals with ASD exhibit the maladaptive behaviors, so they experience difficulty in using the emotion regulation strategies, (c) individuals with ASD exhibit psychiatric symptoms, so that they experience difficulty in using reappraisal strategies, and (d) emotion regulation intervention for in individuals with ASD involves cognitive behavioral therapy. These findings suggested that further studies are needed to investigate the effectiveness of the psychodramatic method in using reappraisal strategies for individuals with ASD.
著者
八田 武志 八田 武俊 戸田山 和久 唐沢 穣
出版者
人間環境学研究会
雑誌
人間環境学研究 (ISSN:13485253)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.8, no.2, pp.155-161, 2010 (Released:2010-12-29)
参考文献数
10

In Study 1, the degrees of penetration and familiarity of false belief on neuroscience, especially brain imaging, among students were surveyed using a questionnaire technique. A total number of 485 students from medical school, school of nurse sciences, school of psychology, and school of informatics were given 20 items and they were requested to evaluate authenticity of the items and familiarity was rated. The results suggested that as familiarity increased, the tendency for participants to regard the item was correct. In Study 2, the question whether false belief on neuroscience can be modified by a usual class lecture was examined. Degrees of the authenticity evaluation and the familiarity of false information between student groups who took the class of neuropsychology and who did not take the class were compared. Results showed a significant difference in many items between the two groups and suggested a possibility of modifiability even by a class lecture.
著者
池田 佐恵子
出版者
人間環境学研究会
雑誌
人間環境学研究 (ISSN:13485253)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.12, no.2, pp.161-168, 2014 (Released:2014-12-25)

Absolute pitch (AP) is assumed to involve both pitch memory and pitch labeling for musical pitches. While people with AP possess both, non-AP individuals possess only pitch memory. AP possessors are superior to non-AP possessors in pitch labeling accuracy for semitones, but whether this holds true in pitch memory precision that cannot be labeled by a musical pitch name is unclear. In this study, pitch memory for tones subdivided by less than one semitone was compared among accurate AP possessors, inaccurate AP possessors, and non-AP possessors. In experiment 1, participants were given a pitch labeling task, and both accurate and inaccurate AP possessors were superior to non-AP possessors in the precision of pitch memory. However, in experiment 2, in which pitch labeling was not required, inaccurate AP possessors were not superior to non-AP possessors. In addition, the perceptual shift toward low pitch was also observed below the age of twenty years on average.
著者
市原 学 杉村 智子 大坪 靖直 黒川 雅幸 笹山 郁生 永江 誠司
出版者
人間環境学研究会
雑誌
人間環境学研究 (ISSN:13485253)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.6, no.2, pp.2_23-2_26, 2008 (Released:2009-06-03)
参考文献数
11

In a recent article, Killeen (2005) proposed the statistic prep, the probability of replicating an effect, as an alternative to traditional null-hypotheses significant tests (NHST). In this article, two experiments were conducted and their analytical results based on prep and traditional p values were compared: non-significant results based on p values were reinterpreted as meaningful results in light of power analysis, calculating the effect size and prep value. The tendency of p value analyses not to reveal non-significant results (i.e. the file drawer problem) and the improvement of decision-making methods are discussed.
著者
白岩 祐子 唐沢 かおり
出版者
人間環境学研究会
雑誌
人間環境学研究 (ISSN:13485253)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.15, no.1, pp.25-30, 2017 (Released:2017-06-30)

