著者
中村 博一
出版者
文教大学大学院言語文化研究科付属言語文化研究所
雑誌
言語と文化 (ISSN:09147977)
巻号頁・発行日
no.23, pp.256-271, 2010

Ninja is said to be the ancient warrior originated in Japan. Nowadays its transnational emerging has been seen globally, even in Sokoto, northern Nigeria where I have conducted field research for Nollywood kungfu film since 2001. In this article, I trace some transnational process of ninja representation outside Japan and consider ways to transform global image into a localized ninja/ninjoji of Sokoto.
著者
中村 博一
出版者
文教大学大学院言語文化研究科付属言語文化研究所
雑誌
言語と文化 (ISSN:09147977)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.23, pp.256-271, 2011-03 (Released:2011-10-13)

Ninja is said to be the ancient warrior originated in Japan. Nowadays its transnational emerging has been seen globally, even in Sokoto, northern Nigeria where I have conducted field research for Nollywood kungfu film since 2001. In this article, I trace some transnational process of ninja representation outside Japan and consider ways to transform global image into a localized ninja/ninjoji of Sokoto.
著者
萩原 俊治
出版者
大阪府立大学
雑誌
言語と文化 (ISSN:13478966)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.4, pp.293-317, 2005-03

As I had stated in my two previous papers, i.e. You name it therapy, but I name it violence-The first violence of narratives and Oh, my bear, not be so nice to me... -Levinas and Marx, narratives work as 'the first violence', which consist of two conditions: 1) not fully listening to another's narrative and 2) imposing one's own narrative on others. In such narratives I have included literary works, theoretical works, our daily gossips, songs, etc. As a result, people whose narratives are not listened to and who are forced to accept another narrative, will be frustrated and use on others or on themselves 'second violence', namely physical, verbal or mental violence: murder, suicide, fighting, cursing, battle, indulgence in alcoholic drinks or drugs, etc. Why do we become frustrated? Of course, it is so natural that, when someone does not fully listen to you and imposes his own narrative on you, you become frustrated. But, why? In this paper I try to explain it more clearly using the concepts of Henri Bergson in his Essai sur les donnees immediates de la conscience. It is my intention to resolve `the first violence' more fully. Yet, from my observation, very few people will agree that Bergson's concepts are 'decent'. For example, even S. K. Langer, who highly evaluates Bergson's thought, regards one of his main concepts 'pure duration' as 'dream'. Still I can affirm surely that at least the concepts in his Essai sur les donnees immediates de la conscience are decent. I stand by this because in his Essai Bergson deals with our daily ability, i.e. the ability to live in duration, to grasp our inner and outer world as quality or as quantity. For example, when we are in the mental disorder 'depersonalization', the ability to live in duration and to grasp our inner and outer world as quality is lost. From my point of view, the very existence of such disorder shows clearly that Bergson did not fictionalize his Essai. Bergson says in his Essai that 'deux corps ne sauraient occuper en meme temps le meme lieu (two substances cannot occupy the same place at the same time)', i.e. every substance has impenetrability to each other. According to him, in our consciousness, a word also works like a substance, i.e. every word has impenetrability to every other word. For example, when we refer a creature before us as 'a dog', we cannot refer it as `a cat'. Like this, two words would not occupy the same place at the same time. From my point of view, every narrative, which is formed by words, would also work like a substance, i.e. when we form a narrative about an incident, we would not allow another narrative to be formed. If we do form the opposite about it, people would regard us insane. As we are not insane, we would not tell two narratives about an incident at the same time. This is what I call the impenetrability of a narrative, from which each narrative works as nonactive violence to another narrative told at the same time: the former inevitably excludes the latter and the reverse is also true. But when we make a false or incorrect narrative about an incident or someone, the narrative will work as active violence, because, excluding some correct narrative about them, we deal with them unfairly. From my point of view, most of these false or incorrect narratives are brought from secondhand information, which we don't grasp from an incident or someone as quality. Upon interpreting more precisely the intrinsic quality of each person or incident and tell narratives about them, the more near we approach the real facts of the person or incident. Often though, we neglect their, or its, quality and, thereby, make incorrect narratives. Regarding such incorrect narratives, I introduce in this paper a Japanese sociologist's statement about autism.
著者
高野 泰志
出版者
岩手県立大学
雑誌
言語と文化 (ISSN:13475967)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.5, pp.41-52, 2003-01-31

