著者
渡辺 匠 太田 紘史 唐沢 かおり
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.31, no.1, pp.56-69, 2015-08-31 (Released:2015-09-09)
参考文献数
66
被引用文献数
1

Social psychologists have recently begun to explore the problem of free-will beliefs. Philosophers have been working on the problem of free will over the ages, and studies of social psychologists on free-will beliefs are based on past philosophical theories. Meanwhile, philosophers not only argue over the theoretical issue of free will but also engage with the research program of experimental philosophy. This program shares the methodology of social psychology, and experimental investigation of belief in free will is proceeding at a rapid pace. In consideration of the above arguments, it seems obvious that social psychologists need to collaborate with philosophers on the problem of free-will beliefs. The authors therefore review the findings of each discipline and construct a model of people’s free-will beliefs. In this model, we consider free-will beliefs as composed by alternative possibility and agency, and these components function to promote attribution of moral responsibility, self-control, and social fit.
著者
渡辺 匠 櫻井 良祐 綿村 英一郎 唐沢 かおり
出版者
日本パーソナリティ心理学会
雑誌
パーソナリティ研究 (ISSN:13488406)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.23, no.1, pp.53-56, 2014-07-30 (Released:2014-08-26)
参考文献数
6
被引用文献数
2

This research developed a reliable and valid Japanese version of the Free Will and Determinism Plus Scale (FAD+) to measure people's belief in free will. Study 1 developed a Japanese version of the FAD+ using questionnaire data from 203 undergraduates. Study 2 tested the reliability and validity of the Japanese FAD+ in a sample of 362 adults. The results provide evidence that the translated scale has the same factor structure as the original scale. In addition, free will beliefs were associated with locus of control, sense of trust, and belief in a just world, indicating high validity of the scale.
著者
橋本 剛明 白岩 祐子 唐沢 かおり
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.28, no.1, pp.13-23, 2012

The present study examined the determinants of people's attitudes toward the Japanese government's income inequality policies. We focused particularly on people's perceived inequality of opportunity and self-perceptions of social class, and their effects on the perceived responsibility of income inequality. General survey data of 798 individuals indicated that when people perceive education/work opportunities as generally controllable through personal ability and effort, they attribute both onset and offset responsibilities more to the poor and less to the government, consequently showing less support for government intervention. Moreover, people's perception of social class moderated how they view opportunity: only among low-class respondents did the perception that opportunities are influenced by one's parents' income or their gender lead to the perception that opportunity is uncontrollable. High-class individuals, on the other hand, perceived the effects of parental income and gender on opportunity to be independent of the controllability of opportunities, suggesting that they believe that ability and effort hold strong power over general opportunity.
著者
唐沢 かおり 三谷 信広
出版者
The Japanese Group Dynamics Association
雑誌
実験社会心理学研究 (ISSN:03877973)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.45, no.2, pp.158-166, 2006
被引用文献数
2

本研究は有利な立場にいる人たちの不公平さの認知が他集団に対しての支援的態度に与える影響を,責任帰属と罪悪感の媒介的役割に着目して検討した。データは仮想世界ゲーム(SIMINSOC)の参加者124人がゲーム前半終了時に回答した質問紙から得た。仮想世界ゲームは2つの豊かな地域と2つの貧しい地域から構成されており,貧しい地域に所属する参加者がゲーム内で生存するためには豊かな地域からのサポートを得ることが重要である。豊かな地域に所属した参加者からのデータをパス解析により分析した結果,不公平さの認知が,貧しい地域の苦境に対して自分たちの地域が責任を持つという認知につながり,罪悪感を喚起した。さらに,罪悪感が友好的な関係志向につながり,そのような関係志向が支援的態度を高めた。考察では,罪悪感が実際の相互作用を伴う状況でより重要な役割を果たす可能性や,罪悪感の起源を視野に入れた研究の必要性を議論した。<br>
著者
白岩 祐子 荻原 ゆかり 唐沢 かおり
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.28, no.1, pp.41-50, 2012

The present study examined the determinants of the sentencing decision for a fictional murder case in which a member of the victim's family participates. Previous research indicates that people see others as more influenced by a victim's statements than themselves, and we focused on whether this asymmetric cognition makes the sentence more lenient or not. The scenario experiment targeting 147 undergraduate students revealed that the majority of participants viewed others as more affected by the victim's statements, and further found that this asymmetric cognition tended to restrain punishment. Attitudes against the victim participant system lead to denying the impact on the self. These results could support the idea that negative attitudes toward the victim participant system have punishment control through asymmetric cognition. Previous studies concerning judicial decisions focused on the assumption that victim participation arouses the judges' compassion towards the victims, resulting in more uncompassionate sentences for the defendant. On the other hand, this study suggests that victim participation could result in a lenient sentence for the defendant.
著者
白岩 祐子 宮本 聡介 唐沢 かおり
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.27, no.2, pp.109-117, 2012

