著者
照井 滋晴 秋山 吉寛 野本 和宏
出版者
「野生生物と社会」学会
雑誌
野生生物と社会 (ISSN:24240877)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.10, pp.27-34, 2022 (Released:2022-10-25)
参考文献数
31

As a conservation measure associated with development projects in Kushiro Marsh, egg sacs and adults of Siberian salamander (Salamandrella keyserlingii) were translocated to artificial ponds in two periods (1986-1990 and 1996-1998). Following the first translocation, Kushiro City Board of Education commenced a continuous monitoring survey for 29 years from 1991 to 2019. The survey revealed that the translocated individuals spawned annually in the artificial breeding ponds by 2016; however, the number of egg sacs continuously decreased, after 2017, no further spawning was observed. Therefore, we consider that the translocated individuals are now either extinct or on the verge of extinction, indicating that the translocation project has failed. In this report, we discuss the factors that caused the failure of translocation projects and summarize factors to consider while translocating Siberian salamander.
著者
下地 幸夫
出版者
「野生生物と社会」学会
雑誌
野生生物保護 (ISSN:13418777)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.12, no.1, pp.21-26, 2009 (Released:2018-01-27)
参考文献数
13

Neolucanus insulicola donan, is a stag beetle endemic to Yonaguni Island, a small island in the Ryukyu Archipelago of Japan. The species is known to be a valuable indicator of the unique biogeographical composition of the archipelago and is useful for taxonomic research. However, it is now feared that this stag beetle is facing extinction as a result of the activities of insect dealers and collectors. Specimens are traded for high prices and are a rare commodity on the Japanese insect market. The species' population size was originally estimated to be over 600 but has declined to less than 1% of this number. In order to catch the larvae, the worst collectors have destroyed the tree cavities that the beetle uses for nesting. Collecting damages the habitat and this is likely to cause extinction of the species. It is obvious that such overexploitation has harmed the forest ecosystem on this island. Protection of this beetle depends on a prohibition on collecting and on preservation of Yonaguni Island's natural forest.
著者
久井 貴世
出版者
「野生生物と社会」学会
雑誌
野生生物と社会 (ISSN:24240877)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.1, no.1, pp.7-20, 2013-12-20 (Released:2017-06-16)
被引用文献数
1

The Tancho, or Japanese Crane (Grus japonensis) which inhabits Japan, has been on the brink of extinction because of intense hunting activity, and loss of habitat, since the Meiji Era. In modern Japan, the hunting targeted at the Japanese cranes is still active. The Japanese cranes are dazzling targets for hunting and are used to make valuable products. Japanese hunters at that time lacked the forethought of wildlife protection, and their intense hunting became a threat to the cranes' survival. The Japanese hunters tracked cranes not only in Japan, but also on the Korean peninsula. The Japanese cranes were important for industry and thought of as a special product of the Korean Peninsula, especially for Japanese people. Even on the Korean Peninsula, poaching was rampant after the Hunt Rule was established. These cranes were a connecting point of importance to the Japanese people. The value of the cranes caused an increase of pressure to hunt them. In addition, it can be thought that these factors, which include the development of hunting techniques, the imperialistic expansion, and the hunters' sense of ethics, overlapped to cause a sharp decrease of Japanese cranes in modern Japan and the Korean Peninsula.
著者
森光 由樹
出版者
「野生生物と社会」学会
雑誌
野生生物と社会 (ISSN:24240877)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.3, no.1, pp.35-40, 2015-11-01 (Released:2017-06-16)

Conflicts between wild animals and humans have been increasing during the recent years, resulting in damage to human environments and infrastructure as well as injuries to humans. In urban areas, capturing the wild animals is a difficult task because, by law, firearms cannot be used. As a method for rapidly incapacitating and capturing these animals, it has become legal to use tranquilizer guns, as they are non-lethal, and there is little danger of damage to the property. Capturing via tranquilizer gun is a safe method; however, operational problems remain. Because tranquilizer guns are drug delivery systems and not firearms, written tests and practical exams for the use of tranquilizer guns are not imposed. A person who does not have basic firearm training can still use the guns, as long as he/she passes police inspection. Because there are various problems in the positioning and operation of tranquilizer guns in the amended law, there is an immediate need to create user manuals and to formulate rules to prevent accidents.
著者
山田 晋也 大竹 正剛 大場 孝裕 山口 亮 大橋 正孝
出版者
「野生生物と社会」学会
雑誌
野生生物と社会 (ISSN:24240877)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.1, no.1, pp.1-5, 2013-12-20 (Released:2017-06-16)

