著者
野中 朋美 中野 冠
出版者
一般社団法人 日本機械学会
雑誌
日本機械学会論文集C編 (ISSN:18848354)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.77, no.783, pp.4024-4033, 2011 (Released:2011-11-25)
参考文献数
14
被引用文献数
4 5

The paper proposes a carbon taxation scheme using life cycle assessment (LCA) for clean energy vehicles (CEVs). This taxation scheme can enable to be discussed tax amount, tax revenue and total CO2 emissions by changing the scenarios and parameters, such as: technology development, energy price and total driving distance. The authors figure out the tax rate 28.05[JPY/kg-CO2], which makes the hybrid electric vehicle's life cycle cost (LCC) less than that of conventional gasoline vehicles. The simulation results show that LCC after taxation of electric vehicles (EVs) have lowest total cost when battery cost is 0.14 times the 2007 cost and have lower total cost than that of GVs when driven more than 221,600 km. In addition, EVs have lowest emissions when driven more than 63,000 km considered CO2 emissions in the manufacturing phase, and it is expected that elders who drive shorter distances are best suited for hybrid electric vehicles and gasoline vehicles not electric vehicles considering LCCO2. The proposed tax system can provide consumers with an incentive to choose vehicles with lower CO2 emissions.
著者
堀畑 聡 新家 光雄 野崎 隆宏 赤堀 俊和 鈴木 亨 曽根 圭司 庭田 俊一 福田 徳久
出版者
一般社団法人 日本機械学会
雑誌
日本機械学会論文集C編 (ISSN:18848354)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.79, no.803, pp.2240-2249, 2013 (Released:2013-07-25)
参考文献数
6
被引用文献数
1

Traditionally, the metal mouthpieces of trumpets have been generally made of brass. However, for musicians who suffer from metal allergies, the use of the mouthpiece sometimes lead to inflammation of the lip if they are taking part in a long performance. This problem can be solved by using allergy-free pure titanium (titanium) and its alloys as the material for the mouthpiece. Therefore, a titanium alloy composed of non-toxic and allergy free elements has been designed. However, because their heat conductivity is generally poor, and they contain α phase with its HCP (hexagonal closed packed structure having structure, which restrict slip systems, forming them into suitable shapes can be very difficult. Therefore, precision casting method, where only final finishing was conducted by machining, applied for fabricating the mouthpieces of trumpets. Important considerations for use in musical instruments are the material characteristics and the sound characteristics of mouthpieces made of titanium alloy. Research on the material characteristics of titanium alloy mouthpieces is currently being undertaken. On the other hand, the sound characteristics of mouthpieces made of titanium alloy have not been examined sufficiently. In this study, the sound and the vibration characteristics of two kinds of mouthpieces made of titanium and Ti-Nb was examined. The adaptability of these materials for use in mouthpieces of trumpets was discussed by comparing the sound characteristics of mouthpieces of trumpets made of titanium, Ti-Nb, and brass.
著者
森山 淳
出版者
一般社団法人 日本機械学会
雑誌
日本機械学会論文集C編 (ISSN:18848354)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.77, no.778, pp.2389-2399, 2011 (Released:2011-06-25)
参考文献数
13
被引用文献数
3 1

To clarify the overturning possibility of trains exposed to strong cross wind, several experiments were done to study the affect of the wind velocity and wind direction on the axle load changing. In this paper, the results of the experiment in the Japan Sea Coast Main Line, where the seasonal wind swept bitterly in winter, are described. Various kinds of trains, such as limited express, fright, commuter and local, were operated on the sites. To eliminate the turbulence of the wind on the sites, the 3 wind sensors were installed parallel with the track at regular intervals. As the results of the experiments, the author found that the ratio of wheel unloading caused by the wind could be more accurately expressed by the “Detailed equation” than the Kunieda's equation which was conventionally used to decide the regulation standard to prevent the train overturning by the strong cross wind in Japanese railways. Mesurement data also show that consideration of relative wind velocity and relative wind direction is important for running vehicle.
著者
山田 貴志 渡辺 富夫
出版者
一般社団法人 日本機械学会
雑誌
日本機械学会論文集C編 (ISSN:18848354)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.79, no.807, pp.4340-4344, 2013 (Released:2013-11-25)
参考文献数
5
被引用文献数
1