Previous studies on attribution judgments concerning crime victims have commonly used the term "responsibility" to measure the negative implications regarding victims. However, responsibility is a concept that should be placed upon offenders, not victims. Victims have frequently been judged negatively, but the use of "responsibility" potentially inhibits the accurate understanding of such negative implications. Additionally, in judicial practice, "responsibility" is basically a term attributed to offenders. We therefore observed a certain shortcoming in the current research framework attributing responsibility to victims. Through judicial decisions and interviews with victims, we derived other labels supposedly containing negative victim judgments ("carelessness" and "fault") , and, together with the label "responsibility," considered whether people evaluate the victims using such labels. Moreover, to confirm whether these labels point to qualitatively distinct concepts, we examined their relationships with causal attribution. The results revealed that respondents rated the victim significantly lower on responsibility than the other negative labels, and we also found different prognostic factors for the labels. The implications of the study were discussed.
著者
渡辺 匠 唐沢 かおり
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.27, no.2, pp.83-92, 2012

This research deals with determinants of perception of social consensus between the self and ingroup in the minimal group paradigm. Specifically, we predicted that ingroup projection would shield the individual from threats because connection with ingroup members could provide comfort and validate self-concepts. The results confirmed our hypothesis that the manipulation of self-threat invokes enhanced ingroup projection, whereas outgroup projection was not affected by threats to the self. These results are consistent with the previous literature that ingroup members are judged to be similar to the self. Adding to these findings, our data imply that when people are under threat, they tend to project their own traits onto ingroup members for the purpose of self-protection. The findings are discussed within the context of the potential use of self-ingroup relationships as self-defense mechanisms.
著者
具志堅 伸隆 唐沢 かおり
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.22, no.2, pp.155-164, 2006

Past research based on the unrelated-affect paradigm has demonstrated that distinct emotions exert specific influences on cognition (e.g., Keltner, Ellsworth, & Edwards, 1993). This study investigated the effects of anger or fear on the perceived persuasiveness of an unrelated statement. Under anger, fear, or neutral conditions, participants read two statements, one critical and the other threatening, regarding a bad debt situation. The participants then made judgments about the pursuasiveness of these statements. As predicted, anger enhanced the persuasiveness of the critical statement by increasing the tendency to think that justice had been violated, whereas fear enhanced the persuasiveness of the threatening statement by increasing the tendency to think there would be negative repercussions. These results suggest that emotions increase the persuasive impact of affect-arousing communication by producing specific cognitive tendencies.
著者
齋藤 真由 白岩 祐子 唐沢 かおり
出版者
日本グループ・ダイナミックス学会
雑誌
実験社会心理学研究 (ISSN:03877973)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.1704, (Released:2018-01-13)
参考文献数
38

本研究の目的は,市民の司法参加に対する認知構造を,広瀬(1994)の要因関連モデルなどで提出されている3つの評価の枠組みから把握するとともに,それらが参加意欲に与える影響を明らかにすることである。本研究が着目した3つの評価とは,市民における知識や経験の有無に関する「実行可能性評価」,負担感についての「コスト評価」,市民による司法参加の効用についての「ベネフィット評価」である。都内の大学生74名を対象とする予備調査で得られた自由回答をもとに,司法参加に対するさまざまな認知を収集し,上記3つの評価に分類した。本調査は都内の大学生を中心とする206名を対象に実施した。因子分析の結果,実行可能性評価とベネフィット評価に関する因子はそれぞれ4つ,コスト評価に関する因子は1つが得られた。その中でもベネフィット評価に含まれる「親和性の向上」と「透明性の向上」が参加意欲を高め,実行可能性評価に関する「知識・経験の欠如」とコスト評価に関する「責任の重さ」が参加意欲を低下させていることが明らかになった。これらの結果にもとづき,今後研究が進むべき方向性について議論した。
著者
唐沢 かおり
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.22, no.2, pp.172-179, 2006
被引用文献数
3

This study explored the determinants of intent of primary caregivers to continue taking care of elderly family members. The exploration was guided by two previous lines of study, one arguing the additive effect of positive and negative aspects of caregiving, and the other arguing the effect of attitude towards family caregiving. Four hundred and forty-five family caregivers answered questions relating to depression, caregiving intent, attitude towards family caregiving, and positive and negative aspects of caregiving. Structural equation modeling revealed that attitude to wards family caregiving increased both depression and intent to continue family caregiving. It is argued that when constructing a support system for family caregivers one must consider the possibility of family members being trapped by their attitude towards family care.
著者
田戸岡 好香 樋口 収 唐沢 かおり
出版者
公益社団法人 日本心理学会
雑誌
心理学研究 (ISSN:00215236)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.89.16039, (Released:2018-03-10)
参考文献数
26

