3000ダイヤ乱れ時における列車乗務員運用整理案の自動作成

vol.128, no.11, pp.1291-1297, 2008-11-01

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Once the break-down of the train schedule occurs, the crew schedule as well as the train schedule has to be modified as quickly as possible to restore them. In this paper, we propose an algorithm for automatically modifying a crew schedule that takes all constraints into consideration, presenting a model of the combined problem of crews and trains. The proposed algorithm builds an initial solution by relaxing some of the constraint conditions, and then uses a Taboo-search method to revise this solution in order to minimize the degree of constraint violation resulting from these relaxed conditions. Then we show not only that the algorithm can generate a constraint satisfaction solution, but also that the solution will satisfy the experts. That is, we show the proposed algorithm is capable of producing a usable solution in a short time by applying to actual cases of train-schedule break-down, and that the solution is at least as good as those produced manually, by comparing the both solutions with several point of view.

2000MMCC-DSCC方式モジュラーマルチレベルコンバータのパワーフロー解析と直流コンデンサ電圧の制御

The Institute of Electrical Engineers of Japan

vol.132, no.6, pp.659-665, 2012-06-01

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This paper discusses the power flow analysis and dc-capacitor voltage regulation for the modular multilevel cascaded converter (MMCC) based on double-star chopper cells (DSCC). This analysis reveals the relationship between the circulating current through the dc link and the mean power flowing out of or into each chopper cell. The dc component on the circulating current supplies a half of the active output power to the upper and lower strings of chopper cells, whereas the fundamental-frequency component transfers an amount of power between the upper and lower strings. Thus, the MMCC-DSCC can balance the capacitor voltages among the cells by controlling the amplitude of the fundamental-frequency component on the circulating current. A new control method based on the power flow analysis is employed, and its effectiveness is verified by circuit simulation.

2000自動車用ミリ波レーダにおけるエイミング誤差の推定

vol.125, no.3, pp.286-292, 2005-03-01

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The 76GHz millimeter wave radar has been developed for automotive application such as ACC (Adaptive Cruise Control) and CWS (Collision Warning System). The radar is FSK (Frequency Shift Keying) monopulse type. The radar transmits 2 frequencies in time-duplex manner, and measures distance and relative speed of targets. The monopulse feature detects the azimuth angle of targets without a scanning mechanism. Conventionally a radar unit is aimed mechanically, although self-aiming capability, to detect and correct the aiming angle error automatically, has been required. The new algorithm, which estimates the aiming angle error and vehicle speed sensor error simultaneously, has been proposed and tested. The algorithm is based on the relationship of relative speed and azimuth angle of stationary objects, and the least squares method is used for calculation. The algorithm is applied to measured data of the millimeter wave radar, resulting in aiming angle estimation error of less than 0.6 degree.

2000Sensorless Slip Frequency Estimation of Induction Motor in the Very Low Speed Region

Kim Tae-Woong Kawamura Atsuo

The Institute of Electrical Engineers of Japan

vol.116, no.6, pp.652-658, 1996-05-20

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A simple slip frequency estimation algorithm without a speed or position sensor is proposed, especially aimed at the very low rotor speed estimation. The stator flux is obtained by the simple digital integration from the compensated voltage reference. And the rotor speed is estimated from the slip frequency estimation algorithm, which is useful under any control such as the vector control, the decoupling control, and the slip frequency control. A rotor speed estimation as low as 5 [rpm] is verified through the experiments combined with the voltage command type vector control and the proposed slip frequency estimation algorithm.

2000電気自動車用相反モ-タの駆動特性

The Institute of Electrical Engineers of Japan

vol.115, no.1, pp.31-38, 1994-12-20

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A new motor (ADTR-Motor: Anti-Directional Twin Rotary Motor) for electric vehicle drive was proposed. A stator in a conventional motor was reformed to be movable, and the stator (outer rotor) and the rotor (inner rotor) rotate in anti-directions. IM type ADTR-Motor and SM type ADTR-Motor are considerable, and in this paper a prototype of IM type ADTR-Motor was experimentally constructed. When ADTR-Motor is used for an EV drive, the direction of one of the rotors should be reversed, and both rotors, which rotate in the same direction, propel the two wheels of EV. The torque of wheels can be balanced without differential gear. The fundamental characteristics of ADTR-Motor are clarified, which are the structure of ADTR-Motor, the equivalent circuit parameters, the torque balance theory, the torque-speed characteristics, the rotors speed transient characteristics, and the transient response under the speed sensorless torque control.

