著者
遠藤 誠作
出版者
北海道大学公共政策大学院
雑誌
年報 公共政策学
巻号頁・発行日
vol.9, pp.169-183, 2015-03-31

The times when population decreased began in Japan, and time to reconsider a method of the conventional sewer construction came. Because individual processing is effective in the area having low population density, I think about the maintenance that utilized a septic tank.
著者
瀬川 高央
出版者
北海道大学公共政策大学院 = Hokkaido University Public Policy School
雑誌
年報 公共政策学 (ISSN:18819818)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.11, pp.159-177, 2017-03-31

During the 1980s, the peace movement and disarmament campaign were expanded in the Western and Eastern Europe. For example, the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament (CND) in the Britain a grass root peace movement had influenced on the nuclear policy of the Thatcher Administration, which it mobilized 250,000 people in the U.S. air force base at Greenham Common in 1982. Most of such movements also opposed deployment of the SS-20 ballistic missiles equipped with nuclear warheads in Eastern Europe by the Soviet Union. However, a part of the peace movements also criticized only to nuclear deployment in Western Europe by the NATO countries. For instance, the World Peace Council (WPC) had insisted official support for Soviet's disarmament proposal and nuclear deterrence policy. Because they were directly controlled and/or sponsored by the International Department of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and the KGB. This article is to consider the analysis of intelligence that relates to European peace movement and the Soviet's active measures that the U.S. intelligence community, and to prove reliability of the U.S. intelligence reports.
著者
齋藤 梓 大竹 裕子
出版者
北海道大学公共政策大学院
雑誌
年報 公共政策学 (ISSN:18819818)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.13, pp.185-205, 2019

Whether 'sex without consent' should constitute the legal definition of sexual violence instead of the 'assault or intimidation requirement' has been discussed extensively in Japan. Applying qualitative methods, we conducted thematic analysis on oral and written narratives of consensual and non-consensual sex obtained from 30 Japanese women. Findings suggest that non-consensual sex most typically happen through 'entrapment', referring to the process through which the perpetrator exploits an unequal power relation in everyday life and corners the victim into a situation where she cannot resist, escape, or express refusal.
著者
西村 淳
出版者
北海道大学公共政策大学院 = Hokkaido University Public Policy School
雑誌
年報 公共政策学 (ISSN:18819818)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.11, pp.77-96, 2017-03-31

Recently in the diversification of entities and types of social welfare services and the transition of the basic structure of services from placement to contract, it is required to construct integrated community care system in which local residents participate in the community services. This paper explores the issue of community care normatively by focusing on the public responsibility under these changes. More specifically, the paper first, reviews the theories of the relationship between the state and civil society, second, demonstrates social welfare systems as a public responsibility of support for social participation, and third, surveys the Japanese history of social welfare systems by focusing on three forms of participation in the social welfare.
著者
生沼 裕
出版者
北海道大学公共政策大学院 = Hokkaido University Public Policy School
雑誌
年報 公共政策学
巻号頁・発行日
vol.7, pp.211-238, 2013-05-17

For the purpose of evaluating the basic ordinances of local assemblies that have increased nationwide, this paper will compare the texts of the ordinances and analyze them, and examine whether matters prescribed by the ordinances were really executed with 18 basic ordinances of local assemblies in Hokkaido as case studies. The results confirm that there were some differences in the contents prescribed by the ordinances, and there were several cases that were not executed even though the ordinances included the regulations that were the grounds for such.
著者
瀬川 高央
出版者
北海道大学公共政策大学院
雑誌
年報 公共政策学
巻号頁・発行日
vol.9, pp.87-106, 2015-03-31

The purpose of this article is to discuss participation in the SDI research by the Nakasone Administration. In 1985, the U.S. Department of Defense requested that it participate in the research of SDI for European countries and Japan. At first, West Europe and Japan showed a skeptic view about the realizability of SDI. However, the U.K. and West Germany concluded the agreement to participate in the SDI research that the United States initiated. To acquire the high technology that the United States developed, Japan also decided participation in the SDI research following the U.K. and West Germany. Japan was able to disclose the content of the agreement of the SDI research participation by doing the negotiation with the United States repeatedly. Moreover, a Japanese enterprise acquired use rights of the defense technology newly developed from the United States enterprise.
著者
山口 二郎
出版者
北海道大学公共政策大学院
雑誌
年報 公共政策学 (ISSN:18819818)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.16, pp.63-78, 2022-03-31

Masao Maruyama, one of the founders of post-war Japanese political science, formulated the concept ‘systematised irresponsibility’ in his analysis of wartime Japanese fascism. This concept is evident in the policymaking process surrounding the COVID-19 pandemic. Japan marks the worst death rate among the countries in East Asia and Oceania. The outlook of the bureaucracy in charge can be summarised as follows. The officials have failed to establish the order of priority among policy goals. They planned pseudo solutions without objective or scientific evidence, and concealed facts regarding the pandemic to avoid criticism. The institutional reforms of the government in the 1990s added new characteristics to the irresponsibility; concentration of power in the administration enables irresponsible political leaders to pursue meaningless policy.
著者
佐々木 隆生
出版者
北海道大学公共政策大学院
雑誌
年報 公共政策学 (ISSN:18819818)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.5, pp.81-114, 2011-03-31

Japanese articulation of higher education with high school education has depended upon entrance examinations of each university. It is very particular compared with other industrialized countries. As younger population has been decreasing since 1992, selective powers of universities to applicants have declined. Japanese system of the articulation has faced a turning point, and must introduce a new test to evaluate level of general education in high school.
著者
鈴木 一人
出版者
北海道大学公共政策大学院 = Hokkaido University Public Policy School
雑誌
年報 公共政策学 (ISSN:18819818)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.6, pp.139-158, 2012-03-30