In this study, we analyzed facial expressions during muscle strain using a head mounted display (HMD)-based virtual arm wrestling system designed for facial electromyography measurement. We found that facial expressions during muscle strain are characterized by tension of the corrugator supercilii and zygomaticus major muscles. In addition, facial expressions of laughter, anger, and fear, and those during muscle strain can be distinguished based on the active pattern of the corrugator supercilii and zygomaticus major muscles. These findings are useful in the evaluation of emotions based on facial expressions during muscle strain using the HMD-based virtual reality system.
著者
井上 剛志 高木 賢太郎 竹崎 勇輝 石川 昌義
出版者
一般社団法人 日本機械学会
雑誌
日本機械学会論文集C編 (ISSN:18848354)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.78, no.789, pp.1680-1690, 2012 (Released:2012-05-25)
参考文献数
7

The gyroscopic exercise tool which utilizes the gyroscopic effect caused by the whirling motion of the high speed rotating body to train the hand muscle is considered. This tool utilizes the contact phenomenon between the rotor and the case. When the input motion with 3-5 Hz is added to the case, the rotor spins in thousands rpm whirling with the precession motion which is synchronous to the input case motion. Conventional studies on this tool have assumed the continuous rolling motion of the rotor to the case. This paper does not set this assumption, and investigates the dynamical modeling of this tool considering the contact/non-contact conditions and the slip between the rotor and the case. Two kinds of motions are observed in the numerical simulation, one is the uniform precession which was observed in the conventional studies and the other is the periodically reverse precession. These two motions are physically explained, and are also observed in the experiment.
出版者
一般社団法人 日本機械学会
雑誌
日本機械学会論文集C編 (ISSN:18848354)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.77, no.782, pp.3808-3817, 2011 (Released:2011-10-25)

オーサーシップの問題により,論文の撤回,削除が妥当であるとの決定がなされたため.
著者
桜井 康雄 鈴木 教之 饗庭 健一 吉成 考正 川島 清隆 木原 和幸
出版者
一般社団法人 日本機械学会
雑誌
日本機械学会論文集C編 (ISSN:18848354)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.78, no.788, pp.1163-1169, 2012 (Released:2012-04-25)
参考文献数
4

In this paper, a component restricting pressure change caused by oil temperature change is proposed. One of the merits of an oil-hydraulic system is to keep the value of oil pressure when pressurized oil is enclosed in a container. However, it is impossible to keep the value when the temperature of the oil is changed. Using a pressure control sub-system to prevent it, the whole system becomes complicated. In addition to it, the energy is consumed when the pressure is adjusted by the quantity of the oil flowing into or out the container. From these view points, it is effective to develop the component which prevents the pressure change according to the oil temperature change without the control of the quantity of the oil. Therefore, in this paper, a component to prevent the pressure change based on the oil temperature change is proposed to make the merit of oil-hydraulic system certain when the temperature of the oil is changed. And, in the cases where the temperature of the oil is increased and where the temperature of the oil is decreased after it is increased, the basic characteristics of the component investigate experimentally.
著者
山田 和明 大倉 和博
出版者
一般社団法人 日本機械学会
雑誌
日本機械学会論文集C編 (ISSN:18848354)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.78, no.792, pp.2950-2961, 2012 (Released:2012-08-25)
参考文献数
17

Reinforcement learning approaches attract attention as the technique to construct the mapping function between sensors-motors of an autonomous robot through trial-and-error. Traditional reinforcement learning approaches make use of look-up table to express the mapping function between the grid state space and the grid action space. However the grid size of the state space affects the learning performances significantly. To overcome this problem, many researchers have proposed algorithms using neural networks to express the mapping function between the continuous state space and actions. However, in this case, a designer needs to appropriately set the number of middle neurons and the initial value of weight parameters of neural networks to improve the approximate accuracy of neural networks. This paper proposes a new method to automatically set the number of middle neurons and the initial value of the weight parameters of neural networks, on the basis of the dimensional-number of the sensor space, in Q-learning using neural networks. The proposed method is demonstrated through a navigation problem of an autonomous mobile robot, and is evaluated by comparing Q-learning using RBF networks and Q-learning using neural networks whose parameters are set by a designer.
著者
武田 雄策 大黒谷 陽子 村瀨 健二 大坪 智範 橋本 悟 伏見 亮 民谷 謙
出版者
一般社団法人 日本機械学会
雑誌
日本機械学会論文集C編 (ISSN:18848354)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.79, no.807, pp.4039-4046, 2013 (Released:2013-11-25)
参考文献数
10
被引用文献数
1