2000電気二重層キャパシタで回生機能を強化した電流可逆チョッパ付PWMインバータ

The Institute of Electrical Engineers of Japan

vol.131, no.5, pp.671-678, 2011-05-01

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An interior permanent magnet (IPM) motor drive system which has regenerating capability augmented by electric double-layer capacitors (EDLCs) is proposed. In the proposed system, EDLCs are arranged in series with batteries so that a lesser number of the EDLCs and batteries will be required. The proposed system has two bi-directional voltage boosters: one is for both the batteries and EDLCs to control the dc-link voltage of a PWM inverter and the other is for only the EDLCs and is used to control the energy flow from and to the EDLCs.<br>In this paper, a strategy to control the energy flow to and from the EDLCs is explained and its effectiveness is confirmed by simulation and experimental results. Furthermore, the efficiencies of the voltage booster, inverter, PM motor, and whole system are measured for the system with the basic configuration, i.e., which consists of only one bi-directional voltage booster and PWM inverter. Then, the steady-state characteristics are determined. Finally, the efficiency of the voltage boosters in the proposed system is determined, and the advantage of the proposed PM motor drive system is discussed.

20004輪独立駆動電気自動車における動的な制駆動力配分法

The Institute of Electrical Engineers of Japan

vol.120, no.7, pp.761-768, 2000-06-01

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Novel algorithm of the dynamic driving/braking force distribution is proposed for electric vehicle (EV) with four in-wheel motors. In such EV, the vehicle lateral motion can be controlled by yaw moment, generated with torque difference between wheels. This method is known as DYC (Direct Yaw moment Control) in normal engine vehicle engineering, however, the torque difference can be generated more directly with in-wheel motors. One problem of DYC is its instability on the slippery road, such as wet or snowy asphalt. To achieve high stability, the loads of wheels are preferable to be equal. The load of each wheel can be evaluated with root sum square of driving/braking force and side force. Therefore, the driving/braking forces, or motor torques, should be distributed depending on the side forces of wheels, to minimize the load imbalance between the wheels. The proposed algorithm can solve this optimization problem approximately with a few calculation cost, thus this method can be applied for real-time calculation within a control period. The approximate solutions with proposed method are evaluated by comparison with numerical solutions that require long calculation time. Difference between these solutions is negligible one, and this indicates the effectiveness of proposed method.

1000可変特性D因子システム : その存在性, 実現性, 安定性

vol.122, no.6, pp.591-600, 2002-06-01

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Signal processing based on frequency polarity has been attracting wide attentions due to its potential industrial-applications. It is popular to employ two vector-rotators for such signal processing. But, It was very recently reported that equivalent signal processing effect can be attained in a much simpler manner using two-input two-output filters in the D-module. This paper further investigates a class of characteristic-varying systems in the D-module, which contains the filters in the D-module as a special case, and gives new analytical results on their properties from viewpoints of existence, realization and stability. If the results are applied to filter problems, n-th order D-module filters in new forms can be easily and directly obtained, whose stability and response equivalent to the associated filters with vector-rotators are guaranteed. If the results are applied to AC motor modeling problems, dynamic models and block diagrams of AC motors in general reference frame are easily and directly obtained. Very general and useful analyses are given for newly proposed a class of characteristic-varying systems in the D-module that have potential usefulness in various industrial applications including control of magnetic bearing system, analyses and active compensations of power systems, and sensorless drives of AC motors.

1000一つのホールセンサを用いた永久磁石同期電動機の速度推定および位置同定手法

vol.128, no.2, pp.125-130, 2008-02-01

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This paper proposes a speed and position estimation methods by using a Hall effect sensor. The speed is estimated from the fluctuated current which can be observed on the control axis. The position is estimated from the estimated speed and is corrected from the pulse which is generated by the Hall effect sensor mounted on the machine. Although the speed control range is limitted since this method is based on the back EMF, the speed and the position can be estimated without any motor parameter is used. The prposed method is verified by the experiments which 120W SPMSM is used for the tested machine, the currnet control and the speed control results including the controlable speed range are breifly explained.

1000物体認識のための浮動投票箱に基づく線分・円弧抽出法

The Institute of Electrical Engineers of Japan

vol.119, no.2, pp.151-158, 1999-02

The paper descries a novel method to extract line segments and circular arcs from the image taken by CCD camera for object recognition. Model based matching is one of the widely used techniques of the object recognition in computer vision, and the position and orientation of the objects are decided with referring the extracted line segments and circular arcs. For the precise and stable decisions of the position and orientation, the accurate extractions of characters are required. These characters are. fast and accurately extracted in the proposed method, while its validity is confirmed in some experiments.