Lay person (Juror and citizen judge) have been assumed to decide emotionally rather than rationally, especially in the face of the victim's statements. The previous study, though, does not have support fort this assumption: juror decision making is not always influenced by victim's statements. This study examined the individual sentencing process in a mock trial situation that both Japanese citizen judge system and victim participation system were applied. In particular, the sentencing decision process was examined in terms of vision of the judiciary with a high regard for rational nature. Study1 that 95 undergraduate students participated in revealed that the view of criminal trial which lay weight on rational nature led to lenient sentencing to the defendant. Study 2 (N = 390) shows that the sentencing process noted above result from the motivation to be a "rational judge". Namely, so-called "emotional non-professional" lay person have values of rational nature-oriented to the criminal trial, and they are motivated to decide rationally not emotionally as they confront victim's statements, resulting make the lenient sentencing contrary to the victim's plea. Suggestions for unconformity of previous research and social implications were discussed.
著者
山村 麻予
出版者
人間環境学研究会
雑誌
人間環境学研究 (ISSN:13485253)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.15, no.1, pp.9-15, 2017 (Released:2017-06-30)

Not only prosocial behavior as well as the circumstances when people feel distressed are diverse, but also the action that people chose is different even in the same situation. The idea of "helping strategy" explains how people decide what actions to take when you help others. The main purpose of this study is to clarify that there are differences in helping strategies between students in elementary school and university. Additionally, the correlation between helping strategies and personal characteristics (help-seeking performance and self-esteem) was investigated. The questionnaire survey was conducted in 262 participants (89 elementary school 4th grade, 83 elementary school 6th grade and 90 university students). They were asked to read three stories and then to answer the questions on each story. The result showed that the ideal behavior in the same situation were significantly different between elementary school students and university students. In addition, there were correlation between help strategies and help-seeking performances. It indicates how people have helping strategies may change during developmental process, and also suggests that judgement for helping strategies are affected by cognitive development and environmental change. Moreover, the results from investigation of relationship between helping strategies and help-seeking performance explained that people who are interpersonal dependency tended to help others directly. On the other hand, people who are independent were more able to choose whether to help or not depending on occasions. In previous studies, it has been only argued the relationship between the prosocial behavior and each circumstance. However, our result indicates that it is important to consider helping strategies based on developmental status and personal characteristics. This finding may be potential cornerstone for future moral education and communication training.
著者
福本 都 苫米地 飛 橋本 剛明 唐沢 かおり
出版者
人間環境学研究会
雑誌
人間環境学研究 (ISSN:13485253)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.15, no.1, pp.73-80, 2017 (Released:2017-06-30)

Existing research have investigated the effects of free will belief on aggressive behaviours. So far, studies have shown that when people's free will belief is denied, their motivation of self-control decreases, thereby increasing aggressive behaviours. An alternative and inconsistent account is that people who have strong belief in free will attributes the other party's attack to the actor's intention, which lead them to take revenge. Given that aggressions practically occur within a social interaction, the present study examined the relationship between free will belief and aggression in a social interactive situation. We hypothesized that people who have high free will belief will behave more aggressively when they are attacked by another individual. Based on a sample of 45 undergraduates, we measured free will beliefs and trait aggression as an individual-difference variable. We employed a modification of the Point Subtraction Aggression Paradigm in order to measure participants' aggressive behaviours. As a result, the effects of fatal determinism - a subscale of free will - were found significant. Specifically, when participants were unattacked by their interactive partner, those with low fatal determinism belief behaved less aggressively. Incurring no attack from the partner, participants may have experienced higher responsibility for taking aggressive actions themselves. Under such circumstance, having a low fatal determinism belief, and thus regarding their behaviour as undetermined by nature, may have further increased their sense of responsibility, consequently decreasing aggression. In contrast, when participants were attacked by their partner, aggressive behaviours increased on the whole relative to the non-attacked condition; receiving an attack may have simply provoked participants' motivation to revenge. This study highly suggests the relationship between fatal determinism belief and aggression in social interaction situations, offering a ground for future investigations including parameters to further explain the relationship.
著者
野村 康
出版者
人間環境学研究会
雑誌
人間環境学研究 (ISSN:13485253)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.14, no.1, pp.75-89, 2016