This paper discusses a design methodology of vehicle interior layouts and shape matching visual space KANSEI characteristics considering human visual direction perception. Relationships between perception and KANSEI of direction need to be quantified for the vehicle interior design based on multidisciplinary optimization among the KANSEI evaluation values of human visual direction and the other vehicle performances. Experiments were carried out for some interior layouts and shapes, which were displayed by immersive virtual reality system, with some subjects who develop the vehicle interior package. And, KANSEI evaluation values were measured by visual analog scale method for recording continuously. Experimental results demonstrate that the perception and KANSEI of direction have changes like sigmoid curve according to layouts and shapes. Also, KANSEI response surface, which was derived by using linear basis function models for expressing its characteristics, was applied to the A pillar design study.
著者
藤井 文夫 井上 吉弘 新田 高洋
出版者
一般社団法人 日本機械学会
雑誌
日本機械学会論文集C編 (ISSN:18848354)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.78, no.788, pp.1133-1142, 2012 (Released:2012-04-25)
参考文献数
11
被引用文献数
3 3

Domino is a popular entertainment to enjoy the pleasing wave propagation in a row of solid pieces. This play game may be, however, a tough research subject of dynamic contact mechanics, because finite rotation, contact and friction are included in toy mechanics and these nonlinear effects are all of scientific interest. The major concern of this paper is to develop a computational model to study the domino wave propagation in a long straight row. More specifically, a total of N dominoes are modeled to rectangular rigid-body solids in shape of D (width) x H (height) x B (breadth). Equally spaced dominoes in a long straight row (L=492cm) are assumed to simply rotate around the front bottom edge. To trigger the wave propagation, the first domino is slowly inclined till its side diagonal slightly goes beyond the plumb line. The successive collision mechanism between individual toppling dominoes is investigated as a 2D problem in contact mechanics and we obtain an excellent agreement between the model prediction and experimental result.
著者
下田 昌利 近藤 晃 劉 陽
出版者
一般社団法人 日本機械学会
雑誌
日本機械学会論文集C編 (ISSN:18848354)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.79, no.807, pp.4014-4027, 2013 (Released:2013-11-25)
参考文献数
21
被引用文献数
2

This paper presents an optimum design method considering structural performances and Kansei, which has been becoming an important issue for product designs with maturation of consumer demands. The response surface methodology combined with the design of experiment technique is applied to a bicycle frame design problem. The strength and the rigidity calculated by FEM are used as the evaluation functions for the structural performances. Three dimensional rendering models are constructed with computer graphics software, and used for the Kansei evaluation. The Kansei performances such as “individual” and “elegant” are evaluated by the Semantic Differentials technique and quantified. A road-bicycle frame is focused on as an application example of this method. Sizes of the cross section at both ends, position and angle of rotation at the midpoint of each frame are defined as the design variables to be optimized. By using the response surfaces between the design variables and the performances, the form of road-bicycle frame is optimized under various objectives and constraints. The form with the optimized design variables is visualized with the CG software.
著者
田中 伸司 吉冨 雄二
出版者
一般社団法人 日本機械学会
雑誌
日本機械学会論文集C編 (ISSN:18848354)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.78, no.794, pp.3615-3629, 2012 (Released:2012-10-25)
参考文献数
23