This article discusses the chronological development of EU's energy security policy and its problems. Because energy security is primarily a responsibility of national governments, the European Union (European Commission in particular) was not able to formulate unified energy policy. But at the same time, due to the lack of natural energy resources, EU member states needed to cooperate in order to increase bargaining power against energy rich regions such as Middle East or Russia. The problem of international negotiation became clear when Russia and Ukraine increased the political tension, and in order to secure supply of natural gas from Russia, EU launched the discussion with Green Paper which resulted the first comprehensive energy policy in 2007. Furthermore, the "Energy 2020", a new policy document suggested the necessity for EU to influence the process of rules- and standard-making to secure the free trade environment for energy resources. However, the division of competence between member states and EU still make it difficult to formulate comprehensive energy policy. Furthermore, dynamic change of international environment such as "Arab Spring" and Russo-Ukraine conflict, and different reactions and interests of member states complicated the EU strategy for energy rich regions. This structural contradiction of EU's energy security policy implies that EU may not be hegemonic power in international arena, but their role as a giant consumer of energy would have a power to shape international energy market.
著者
厚海 洋幸
出版者
北海道大学公共政策大学院
雑誌
年報 公共政策学 (ISSN:18819818)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.16, pp.225-244, 2022-03-31

There are large regional differences in the total fertility rate. In this paper, we analyzed the factors of regional differences in the total fertility rate for municipalities in Hokkaido. As a result, it was found that the municipalities are characterized by the factors of marriage and the fertility of the couple. Understanding the characteristics of municipalities through such analysis will promote measures against the declining birthrate and policy formation for regional revitalization. It is necessary to improve the system and environment for that purpose.
著者
森田 朗
出版者
北海道大学公共政策大学院
雑誌
年報 公共政策学 (ISSN:18819818)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.16, pp.47-61, 2022-03-31

In Japan, the public policy graduate school system as a professional graduate school was established in 2004. This graduate school system was created in conjunction with administrative, civil service system, and legal education reform. Many issues were considered during the process, such as the mission of the graduate school, educational content, and school organisation. Participating in this process, I think that in the turmoil of administrative and university reform, we were able to launch a public policy graduate school, which is nothing more than a small boat with hope, and I assume that it has been sailing smoothly since.
著者
池 炫周 直美
出版者
北海道大学公共政策大学院
雑誌
年報 公共政策学
巻号頁・発行日
vol.8, pp.111-124, 2014-05-30

One of the main objectives of this paper is to examine the Sakhalin Korean repatriates in South Korea and how it exemplifies the politics of inclusion and exclusion and how these are intertwined with one another through interactions and negotiations among different interests and discourse that take place in multi-scale regulatory processes. Sakhalin Koreans moved to Sakhalin as early as the 1920s as subjects of Imperial Japan to work at the coal mines in Sakhalin. Many of them could not return to Japan nor Korea even after the end of the Second World War and many were forced to take North Korean or Soviet (Russian) nationalities. 1989 marked a turning point for the repatriation of Sakhalin Koreans as the South Korean government, in cooperation with the Japanese government, as well as the Japanese and Korean Red Cross, worked together to “bring back” the Sakhalin Koreans to their home. This paper examines the historical background to the Sakhalin Koreans, the repatriation or “return home” policy, how the politics of both inclusion and exclusion affect the Sakhalin Koreans, and the challenges that they face in Korean society today.

1 0 0 0 OA 巻頭言

著者
高野 伸栄
出版者
北海道大学公共政策大学院
雑誌
年報 公共政策学 (ISSN:18819818)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.13, pp.1, 2019
著者
高波 千代子
出版者
北海道大学公共政策大学院
雑誌
年報 公共政策学
巻号頁・発行日
vol.7, pp.291-307, 2013-05-17

People in Japan can benefit from the healthcare based on a universal public insurance system, while the average length of hospital stay is the longest in advanced countries. Most patients in the long-term care hospitals are the bedridden elderly living on tube feedings. Not only do the majority of the elderly have dementia; they generally have little chance of expressing their own words when they are offered life-prolonging treatments. The elderly may require a terminal care with a palliative approach when they are dying due to the ageing process, that is, not only as a consequence of an incurable disease.
著者
村上 裕一 小磯 修二 関口 麻奈美
出版者
北海道大学公共政策大学院 = Hokkaido University Public Policy School
雑誌
年報 公共政策学 (ISSN:18819818)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.11, pp.119-137, 2017-03-31

This paper is one of the first and most comprehensive studies to investigate the meaning of the Abe II administration’s ‘Local Revitalization Policy’ and to review local governments’ reactions in Hokkaido. Based on our survey of all the local governments in Hokkaido during October and November 2016, this paper concludes that the policy has provided a chance for farsighted governments, especially for those experiencing a sharp decline in young people, to realise the emerging problems of a shrinking society and to work on a solution. However, the policy has also been so sudden and almost arbitrary that the local governments’ respective conventional systems were forced to work hard applying for unwieldy grants and following the detailed directions given by the central government. The results of our survey imply that the Central and local governments in Japan share discretion. The Central government maintains discretion in deciding nationwide policies and provides administrative guidance to the respective local governments, whether big or small and rich or poor, allowing them to formulate policies suitable to their own requirements. This is done while maintaining the Central government’s overall policy design through the use of informational, budgetary, and regulatory tools.