ヘミングウェイの最初期の短編「インディアン・キャンプ」は、作家の半自伝的登場人物、ニッタ・アダムズを主人公とする物語である。まだ幼いニッタは父親のヘンリー・アダムズ医師とジョージおじさんに連れられ森でキャンプをしていたが、インディアンの女性の出産を手助けするため、深夜のインディアン・キャンプへと赴くことになる。その女性は子供を生むことができずに三日間も悲鳴を上げ続けていた。アダムズ医師は逆子であることを知ると、麻酔をかけることなくジャックナイフで帝王切開を行い、釣り用の針と糸で傷口を縫い合わせるという、非人間的な状況下での手術をなんとか成功させる。母子ともに命を救うことのできた医者は、非常に高揚した気分で、そばの寝台にいた夫にそのことを伝えようとするが、夫はすでに剃刀で喉を切り裂いて自殺していた。そのような場面を幼いニッタに見せたことを後悔しながら、父子は湖を渡ってもとのキャンプへと帰っていく。この作品は非常に多くの謎を抱えた作品であるが、頻繁に問題にされるのは、インディアンの夫がなぜ自殺をしたかという問題である。この謎を最初に取り上げたジェフリー・マイヤーズは、答えを未開民族の間に見られる「偽娩」という風習に求めている。しかし、このマイヤーズの説もインディアンの夫の唐突な死を十分に説明しきってはいない。この謎の死の持つ意味は、当時の出産をめぐる医学のイデオロギーと、帝国主義へと向かうアメリカの政治的イデオロギーが複雑に絡み合った歴史的背景を鑑みてはじめて立ち現れてくるのである。世紀転換期の医学は、それまでは産婆の領域であった出産を産科学という医学の一分野に組み込み、男性の身体にはない生殖に関する現象を、本来は自然な身体反応であるにもかかわらず、「病」=「異常」とみなしていた。このことを考慮に入れると、この作品で描かれる十分な設備のない未開の地での乱暴な帝王切開手術は、いわば自然の領域へと踏み込む近代医学のイデオロギーを表象していると考えられる。さらに、19世紀半ばに発明された「麻酔」は当時の文明の最先端技術であり、痛みに敏感な文明人のすべてが享受すべき恩恵であると考えられていた。その一方で、未開民族は痛みに対して鈍感であり、麻酔が必要であるとは考えられていなかった。作品中で描かれているように、アダムズ医師は麻酔なしの手術を行うに際して、インディアンの女性の痛みに一切注意を払っていないのである。このように、麻酔の発明は自らの痛みの感覚を顕在化させる一方で、他者の痛みの存在を不可視なものにしてしまうのである。そしてこのような考え方が当時のアメリカの帝国主義的領土拡張政策を推し進めることになるのである。それに対してヘミングウェイの描くインディアンたちは自然との共感能力が高く、他者の痛みに対して敏感である。この点を考慮に入れると、麻酔なしで腹を切り裂かれる妻を目の当たりにした夫がその痛みを自分のものとして受け止めていたとしたら、そもそもこの夫の死は「謎」であるといえるのだろうか。むしろこの問題を謎として取り上げたマイヤーズをはじめとするこれまでの批評家たち自身が、インディアンの痛みに対してあまりにも鈍感になっていたといえるのではないだろうか。本論文では、これまでもっぱらニッタの成長物語として読まれてきたこの作品を、「痛み」の表象を通して人種的観点から読み直す試みである。
著者
上田 和彦 Kazuhiko Ueda
雑誌
言語と文化 (ISSN:13438530)
巻号頁・発行日
no.15, pp.95-113, 2012-03-10
著者
田口 和夫
出版者
文教大学大学院言語文化研究科付属言語文化研究所
雑誌
言語と文化 (ISSN:09147977)
巻号頁・発行日
no.14, pp.150-137, 2001

元興寺 (飛鳥寺) の鬼は『日本霊異記』の道場法師の説話に登場して以来、有名な存在である。一方、元興寺の夜叉も『日本感霊録』・『今昔物語集』などに記録され、これも有名である。この二つは後に混同され、鬼に統一されて伝説化してゆく。その説話の延長上に「元興寺 (がごぜ) に噛ませよ」という諺や武悪面を使う狂言の演出が現れる。またその鬼と加賀前田家狂言〈鬼不切〉の創作の関係について述べる。The oni of Gango Temple (or Asuka Temple) was first recorded in a Buddhist priest's moral tale in the Nihon ryoiki, thereafter becoming famous in the history of Japanese literature. The yasha of Gango Temple, recorded in both the Nihon kanreiroku and Kojaku monogatari also became famous. Later the tales of the two were combined to form the legend of The Oni of Gango Temple. Usage of the proverb Gagoze ni kamaseyo his means If you don't stop crying, the boogie-men will get you appears in the performances of the kyogen plays Shimizu and Nukegara. (Note: 'Gagoze' is an alternative pronunciation of Gango Temple.) Furthermore, Oni kirazu, a kyogen play of the Kaga Maeda family created from the oni tale, is explored.
著者
伊東 栄誌郎
出版者
岩手県立大学
雑誌
言語と文化 (ISSN:13475967)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.6, pp.11-23, 2004-01-31

