著者
伊原 禎雄 宇根 有美 大沼 学 佐藤 洋司 新国 勇
出版者
「野生生物と社会」学会
雑誌
野生生物と社会 (ISSN:24240877)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.2, no.1, pp.37-41, 2014-12-01 (Released:2017-06-16)

We studied the circumstances and cause of a sudden mass mortality of frogs that occurred in May 2012 in Kurotanigawa, Tadami, Fukushima Prefecture. A total of 341 dead frogs of four species were observed: (Rhacophors arboreus, Rhacophors schlegelii, Rana nigromaculata, and Hyla japonica). Most of the dead individuals (91.8%) were forest green tree frog (Rhacophors arboreus). Based on pathological and molecular biological examination for pathogen, the primary cause of death appeared to be mammalian bites. We concluded that a mammalian predator caused this mass mortality by attacking. Automatic cameras provided evidence of raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonides), civet (Paguma larvata), and raccoon (Procyon lotor). The injuries to the frogs were consistent with reports of damage by raccoons. Raccoons may cause this mass mortality of frogs.
著者
久井 貴世
出版者
「野生生物と社会」学会
雑誌
野生生物と社会 (ISSN:24240877)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.1, no.1, pp.7-20, 2013-12-20 (Released:2017-06-16)
被引用文献数
1

The Tancho, or Japanese Crane (Grus japonensis) which inhabits Japan, has been on the brink of extinction because of intense hunting activity, and loss of habitat, since the Meiji Era. In modern Japan, the hunting targeted at the Japanese cranes is still active. The Japanese cranes are dazzling targets for hunting and are used to make valuable products. Japanese hunters at that time lacked the forethought of wildlife protection, and their intense hunting became a threat to the cranes' survival. The Japanese hunters tracked cranes not only in Japan, but also on the Korean peninsula. The Japanese cranes were important for industry and thought of as a special product of the Korean Peninsula, especially for Japanese people. Even on the Korean Peninsula, poaching was rampant after the Hunt Rule was established. These cranes were a connecting point of importance to the Japanese people. The value of the cranes caused an increase of pressure to hunt them. In addition, it can be thought that these factors, which include the development of hunting techniques, the imperialistic expansion, and the hunters' sense of ethics, overlapped to cause a sharp decrease of Japanese cranes in modern Japan and the Korean Peninsula.
著者
櫻井 龍彦
出版者
「野生生物と社会」学会
雑誌
野生生物保護 (ISSN:13418777)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.4, no.2, pp.63-92, 1999-12-28 (Released:2017-10-06)
参考文献数
64

Many myths, legends and old folktales tell the story of the negotiation process between a human being and nature. By retelling the story through the perspective of development, we can see how human beings objectify the natural environment, and how they contextualize and relate to it. To assess these processes, this paper does the following : 1) analyzes these tales in relation to paddy field development, forest development, and urban development, 2) abstracts the Japanese view of nature and concept of the divine, 3) explains the power of the 'epistemological discourse' of folktales, 4) considers whether this power can be efficacious in dealing with today's urgent global problem of protecting the natural environment. 5) The problems included in Environmental Ethics such as 'Native Title', the issue of land ownership rights for aboriginal peoples, 'The Rights of Nature', awarding the right to existence for all natural things including inanimate objects, the concept of 'stewardship' which is found through a close reading of the Bible are considered from the perspective of the potential of folktales.
著者
菅原 寛 關 義和
出版者
「野生生物と社会」学会
雑誌
野生生物と社会 (ISSN:24240877)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.3, no.1, pp.41-50, 2015-11-01 (Released:2017-06-16)
被引用文献数
1