This study investigated the consequences of suppressing negative thoughts about the food products. Consumers are still concerned about food safety after the Great East Japan Earthquake. Given that attempting to suppress stereotypical thoughts ironically leads to increased stereotype accessibility and use (rebound effect), this may be one of the reasons for continued concern. Participants were asked to describe their impressions about food coming from the disaster area. Half were instructed to suppress any negative impressions in their descriptions, whereas the other half did not receive this instruction. Participants then rated another food product from the same area. The results indicated that among participants with a low perceived vulnerability to disease, the group that was asked to suppress any negative thoughts rated the food more negatively than participants in the control group. However, among participants with a high perceived vulnerability to disease, there was no difference between the two groups because their negative impressions were likely readily accessible. We discuss the necessity of investigating a resolution for reputational damage in terms of suppression.
著者
橋本 剛明 唐沢 かおり 磯崎 三喜年
出版者
日本グループ・ダイナミックス学会
雑誌
実験社会心理学研究 (ISSN:03877973)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.50, no.1, pp.76-88, 2010 (Released:2010-08-19)
参考文献数
29
被引用文献数
4 1

大学生が所属するサークル集団は,フォーマルな組織とインフォーマルな集団の双方の特徴を併せ持った集団であり(新井,2004),本研究はこれを準組織的集団と位置づけた。その上で,サークル集団における成員と集団とをつなぐコミットメントのモデルを探り,検討を加えることを目的とした。具体的には,組織研究の領域における3次元組織コミットメントのモデル(Allen & Meyer, 1990)を基盤に,サークル・コミットメントを測る尺度を作成し,学生205名を対象に調査を行った。その結果,サークル集団におけるコミットメント次元として,情緒的コミットメント,規範的コミットメント,集団同一視コミットメントの3因子が抽出された。さらに,それぞれのコミットメント次元の規定要因に関して,集団がフォーマル集団に近い程度を表す集団フォーマル性との関連を含めて分析を行った。情緒的コミットメントは課題および成員への集団凝集性により規定されており,また,課題凝集性と集団フォーマル性の交互作用が示唆された。規範的コミットメントと集団同一視コミットメントはともに,集団フォーマル性と成員凝集性によって規定されていることが認められた。
著者
竹橋 洋毅 唐沢 かおり
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.24, no.1, pp.50-57, 2008

Guided by the regulatory focus theory (Higgins, 1997), this study examined the effects of goal framing on the subjective feeling of affect and the automatic processing of affective information. After the manipulation of goal framing (promotion focus vs. prevention focus), 32 participants were asked to indicate their affective state and to engage in a modified Stroop task. Results indicated that goal framing did not influence subjective feeling but influenced the speed of color naming in the Stroop task; participants in the prevention condition responded more slowly toward loss-related words (quiescence and agitation) than gain-related words (cheerfulness and dejection), whereas participants in the promotion condition responded toward gain-related words as slowly as toward loss-related words. These results suggest that goal framing heightens the activation of particular affective representations and the activations influence performance on a Stroop task automatically. The effects of automatic processing of affective information on subjective feeling and the process of self-regulation are discussed.
著者
野寺 綾 唐沢 かおり 沼崎 誠 高林 久美子
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.23, no.2, pp.195-201, 2007

The purpose of this study is to examine the promoting effect of a fear of death on the activation of gender role stereotypes. Terror management theory proposes that when mortality is salient, people heighten the tendency to support their cultural worldview. Since stereotypes are considered to represent cultural worldview, a fear of death should increase the responses consistent with the stereotype. In this study, the activation of stereotypes regarding gender roles (e.g., "Housekeeping is a job for women.") was measured with an Implicit Association Test (IAT). Participants were 48 male undergraduate and graduate students. The results showed that the participants who completed the questionnaire implying mortality had a larger IAT effect than those who completed the questionnaire unrelated to mortality, and that death-related anxiety led to the activation of gender role stereotypes. It is claimed that terror management theory has theoretical value for studies on stereotype activation, as well as a function in justifying a system such as gender role in stereotype activation.
著者
白岩 祐子 唐沢 かおり
出版者
人間環境学研究会
雑誌
人間環境学研究 (ISSN:13485253)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.15, no.1, pp.25-30, 2017 (Released:2017-06-30)