James Joyce (1882-1941) Iearned much about Buddhism through Theosophy and referred to it in Stephen Hero, Ulysses and Finnegans Wahe. Buddhism and Oriental paciflsm were concepts that interested Joyce. In this paper I discuss how Buddhism influenced Joyce's works in comparison with his contemporary, Kenji Miyazawa (1896-1933). One major source of Joyce's Buddhist allusions was Henry Steel Olcott's The Buddhist Catechism. Joyce's copy of the book was dated May 7, 1901. With the booklet's world-wide fame, Olcott, known as a "White Buddhist" among the Japanese Buddhists, was invited to Japan to give many lectures all over Japan. He was the key Bliddhist linking Joyce with Miyazawa. There are numerous allusions to Buddhism in Joyce's works. In Stephen Hero, Stephen monologues," but Buddha's character seems to have been superior to that of Jesus with respect monologues" to unaffected sanctity" (SH 190). Buddhist or Hindu doctrines of Reincarnation and Karma, which are the central beliefs for Theosophists, are found everywhere in Ulysses. Numerous allusions to the Buddha's biography can be found in Finnegans Wake. Kenji Miyazawa, writer of children's stories, poet, etc. was born in Hanamaki Iwate Unlike Joyce, who left his city Dublin and became an exile in Europe, Miyazawa spent most of his short life in the countryside of Iwate. He wrote many poems and stories influenced by Mahayana Buddhist philosophy, especially the Lotus Sutra. Joyce and Miyazawa lived apart without knowing each other, but both of them tried to find a "path" in Buddhism at the beginning of the age of world war.
著者
早川 治子
出版者
文教大学
雑誌
言語と文化 (ISSN:09147977)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.8, pp.92-110, 1996-02

In recent years the question has arisen, just what is an adaptable person? This is because there are so many instances in Student Teaching in which the student makes every effort to prepare a good lesson plan only to fail to do a good job in the classroom. Just what is a teacher who can react with the students in a constructive manner without merely mechanically following a lesson plan come hell or high water? What type of curriculum would best serve this purpose of creating such teachers? Is it possible even under such an ideal curriculum to create such teachers in just four years? How should we teach student teachers, those rank beginners? All of these questions must be addressed. This paper will examine these problems using the reports of student teachers who taught in New Zealand and also suggest what can be done at this point to solve these problems.ここ数年応用力のある人材とは何だろうと考える。というのは日本語教育実習生の中に教案段階で時間をかけながら、実際の教室での運用にうまく移行できない例を多々見かけるからである。クラス活動は彼らの教案通りに進行しない。なぜなら学習者も又、主体的に思考し活動するものだからである。教案どおりに操り人形のように時間を気にしながらやる授業ではなく、学習者が投げる球を受け、それを投げ返す相互的な授業のできる人間―学習者とのインターアクションのできる教師―とは何なのだろうか。またそのような人材を育成するにはどのようなカリキュラムを組めばいいのだろうか。組めたとしてもそれは4年間で可能なのだろうか。それをまた初心者である教育実習生にはどのように教えていけばいいのだろうか。問題としなければならない点は多い。 本稿では1において、ニュージーランド研修の結果報告を例にとり、実習生の抱える問題点を明らかにする。2において問題点解決のためには現段階でどのようなことができるかを考察する。
著者
村田 奈々子
出版者
法政大学
雑誌
言語と文化 (ISSN:13494686)
巻号頁・発行日
no.11, pp.215-234, 2014-01-15
著者
稲垣 俊史
出版者
大阪府立大学
雑誌
言語と文化 (ISSN:13478966)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.4, pp.19-29, 2005-03

This paper addresses the question of how long it takes to learn a second language in order to provide the best possible estimate of the time required for Japanese speakers to develop a high proficiency level in English. The data examined come from assertions made by Japanese educators in English, Japanese learners' TOEIC scores, English speakers' acquisition of Japanese at the U.S. Foreign Service Institute, and the time needed for Japanese speakers to acquire native-like English vocabulary. Results indicate that Japanese speakers need around 2,500 hours to attain a high level of English proficiency and at least twice as much to attain native-like English vocabulary. Given that Japanese students normally have approximately 1,000 hours of exposure to English in secondary school and university, the findings suggest that, first and foremost, we should be realistic about the outcome of English language teaching in Japan without expecting too much from it.
著者
大塚 明子
出版者
文教大学大学院言語文化研究科付属言語文化研究所
雑誌
言語と文化 (ISSN:09147977)
巻号頁・発行日
no.19, pp.1-32, 2006

Since the latter Meiji era, the influence of the Western romantic love ideology has flowed incessantly into our culture. However, such an imported idea has not been accepted as it is in Europe and America. Then what are the cultural characteristics of the modern Japanese outlook on love, and how have they been changed?In this paper, I examine the process of liberalization of love by analyzing some important keywords in hit songs from the prewar period to today, such as "first meeting", "forget", and "tenderness". It will be shown that our outlook on love has become considerably "romantic" since the late 1980's, as a result of the anomie of love.