This study aims definition of complex phenomena arising under screw thread fastening process and deep understanding of past relevant knowledge. So far, authors have been studied on screw fastening mechanism of a clamped body with M10 bolt-nut by using 3D elastoplastic FE analysis. In this paper, more precise analytical model is developed and the bolt-nut fastening process is calculated. Consequently, following matters were revealed. (a) Greatly complicated deformation of bolt-nut joined threads area under contacting was clarified qualitatively. Supporting contribution percentages of each thread to axial load was calculated; especially the first thread of joining screw thread supported about 31% of axial force. (b) Spring constant of bolt-nut or clamped part calculated by the present FEM was well accorded with some theoretical equations within 7% error. Contribution of elongation of each region with the bolt also agreed with these equations. Most of all, the validity of Sawa-Maruyama's equation was showed. (c) During fastening process, development of stress or strain at the bolted joint was visualized compatibly alongside of past knowledge and information.
著者
永瀬 和彦 別所 雅章 生田 憲人 漆原 健
出版者
一般社団法人 日本機械学会
雑誌
日本機械学会論文集C編 (ISSN:18848354)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.79, no.806, pp.3432-3441, 2013 (Released:2013-10-25)
参考文献数
3
被引用文献数
2 2

To keep on-time performance of commuter trains in mega cities, the skillful brake handling is required for the drivers on the approach of the stations. However, on the course of the training for the newly comer drivers, such skill has been telepathically given by their instructors, and none of theories nor quantitative instructions has been introduced. The authors proposed a method to quantitatively evaluate the brake handling skill on the approach of the stations. Using the newly proposed method, they investigated the data piled up in the event recorder of the EMUs operated the JR West Ohsaka Kanjoh Line, one of the most densely train-operated commuter lines in the JRs. On the investigations, they confirmed that the brake handling skill could be easily and quantitatively evaluated by the method. Then, they applied it to investigate the trains operated on the Tohkaido Main Line between Kyoto, Osaka and Kobe, where the interval of the stations is longer and the scheduled operating speed is higher than the formally investigated line. The results of the study are briefly reported in the paper.
著者
吉田 準史 川越 伸幸 河村 智博
出版者
一般社団法人 日本機械学会
雑誌
日本機械学会論文集C編 (ISSN:18848354)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.78, no.792, pp.2837-2847, 2012 (Released:2012-08-25)
参考文献数
12

Bicycle is a popular vehicle for general public because of the low price and the easy maintenance, and will be more importance vehicle by the low environmental loading in the future. Improvement of bicycle ride comfort is one of important factors to increase the popularity. In this study, subjective evaluation test and reduction of bicycle vibration were performed to improve it. In the subjective evaluation, low frequency seat vibration was found to affect the ride comfort very much. Subsequently, transfer path analysis (TPA) and hammering test were performed to obtain vibration characteristic of the bicycle for reduction of the seat vibration. Through TPA, rear frame of the bicycle was found to have high influence to seat vibration than that of front side and the vibration behavior was obtained by modal analysis. For reduction of the seat vibration, a spring was inserted to the front of the seat and steel plates were attached to rear frame to increase the stiffness. As a result, the acceleration level at running condition was decreased about 10 dB by the modification, and the ride comfort was improved so much.
著者
小松崎 俊彦 岩田 佳雄
出版者
一般社団法人 日本機械学会
雑誌
日本機械学会論文集C編 (ISSN:18848354)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.78, no.786, pp.420-430, 2012 (Released:2012-02-25)
参考文献数
10

In this study, a virtual sound production system is developed where the difference frequency component appears as the secondary audible sound at a point of interference locally by the nonlinear interaction of two independently radiated ultrasounds while they travel directionally and intersect each other. The design of high-directive ultrasonic radiator, followed by the investigation of virtual sound production performance has been done theoretically as well as experimentally. It is known from these investigations that the fairly local sound reproduction in free space is possible, yet the sound pressure level of the secondary field is small. The results have also shown that the generated virtual sound area is dependent on both the difference frequency and the intersection angle of two carrier waves emitted by two sound sources.
著者
伊達 央 大川 真弥 滝田 好宏 菊地 惇
出版者
一般社団法人 日本機械学会
雑誌
日本機械学会論文集C編 (ISSN:18848354)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.79, no.806, pp.3389-3398, 2013 (Released:2013-10-25)
参考文献数
11
被引用文献数
2 10