1000リニアアクチュエータアレイによる物体搬送の試み - 魔法のじゅうたんを目指して -

The Institute of Electrical Engineers of Japan

vol.121, no.12, pp.1250-1255, 2001-12-01

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A novel object transfer system named "Magic Carpet" composed of linear actuator array and driven by autonomous decentralized type control algorithm is proposed. An object is manipulated by a large number of contact points with many actuators, which differs from conventional systems like belt conveyor. In this paper, the control algorithm for such "distributed manipulation" is proposed.<br>Due to recent development of micromachine technology, distributed manipulation becomes more important. This system has a big advantage in its fault tolerance because it has a lot of actuators with poor performance to move a large heavy object. However, it has a serious wiring problem to be solved and homogeneous structure should be introduced because of a large number actuators.<br>To solve these problems, "combined control of central /autonomous decentralized algorithms" is proposed and evaluated by computer simulation and experiment.

1000An Interface Converter with Reduced Volt-Ampere Ratings for Battery-Supercapacitor Mixed Systems

Guidi Giuseppe Undeland Tore M. Hori Yoichi

vol.128, no.4, pp.418-423, 2008-04-01

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This paper presents a converter topology used to interface a bank of Supercapacitors (SC) to a stiff DC-Link, like the one constituted by a typical battery. Main feature of the proposed converter is the reduced ratings of the power electronics switches compared to standard topologies. The capabilities of the proposed system in terms of energy storage and controllability of the power flow in and out the SC bank are identical to those of a conventional system, making the solution very attractive in terms of cost and efficiency in a wide number of applications. Theoretical principles underlying the converter operation are given, along with an experimental evaluation of the proposed solution, showing its practical feasibility.

1000バネ結合リンク付シフトレバーのH_∞パワーアシスト制御

vol.127, no.11, pp.1133-1140, 2007-11-01

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We have developed the shift lever with a spring connected link. It can detect the reaction force to the operator by using inexpensive displacement sensors such as potentiometers. For this system, we propose a model-based power assist control method. The proposed control system is composed of a reference generator and a feedback controller. The reference generator is introduced to generate an ideal reaction force to the operator. The feedback controller is designed by <i>H</i><sub>&infin;</sub> control theory to achieve disturbance attenuation. The effectiveness of the proposed method is shown by experiments.

1000Feedforward制御による機台振動抑制制御

ジダン ハサン 辻 輝生 Hao Shuang-Hui 小黒 龍一

The Institute of Electrical Engineers of Japan

vol.120, no.3, pp.404-409, 2000-03-01

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Recently, in the machinery field, the outoput of actuators becomes greater by the demands for high speed response and high accuracy positioning control. On the other hand, the demands for cost and lighter weight make the machine stand slimer. As a result, the machine stand vibrates at each opertation of actuators and this vibration possibly affects a positioning control. That is, the settling time of the positioning control is prolonged. In order to remove this influence, this paper shows the method of a feedforward controller design for a system including not only a machine but also a machine stand. Moreover, the model for this system is proposed and identified by the genetic algorithm in order to make the feedfoward controller design possible. Effectiveness of the proposed method is confirmed by the experiments.

1000低ひずみと高い電圧利用率を有する高周波PWMインバータのフィードバック型デッドタイム補償法

vol.133, no.10, pp.970-977, 2013-10-01

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This paper proposes a new feedback-type dead-time compensation method. The proposed method compensates the output voltage by employing two operations. First, the normal compensation matches the width of the output pulse to that of the input pulse with reduced delay time from the input pulse to the output pulse compared with the conventional method. Second, the short pulse compensation generates an output pulse after a few pulses are input so that the average value of the output signal equals that of the input signal. The voltage utilization factor of the proposed method is almost 100%, because there is no limit to the compensation and the decrease in the fundamental output caused by dead time is eliminated. The experimental results using a 100-kHz input signal show that there is no discrepancy between the output pulse width and the input pulse width. Furthermore, the THD of the compensated output current, when the output frequency is 50Hz, is eliminated, compared with that of the output current without compensation. These results show that the proposed method has low distortion and high voltage utilization factor characteristics.