We assessed the ability of farmers to accurately identify mammals causing crop damage, by interviewing 134 farmers in Nagano Prefecture, Japan. The farmers identified crop damage caused by Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata) based on sightings; that caused by sika deer (Cervus nippon) and wild boars (Sus scrofa) based on footprints and/or feeding signs; and that caused by masked palm civets (Paguma larvata), raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides), and Japanese badgers (Meles anakuma) based on feeding signs. The result showed a high accuracy of Japanese macaque identification causing crop damage; however, the accuracy of footprint identification for sika deer and wild boars was low. Furthermore, many farmers confused the footprints of three mammals with one another-the sika deer, wild boars, and Japanese serows (Capricornis crispus). Thus, reports regarding the identification of mammals that cause crop damage by farmers need to be carefully reviewed. Generalized Linear Mixed Model analysis indicated that hunting and effective communication with hunters positively affected the accuracy of the answers. This suggests that a platform to communicate with hunters or experts can be effectively offered to farmers to enhance their knowledge and ability to accurately identify mammals that cause crop damage.
著者
常田 邦彦
出版者
「野生生物と社会」学会
雑誌
野生生物と社会 (ISSN:24240877)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.3, no.1, pp.3-11, 2015-11-01 (Released:2017-06-16)

The main purpose of hunting in Japanese early modern age was nuisance control, and that of in modern age was commercial and minor-subsistent. Since 1960s, hunting for these purposes has drastically decreased and recreational hunting has prospered rapidly. Today, recreational hunting is also declining due to hunters' aging and reduction in number. Under this situation, control hunting, especially conducted by the public sector, is increasing with the expansion of wildlife damage. The development of modern legal system on hunting began in the 1890s and its current framework was established by the amendment of the 'Wildlife Protection and Proper Hunting Act (WPHA)' in 1963. The WPHA is a law regulating the capture of wild birds and mammals with a view to protecting wildlife through enhancing various restrictions. However, this legal system did not work well due to lack of a process to set the concrete number of animals to be hunted in the field in accordance with the overall management objectives. In 1999, WPHA was revised again and the Specific Wildlife Management Planning System, the first scientific wildlife management planning system in Japan, was introduced. The latest amendment of WPHA in 2014, established a new control program and a certification system for professional culling to promote wildlife damage control by public sector. The WPHA is evolving to achieve two objectives of strengthening biodiversity conservation and wildlife damage control simultaneously.
著者
小池 伸介 羽澄 俊裕 古林 賢恒
出版者
「野生生物と社会」学会
雑誌
野生生物保護 (ISSN:13418777)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.8, no.1, pp.19-30, 2003
参考文献数
44
被引用文献数
9

The authors studied the likelihood that seeds were being dispersed by the Japanese black bear (<i>Ursus thibetanus japonicus</i>) in a deciduous forest near Ashikawa Village, Yamanashi Prefecture. The forest was composed of 113 tree species. Japanese black bear ate fruits and seeds belonging to 37 species (including 7 unidentified). About 86.7 to 99.7% of seeds identified in 360 samples of bear feces were in good condition for 17 species (10 drupes, 5 berries, 1 multiple fruit of droplets and 1 pome). However, no intact seeds were found for 5 nut species. The germination rate of Yamasakura (<i>Prunus jamasakura</i>) seeds taken from feces was the same as for uneaten seeds. The results of this investigation suggest a high likelihood of seed dispersal by the Japanese black bear.
著者
佐藤 忍
出版者
「野生生物と社会」学会
雑誌
野生生物保護 (ISSN:13418777)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.14, no.1, pp.31-42, 2013
参考文献数
16

In contemporary Japan, in order to ensure the sustainability of resources, the traditional practice of hunting is on the decline; this perspective on hunting wild animals is related to conveying a symbolic message to people living in the urban areas. In this report, I comprehensively investigate the concept of "attachment" or "kindness" to animals and try to verify whether the "Matagi" (bear hunters), who still practice traditional hunting in Japan, can be considered cruel. Once, I caught it at a place far away from a hunting area, and they were brought together and discussed. The object reached active hunters, retired hunters, wives, schoolchildren, educators, myself, and many others. Although, hunting appears to be a cruel act, to hunters, hunting comes naturally. However, they are only hunting their feeling are such kinds. We should bear in mind that hunting involves not just the killing of animals but also some special activities closely related to his occupation. I believe that an understanding of wild animals existing among people in the context of Japan's biodiversity would aid the development of the nation.
著者
小寺 祐二 神崎 伸夫 金子 雄司 常田 邦彦
出版者
「野生生物と社会」学会
雑誌
野生生物保護 : Wildlife conservation Japan (ISSN:13418777)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.6, no.2, pp.119-129, 2001-07-31
被引用文献数
18 10