This paper presents the technique for improving the accuracy and reliability of an autonomous mobile robot localization. Localization based on 2D LIDAR is not always satisfactory due to occlusion. Use of 3D LIDAR improves the reliability by greater field of view. However, lack of 3D objects around the robot may result in poor matching between the observation and the 3D map. Even in this case, the different brightness of the ground surface helps localization. In this paper, we propose an efficient expression of 3D map by considering of LIDAR intensity. Experiment result shows successful localization in a trail through outdoor open grass fields.
著者
大島 裕子 足立 渡 辻内 伸好 小泉 孝之
出版者
一般社団法人 日本機械学会
雑誌
日本機械学会論文集C編 (ISSN:18848354)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.78, no.796, pp.3947-3958, 2012 (Released:2012-12-25)
参考文献数
17

In this paper, local polynominal regression is proposed as a metamodel for the optimal design. Local polynominal regression is often used for smoothing. Smoothing and approximation are applied for the different purpose, however these two methods are based on the similar theory. Therefore local polynominal regression is forecasted to be able to approximate functions. So the theory of local polynominal regression is extended to multivariate predictors for optimal design, and its effectiveness for approximation is verified. Next, more suitable optimization method that uses characteristics of local polynominal regression is suggested. Additionally, the comparison of local polynominal regression and other metamodels shows its features. As a result of the consideration, next four points are clarified. (1)LOESS that uses local quadratic regression and tricube weight function is most suitable for the approximation. (2)The metamodels based on local polynominal regression are able to use for the structural optimization and its characteristics are available for the optimization based on the gradient. (3)The accuracy of local polynominal regression is better than Kriging and RBF interpolation when the sample size is small. However, the property is reversed when the sample size is large. (4)The accuracy of local polynominal regression is better than Kriging and RBF interpolation when the response has noises. The fact shows local polynominal regression is suitable for the metamodel of montecarlo simulations and experiments.
著者
森 みどり 中易 秀敏 三好 哲也
出版者
一般社団法人 日本機械学会
雑誌
日本機械学会論文集C編 (ISSN:18848354)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.79, no.803, pp.2408-2423, 2013 (Released:2013-07-25)
参考文献数
21
被引用文献数
1

In order to keep a highly safe and reliable system of car driving, it is important that the system would be considered as a man-machine system including not only the feature of vehicle movement but also human perception, cognition, and motion of a driver. In this paper, it is examined to clarify the relation between feature of eye movements and driving behavior in conventional and unconventional situation by the experiments using the driving simulator and the eye tracking system. The measurements of time histories of eye movements were performed in the situation of different traffic regulation by the simulator. It is recognized in both turns that typical patterns of eye movements in horizontal axis appeared between the start and end of the turns. It is found from the time histories of eye movements by synchronizing that of vehicle data that the appearances of fixations were distributed uniformly on the trajectories of vehicle by trained drivers from the start of turning to the end, while the appearance of fixation by untrained drivers are concentrated in the beginning of turning or the end. These facts mean that the untrained driver did not receive visual information during the operation of turning, therefore the trajectories of vehicle by untrained driver showed the overshooting in the right turn and undershooting in the left turn.
著者
倉迫 涼一 大日方 五郎 鳥谷 和史
出版者
一般社団法人 日本機械学会
雑誌
日本機械学会論文集C編 (ISSN:18848354)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.79, no.800, pp.991-1002, 2013 (Released:2013-04-25)
参考文献数
13
被引用文献数
1 1

Lightening each part is needed as one method to improve the Fuel Economy of the car. On the other hand, a certain amount of mass is required for the brake rotor as thermal capacity because the main role of the brake is to convert the kinematic energy of the vehicle into the frictional thermal energy for decelerating the vehicle. Therefore, the appropriate heat design becomes important aiming at lightening brake parts. Many thermal analyses to design the strength and the cooling performance concerning the brake rotor are done. However, there are a few papers that treat the relation between the thermal analysis and the brake friction force. Authors have been developed the simple calculation method of the temperature on the friction surface where the pad and rotor come in contact. Then, it is found that contact form is one of factors in fluctuating brake friction force from the bench test data and the calculated friction surface temperature. In this paper, the calculation method of two dimensional temperature distribution of the rotor is proposed. The calculated results are effective to confirm the detail of radial temperature distribution of the rotor as a short time under braking. The tested pads and rotors were analyzed by EPMA on the friction surface. These results show that a detectable amount of tin is difference. It is found that the fluctuating brake friction force has affected by the relationship between the friction surface temperature and the melting point of tin.