We evaluated the stress in deer that were captured using corrals, foot snare traps, grand hunt, and sharp shooting by determining the cortisol and creatine kinase levels. The means of the cortisol levels were 2.5±1.3μg/dL, 11.3±5.3μg/dL, 2.1±2.5μg/dL, and 0.4±0.1μg/dL for deer captured using corrals, foot snare traps, grand hunt, and sharp shooting, respectively. The means of the creatine kinase levels for deer captured using corrals, foot snare traps, grand hunt, and sharp shooting were 93.5±129.1×10^3U/L, 253.6±303.3×10^3U/L, 46.6±70.1×10^3U/L, and 2.6±2.0×10^3U/L, respectively. The means of the cortisol levels of the deer captured using corral, grand hunt, and sharp shooting were significantly lower than that of the deer captured using foot snare traps (p<0.01). The mean of the creatine kinase levels of deer captured using corrals was significantly higher than that of the deer captured using sharp shooting (p<0.01), but was equal to that of the deer captured using foot snare traps and grand hunt.
著者
橋本 啓史 須川 恒 西野 麻知子 石川 俊之
出版者
「野生生物と社会」学会
雑誌
野生生物保護 (ISSN:13418777)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.14, no.1-2, pp.15-29, 2013-07-01 (Released:2017-09-07)
参考文献数
40

We studied the impacts of human disturbances by boats on wintering waterbirds at 2 sites, in the North and South of Lake Biwa, a Ramsar wetland in Shiga Prefecture, Japan. Most land-feeding ducks (Anas platyrhynchos, An. poecilorhyncha, An. crecca, and An. formosd) slept offshore during the daytime. Herbivorous ducks (An. penelope, An. strepera, and An, falcata) foraged on the water surface. Diving herbivorous waterbirds (Fulica atra) foraged by diving offshore in the North, and by surface-feeding over a wide area of the water surface in the South. Most diving ducks (Ayihya ferina, Ay. fuligula, Ay. marila, and Bucephala clangula) slept on the water surface near the shoreline during the daytime, and some individuals started diving to forage in the afternoon. At both sites, waterbirds were often disturbed by fishing boats. Some birds flew away from the disturbance, but the species foraging in the daytime tended to come back to the same area and resume foraging promptly, whereas the species sleeping in the daytime tended not to come back.
著者
横畑 泰志 横田 昌嗣
出版者
「野生生物と社会」学会
雑誌
野生生物保護 : Wildlife conservation Japan (ISSN:13418777)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.5, no.1, pp.1-12, 2000-07-19

Uotsuri-jima Island in the Senkaku Islands, southwestern Japan is a small island characterized by very valuable biota with high endemicity which has formed over a long period of isolation. The ecosystem on this island is under the risk of total destruction because of the presence of domestic goats, Capra aegarus, were introduced in 1978 by a private political party in Japan and increased to more than 300 individuals. This problem is made more difficult due to the territorial conflicts over the Islands by Japan, China and Taiwan.
著者
二ノ宮 史絵 古林 賢恒
出版者
「野生生物と社会」学会
雑誌
野生生物保護 (ISSN:13418777)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.8, no.2, pp.63-77, 2004-02-25 (Released:2017-10-18)
参考文献数
43
被引用文献数
1

This paper describes a study of the spatial structure and gap dynamics of a beech forest affected by the overbrowsing by sika deer (Cervus nippon) in the eastern part of the Tanzawa mountain zone of Kanagawa Prefecture. Beech (Fagus crenata), walnut (Pterocarya rhoifolia), linden (Tilia japonica) and fir (Abies homolepis) dominate the canopy layer of the forest, but the shrub layer is dominated by epaullete trees (Pterostyrax hispidata), which are pioneer plants and unpalatable for sika deer. All seedlings except these are subject to great stress caused by sika deer overbrowsing. It assumed that epaullete trees invade and grow rapidly in many gaps in the beech forest, without competition from other species. On the other hand, seedlings of other species grow normally in areas protected by fence. In conclusion, control of the sika deer population is required for normal regeneration of the beech forest.
著者
中沢 智恵子
出版者
「野生生物と社会」学会
雑誌
野生生物保護 : Wildlife conservation Japan (ISSN:13418777)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.12, no.2, pp.19-38, 2010-03-01