Lay person (Juror and citizen judge) have been assumed to decide emotionally rather than rationally, especially in the face of the victim's statements. The previous study, though, does not have support fort this assumption: juror decision making is not always influenced by victim's statements. This study examined the individual sentencing process in a mock trial situation that both Japanese citizen judge system and victim participation system were applied. In particular, the sentencing decision process was examined in terms of vision of the judiciary with a high regard for rational nature. Study1 that 95 undergraduate students participated in revealed that the view of criminal trial which lay weight on rational nature led to lenient sentencing to the defendant. Study 2 (N = 390) shows that the sentencing process noted above result from the motivation to be a "rational judge". Namely, so-called "emotional non-professional" lay person have values of rational nature-oriented to the criminal trial, and they are motivated to decide rationally not emotionally as they confront victim's statements, resulting make the lenient sentencing contrary to the victim's plea. Suggestions for unconformity of previous research and social implications were discussed.
著者
福本 都 苫米地 飛 橋本 剛明 唐沢 かおり
出版者
人間環境学研究会
雑誌
人間環境学研究 (ISSN:13485253)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.15, no.1, pp.73-80, 2017 (Released:2017-06-30)

Existing research have investigated the effects of free will belief on aggressive behaviours. So far, studies have shown that when people's free will belief is denied, their motivation of self-control decreases, thereby increasing aggressive behaviours. An alternative and inconsistent account is that people who have strong belief in free will attributes the other party's attack to the actor's intention, which lead them to take revenge. Given that aggressions practically occur within a social interaction, the present study examined the relationship between free will belief and aggression in a social interactive situation. We hypothesized that people who have high free will belief will behave more aggressively when they are attacked by another individual. Based on a sample of 45 undergraduates, we measured free will beliefs and trait aggression as an individual-difference variable. We employed a modification of the Point Subtraction Aggression Paradigm in order to measure participants' aggressive behaviours. As a result, the effects of fatal determinism - a subscale of free will - were found significant. Specifically, when participants were unattacked by their interactive partner, those with low fatal determinism belief behaved less aggressively. Incurring no attack from the partner, participants may have experienced higher responsibility for taking aggressive actions themselves. Under such circumstance, having a low fatal determinism belief, and thus regarding their behaviour as undetermined by nature, may have further increased their sense of responsibility, consequently decreasing aggression. In contrast, when participants were attacked by their partner, aggressive behaviours increased on the whole relative to the non-attacked condition; receiving an attack may have simply provoked participants' motivation to revenge. This study highly suggests the relationship between fatal determinism belief and aggression in social interaction situations, offering a ground for future investigations including parameters to further explain the relationship.
著者
唐沢 かおり 大高 瑞郁 竹内 真純
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.25, no.3, pp.178-187, 2010

This study examined the determinants of the attitude toward public policy to support the unemployed elderly and middle-aged persons from the attributional perspective. A structural equation analysis of the survey data from 864 citizens revealed results mostly in accord with the attributional studies of support provision. That is, a negative impression of unemployed persons and a conservative political attitude led to the attribution of unemployment to personal causes, although the effect of the political attitude was weak. Moreover, the attribution to personal causes increased anger toward the unemployed persons, whereas the attribution to societal causes increased sympathy and approval for public policy to support those unemployed. The discussion also considered the role of anger in the attributional model of support provision and the structure of the causal perception of unemployment.
著者
渡辺 匠 唐沢 かおり
出版者
公益社団法人 日本心理学会
雑誌
心理学研究 (ISSN:00215236)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.84, no.1, pp.20-27, 2013 (Released:2013-07-01)
参考文献数
33

This article examines the effects of language use on explicit and implicit attitudes. We employed the matched-guise technique to measure participants' impressions of standard-Japanese and Osaka-dialect speakers. Implicit attitudes were assessed by the Implicit Association Test (IAT). The Osaka-dialect speaker was evaluated as warmer than the standard-Japanese speaker, suggesting that explicit attitudes toward the Osaka dialect have changed positively. On the other hand, the results for the impression of intelligence were consistent with the previous literature that the standard-Japanese speaker was seen as more intelligent than the Osaka-dialect speaker. Compared with explicit attitudes, the analyses of implicit attitudes revealed that participants showed a consistent implicit bias favoring standard-Japanese language use. The changing processes and relationships of explicit and implicit attitudes were discussed.
著者
具志堅 伸隆 唐沢 かおり
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.20, no.1, pp.48-57, 2004

This study examined the effect of cognitive resources on inhibition of the mood-congruent effect to reveal the automaticity of the process proposed by the mood-as-information theory. One-hundred and fifty-three participants made judgments either under positive or negative mood. The amount of cognitive resources was also manipulated by restricting time for judgment. Results showed that, only when cognitive resources were not restricted, the mood-congruent effect was inhibited through attribution toward the origin of the mood. Therefore, these results suggest that the mood states serve as information for judgments rather automatically, while cognitive effort is required to inhibit an application of mood to judgments. The discussion considered the adaptive significance of saving cognitive resources by automatically applying mood to judgment.