This is a preliminary discussion on the development and characteristics of anti-whaling activism in Japan with reference to the activism in Norway. Although Japan and Norway are often considered among the greenest countries in the world, both are also known as major whaling nations without strong anti-whaling movements. While there are several important studies on Norway, little attention has been paid to the case of Japan. Drawing on the framing perspective of social movement theory, this article considers how local political conditions have constrained the growth of Japanese anti-whaling activism and shaped its repertoire of activities, which are significantly less radical compared to its international counterparts. The article concludes by showing an agenda for future research about the nature conservation and animal protection movements in Japan, as well as anti-whaling activism itself, by highlighting the importance of a political-cultural perspective in understanding them.
著者
北山 夏季
出版者
人間環境学研究会
雑誌
人間環境学研究 (ISSN:13485253)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.10, no.1, pp.17-24, 2012 (Released:2012-06-30)
参考文献数
17

In recent years, there have been more arguments on the importance of educating children not only in Japanese but also in their mother language from different viewpoints and backgrounds because the number of children who have foreign roots has rapidly increased in Japan. Some argue that it is important to involve parents as a support system for learning in their mother language in public schools but it is not necessarily easy due to a lack of understanding of Japanese education by parents, "the wall standing between school and parents", etc. This research, basing on hypothesis that to remove "the wall", setting classes for learning in their mother language in public schools is effective and involving parents in those classes encourages parents to participate in school education and children to study their language and their culture as well, considered how parents were involved in schools and classes for learning in their mother language and what influence did that had on learning attitude and motivation of children by actual setting of those classes from the data gained there. As a result, the following are revealed: 1) The significance of setting classes for learning in their mother language to parents: This research also confirmed that it is difficult to involve Vietnamese parents. 2) The relationship between children's motivation toward learning mother language and culture and involvement of parents: Children who had shown positive learning attitude in classes for learning in their mother language in the lower grades began to show defiant attitude in the fourth grade, which is said to be the time developmental stage changes greatly. It was considered that bringing in lion dance affected the improvement of motivation to take part in classes for learning in their mother language significantly in the time of overcoming this great change in developmental stage after the fourth grade. This enhanced willingness toward lion dance was thought to be the result of children themselves having recognized and been aware that their Vietnamese parents were involved in this lion dance. This positive attitude toward lion dance study also had a good effect on the motivation in the entire activity of classes for learning in their mother language and seemed to lead children to find the significance of those classes, "learning for their family".
著者
吉田 恵理
出版者
人間環境学研究会
雑誌
人間環境学研究 (ISSN:13485253)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.15, no.1, pp.53-58, 2017 (Released:2017-06-30)

Procrastination is the action of putting off doing something that must be done, and if one tends to postpone or delay doing something, the person is said to have Procrastination Tendency. Researchers have long regarded procrastination as a maladaptive behavior. On the other hand, investigators have proposed that not all procrastination behaviors are harmful or lead to negative consequences. Two types of procrastination behaviors should be differentiated: passive procrastination and active procrastination. The purpose of this study was to develop a scale to measure active procrastination and to examine its reliability and validity. In Study 1, data obtained from 314 undergraduates were analyzed. Explorative factor analysis revealed 6 factors. Confirmative factor analysis supported the 6-factor structure. These data were analyzed to examine concurrent validity in terms of clinical scales. Results indicated that the active procrastination scale had a positive correlation with optimism, resilience, self-esteem, and time perspective. Moreover, it had a negative correlation with another procrastination scale, with cognitive reflection, and depression/anxiety. These findings provided sufficient support for reliability and validity of the active procrastination scale. In Study 2, further data were obtained from 95 undergraduates. The scale's test-retest reliability was confirmed. Results showed the scale was developed, its validity confirmed, and its internal consistency checked. In addition, active and passive procrastination were regarded as the same action of putting off doing something, however, differences in their backgrounds are plausible.
著者
大隅 尚広 山根 嵩史
出版者
人間環境学研究会
雑誌
人間環境学研究 (ISSN:13485253)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.14, no.2, pp.149-154, 2016 (Released:2017-01-06)