The causes of the extinction of the Japanese wolf (Canis lupus hodophilax), once found in three-Honshu, Shikoku, and Kyushu-of the four Japanese large islands, were documented by surveying official documents of northeastern Honshu from the Meiji era (1868-1912). The results showed many instances of nuisance killings of the animals, motivated by attacks on free-ranging livestock by the animals. The extirpation policies and their implemental measures were planned and authorized by the prefectural administrations of Aomori, Iwate, Iwai (then occupying parts of both present-day Iwate and Miyagi Prefectures), and Miyagi. In Aomori Prefecture, the police killed wolves. In Iwai Prefecture, the police commanded hunters to conduct the nuisance killings. The government of Iwate Prefecture enacted a bounty system in 1875, and 201 wolves were killed in 6 years. The government of Miyagi Prefecture followed it in 1877. In Fukushima Prefecture, local people conducted nuisance killings. Besides, the documents showed that fur, meat, and other parts of wolves were traded and used in northeastern Honshu. Thus, it can be concluded that the nuisance killings and hunting of wolves in the late 19th century contributed to the extinction of these animals in northeastern Honshu.
著者
中沢 智恵子
出版者
「野生生物と社会」学会
雑誌
野生生物保護 (ISSN:13418777)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.12, no.2, pp.19-38, 2010-03-01 (Released:2017-09-20)
参考文献数
41

The causes of the extinction of the Japanese wolf (Canis lupus hodophilax), once found in three-Honshu, Shikoku, and Kyushu-of the four Japanese large islands, were documented by surveying official documents of northeastern Honshu from the Meiji era (1868-1912). The results showed many instances of nuisance killings of the animals, motivated by attacks on free-ranging livestock by the animals. The extirpation policies and their implemental measures were planned and authorized by the prefectural administrations of Aomori, Iwate, Iwai (then occupying parts of both present-day Iwate and Miyagi Prefectures), and Miyagi. In Aomori Prefecture, the police killed wolves. In Iwai Prefecture, the police commanded hunters to conduct the nuisance killings. The government of Iwate Prefecture enacted a bounty system in 1875, and 201 wolves were killed in 6 years. The government of Miyagi Prefecture followed it in 1877. In Fukushima Prefecture, local people conducted nuisance killings. Besides, the documents showed that fur, meat, and other parts of wolves were traded and used in northeastern Honshu. Thus, it can be concluded that the nuisance killings and hunting of wolves in the late 19th century contributed to the extinction of these animals in northeastern Honshu.
著者
上田 剛平
出版者
「野生生物と社会」学会
雑誌
野生生物と社会 (ISSN:24240877)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.1, no.2, pp.71-78, 2014-05-01 (Released:2017-06-16)
被引用文献数
3

There has been a marked decline in the hunter population in Japan. For the success of wildlife management, local governments should build a sustainable wildlife population management system (SWPMS). Here, I show the trend in the hunter population over the past 40 years and discuss the programs for building SWPMS. The decline in the hunter population started simultaneously across the whole of Japan from 1979. One of the reasons for this decline was that the hunting and gun ownership regulations were strengthened in 1978. As a result of these revisions, gun hunters have been declining since 1979. In contrast, the number of trappers, who desire to kill nuisance animals, has been increasing since the 1990s. According to our questionnaire surveys, which were conducted in 2012, the average retirement age of trappers (64.2 years) was younger than that of gun hunters (69.5 years). However, the average hunting career of trappers (9.3 years) was considerably shorter than that of gun hunters (40.0 years). These results suggest that the increase in trappers may not be effective for SWPMS. Three programs are necessary for SWPMS. The first is to increase the bag per hunter. The second is to increase and educate the candidates for hunting. The third is to provide economic incentives for population management activities. Implemented in combination, these programs would make it possible to build SWPMS.
著者
小寺 祐二 神崎 伸夫
出版者
「野生生物と社会」学会
雑誌
野生生物保護 (ISSN:13418777)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.6, no.2, pp.67-78, 2001-07-31 (Released:2017-10-17)
参考文献数
9

To analyze the status of wild boar (Sus scrofa), crossbred of pig×wild boar farming, and those feral populations, a written questionnaire was sent to 47 prefectural government offices, 679 branches of Dainippon Ryoyukai (Hunters Club) and 42 farmers. A verbal survey was also conducted on farmers in Gunma, Wakayama, Hokkaido, and Aomori prefectures. Breeding farms of wild boar and crossbreeds existed in 30 (63.8%) and 22 (46.8%) prefectures, respectively. The number of farms trippled between 1955 and 1964. It was the highest in the 1980s and the most popular motivation was to attract tourists. Feral crossbreds have been discovered in 36 prefectures (76.6%). The sources of feral animals were mostly unknown (69.8%). However, 0.9% of feral animals were reported to have been released intentionally. Almost half of the hunters (43.3%) surveyed responded to a question concerning their opinion of feral animals and they agreed to eliminate the animals. 23.0% welcomed them as hunting resources. Breeding was regarded as an industry that reinvigorated the local economy in Wakayama and Gunma prefectures. Delay of counter measures caused the feral crossbreed population to survive in Hokkaido.