1000交流電気鉄道用50/60Hz異周波混触保護継電器の開発

vol.118, no.7, pp.930-936, 1998-07

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Takasaki-Nagano section, a part of Hokuriku Shinkansen was opened in October, 1997, just before Nagano Winter Olympics. Hokuriku Shinkansen has been electrified by 30kV a. c. commercial frequency AT feeding system.<br>As for the commercial frequency, Japan is divided into two zones: the western part of Japan is a 60Hz zone and its eastern part is a 50Hz zone. Two different power frequencies exist in Hokuriku Shinkansen which passes power frequency borders between different electric power companies. Therefore, in case of a contact fault between two different power frequencies, a beat-formed large fault current will flow, which should be immediately detected and cut off.<br>At present, a distance relay and an AC &Delta;I type relay are used as protective relays for a feeding circuit of Shinkansen lines. However, it was experimentally made clear that those relays do not operate by a beat-formed fault current which appears in the case of a contact fault between two different power frequencies. For this reason, we have developed and put to practical use a protective relay for a contact fault between two different frequencies, which operates by detecting 55Hz component peculiar to the current caused by the contact fault and also detecting power frequency of an opponent traction substation.<br>They have been installed at a frequency-bordered sectioning post and at traction substations which sandwich the sectioning post.

1000モジュラー・マルチレベル・カスケード変換器を用いた電池電力貯蔵装置の電池電力個別制御

vol.131, no.1, pp.76-83, 2011-01-01

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This paper focuses on a battery energy storage system that can be installed in a 6.6-kV power distribution system. This system comprises a combination of a modular multilevel cascade converter based on single-star bridge-cells (MMCC-SSBC) and multiple battery modules. Each battery module is connected to the dc side of each bridge-cell, where the battery modules are galvanically isolated from each other. Three-phase multilevel line-to-line voltages with extremely low voltage steps on the ac side of the converter help in solving problems related to line harmonic currents and electromagnetic interference (EMI) issues. This paper proposes a control method that allows each bridge-cell to independently adjust the battery power flowing into or out of each battery module. A three-phase energy storage system using nine nickel-metal-hydride (NiMH) battery modules, each rated at 72V and 5.5Ah, is designed, constructed, and tested to verify the viability and effectiveness of the proposed control method.

1000操作量飽和を考慮したディジタルロバスト速度サーボ系の一構成法

vol.119, no.1, pp.88-96, 1999-01

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When a robust servo system having an integral element has a large error input, it often has the windup phenomena caused by output saturation. It is very difficult for a strictly proper and high order controller to avoid having the windup phenomena caused by output saturation. This paper newly proposes the digital robust speed servo system with the complete consideration algorithm of output saturation. The proposed algorithm completely considers the output saturation of robust speed controller connected to PI current controller in series. Moreover, this method can apply to both PI speed controller and <i>H</i><sup>&infin;</sup> speed controller. The experimental results show that the robust speed servo system having the proposed algorithm has a good and stable response for a large step speed command.

1000最大トルク制御に適した磁束モデルの提案とこれに基づくIPMSMの位置センサレス制御

vol.132, no.1, pp.67-77, 2012-01-01

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In this paper, a novel position sensorless control method for interior permanent magnet synchronous motors (IPMSMs) that is based on a novel flux model suitable for maximum torque control has been proposed. Maximum torque per ampere (MTPA) control is often utilized for driving IPMSMs with the maximum efficiency. In order to implement this control, generally, the parameters are required to be accurate. However, the inductance varies dramatically because of magnetic saturation, which has been one of the most important problems in recent years. Therefore, the conventional MTPA control method fails to achieve maximum efficiency for IPMSMs because of parameter mismatches. In this paper, first, a novel flux model has been proposed for realizing the position sensorless control of IPMSMs, which is insensitive to <i>L<SUB>q</SUB></i>. In addition, in this paper, it has been shown that the proposed flux model can approximately estimate the maximum torque control (MTC) frame, which as a new coordinate aligned with the current vector for MTPA control. Next, in this paper, a precise estimation method for the MTC frame has been proposed. By this method, highly accurate maximum torque control can be achieved. A decoupling control algorithm based on the proposed model has also been addressed in this paper. Finally, some experimental results demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method.

1000永久磁石同期モータ駆動システムにおける直流電圧脈動によるビート現象を抑制する周期外乱電流制御方式の検討

The Institute of Electrical Engineers of Japan

vol.130, no.5, pp.614-624, 2010-05-01

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We propose a new beatless control mechanism for permanent-magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) drives. In drive systems, the three-phase voltage source induces a ripple component whose frequency is six times that of the voltage source frequency in the DC voltage. Therefore, if the motor frequency becomes six times the voltage frequency, a beat phenomenon, which causes an increase in the motor current ripple is observed. We analyze the beat phenomenon which causes current ripples and propose a method based on periodic disturbance current regulation, i.e., beatless control. We carry out time-domain simulation and various experiments and demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed controller.