Habitat selection of Japanese wild boars, Sus scrofa leucomystax, was studied by radio-tracking and analyses of activity sign distributions in Iwami district, Shimane Prefecture. Four radio-collared wild boars were located once a day during daytime from October 1994 to August 1997. All animals significantly preferred broad-leaved forest. On the other hand, three significantly avoided coniferous plantation. Activity signs were counted seasonally at 5 vegetation types during August 1996 to February 1999. At abandoned paddy number of rooting sites were found significantly more than other vegetation types, while those at coniferous plantation were significantly fewer through the year. Number of rooting site at bamboo thickets was also significantly more, but that at broad-leaved forest was significantly fewer in all seasons except fall. Population decrease and workers who progressively became old have caused increase of less managed broad-leaved forests and abandoned paddies in hilly and mountainous area, which provide favorable food and resting places for this animal. The socio-economic change may be one of the reasons of recent rapid expansion of wild boar in Shimane prefecture.
著者
鹿野 たか嶺 柳川 久 野呂 美紗子 原 文宏 神馬 強志
出版者
「野生生物と社会」学会
雑誌
野生生物保護 : Wildlife conservation Japan (ISSN:13418777)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.12, no.2, pp.39-46, 2010-03-01

We studied the effectiveness of electronic deer whistles in scaring away sika deer that are likely to run onto roads, resulting in accidents. These whistles have been used in the U.S.A. and other countries. In this study, two types of deer whistles were tested: one that has a continuous tone with a fixed frequency (Whistle A) and the other that has an intermittent tone with a modulated frequency (Whistle B). To assess the effectiveness of the whistles in alerting deer, the deer's reactions to the whistles were observed by blowing the whistle from a fixed place that is visible to the deer when they appear by the roadside. For the control sample, deer's behavior when no whistle was blown was observed. When no whistle was blown, 51% of the deer were on alert about the observers. When Whistle A was blown, 67% of the deer were on alert; this figure increased to 95% when Whistle B was blown. The time durations for which the deer were alert when no whistle was blown, Whistle A was blown, and Whistle B was blown were 20%, 42%, and 73%, respectively. These results indicated that the deer whistles are effective in alerting deer, and that Whistle B is more effective than Whistle A. Vehicles can be equipped with deer whistles to alert deer about on-coming vehicles so as to prevent them from crossing roads, and consequently reduce deer-vehicle collisions.
著者
和田 一雄
出版者
「野生生物と社会」学会
雑誌
野生生物保護 : Wildlife conservation Japan (ISSN:13418777)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.2, no.2, pp.93-120, 1997-01
被引用文献数
2

In Russia, sea otter (Enhydra lutris) harvest started in 1741 when Bering's expedition arrived at Bering Island and the animals nearly became extinct during the following twenty years. Shortly thereafter sealing of northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) started and continued. A Russian monopoly, the Russian-American Company, managed Russian colonies and the land sealing industry from 1799 to 1867. Sealing of northern fur seals at sea started in 1866, and soon its harvest exceeded that of on land. For prohibiting sealing at sea Canada, Japan, USA and USSR contracted the Interim Convention on Conservation of North Pacific Fur Seals in 1911 (ICCNPFS). Since the eighteen century, sealing history is divided to three stages : 1) first stage of natural resource plundering with territory, 2) second stage of marketing management during the period of the Russian-American Company (1799-1867), 3) third stage of preliminary natural resource management during 1868 and 1911.