Human well-being or happiness is affected by various elements. Well-being is not only determined by the degree to which individuals can meet their basic physical needs, but also how individuals behave. An example is the effect of altruistic behaviors, which are defined as putting others' needs before one's own. Why do altruistic behaviors contribute to a greater sense of well-being in agents? Based on the theoretical account of the role of altruistic behaviors in biological adaptation, it was hypothesized in this study that enhancement of biological fitness underlies subjective well-being. It is important to note that, in theory, the adaptive role of altruistic behaviors differs depending on the recipients. Kin selection and reciprocity underlie altruistic behaviors toward family members and others, respectively. In particular, altruistic behaviors toward non-family members are predicted to increase the fitness of the agents through reciprocal interactions with others; however, altruistic behaviors toward family members may not necessarily have the same effect on agents. To test the possibility that altruistic behaviors might affect well-being differently depending on the recipient, a survey was conducted using self-report scales on subjective well-being and daily altruistic acts toward family members, friends, and strangers. As a control variable or moderator, subjective socioeconomic status was also measured. As predicted, the results indicated that altruistic behaviors toward non-family members positively affected subjective well-being, but those toward family members did not. This effect was particularly prominent among individuals with a relatively lower subjective socioeconomic status. These findings indicate that a lifestyle based on direct and indirect reciprocal interactions results in increased well-being. Accordingly, the present study suggests that subjective well-being and biological adaptation are intimately connected.
著者
唐沢 かおり 戸田山 和久
出版者
人間環境学研究会
雑誌
人間環境学研究 (ISSN:13485253)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.11, no.2, pp.117-123, 2013 (Released:2013-12-25)
参考文献数
25

本研究は、福島第一原発事故後、間もない時期に出版された、一般読者向けの書籍5冊を対象として、その内容を分析し、科学コミュニケーションが科学的事実や科学者組織について、詳細な科学的知識を持たない人たちに伝達する際の問題点を議論したものである。まず焦点を当てたのが、現在、科学的に正しい見解が定まっていないと思われる、低線量放射線による被ばくの危険性に関する議論、および、危険閾についてのガイドラインを提出している組織である「ICRP」(International Commission on Radiological Protection)の信頼性を操作するような記述である。そこでは、科学的な論争における重要な論争点が提示されておらず、また、執筆者の立場により、ICRPの信頼性を高めたり貶めたりするような記述が恣意的になされていることが明らかとなった。このように、科学的論争を、科学的事実に関する議論の場ではなく、関与する科学者や組織の信頼性の問題としてフレームして、読者を説得する手法について、本論文は「信頼性戦争(Credibility war)」方略と名付け、その問題点を、科学的事実への理解が欠如した読者を安易に特定の立場に誘導してしまうこと、また、読者が確証バイアスによりその立場を堅持する結果につながりやすいことにあると指摘した。続いて、科学コミュニケーションのスタイルとして、「知識的に優位な立場の科学者」が、「知識が欠如した一般市民」に「教え授ける」という「欠如モデル」による説得レトリックの存在を指摘した。さらにその問題点として、このモデルがトピックに対しての自我関与がそれほど高くない一般大衆(つまりは、福島第一原発事故の直接被害を受けない層)により強く機能する可能性と、心理的リアクタンスの喚起により、コミュニケーション内容の理解が妨げられる可能性を指摘した。最後に、新しくみられる科学コミュニケーションの一例として、中川(2011)に着目し、一般市民が自らの行動を選択する責任を保持していることを前提にした科学コミュニケーションのあり方の可能性について議論した。そのうえで、放射線被ばくの健康への直接的結果だけではなく、それがもたらす社会的帰結がもたらす影響も総合的に評価したうえで、リスクを評価せねばならないという状況認識の重要性、またリスクを背負う人自身が、リスク評価を行う必要を前提とした科学コミュニケーションが今後求められることを論じた。