著者
森光 由樹
出版者
「野生生物と社会」学会
雑誌
野生生物と社会 (ISSN:24240877)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.3, no.1, pp.35-40, 2015-11-01 (Released:2017-06-16)

Conflicts between wild animals and humans have been increasing during the recent years, resulting in damage to human environments and infrastructure as well as injuries to humans. In urban areas, capturing the wild animals is a difficult task because, by law, firearms cannot be used. As a method for rapidly incapacitating and capturing these animals, it has become legal to use tranquilizer guns, as they are non-lethal, and there is little danger of damage to the property. Capturing via tranquilizer gun is a safe method; however, operational problems remain. Because tranquilizer guns are drug delivery systems and not firearms, written tests and practical exams for the use of tranquilizer guns are not imposed. A person who does not have basic firearm training can still use the guns, as long as he/she passes police inspection. Because there are various problems in the positioning and operation of tranquilizer guns in the amended law, there is an immediate need to create user manuals and to formulate rules to prevent accidents.
著者
山田 晋也 大竹 正剛 大場 孝裕 山口 亮 大橋 正孝
出版者
「野生生物と社会」学会
雑誌
野生生物と社会 (ISSN:24240877)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.1, no.1, pp.1-5, 2013-12-20 (Released:2017-06-16)

We evaluated the stress in deer that were captured using corrals, foot snare traps, grand hunt, and sharp shooting by determining the cortisol and creatine kinase levels. The means of the cortisol levels were 2.5±1.3μg/dL, 11.3±5.3μg/dL, 2.1±2.5μg/dL, and 0.4±0.1μg/dL for deer captured using corrals, foot snare traps, grand hunt, and sharp shooting, respectively. The means of the creatine kinase levels for deer captured using corrals, foot snare traps, grand hunt, and sharp shooting were 93.5±129.1×10^3U/L, 253.6±303.3×10^3U/L, 46.6±70.1×10^3U/L, and 2.6±2.0×10^3U/L, respectively. The means of the cortisol levels of the deer captured using corral, grand hunt, and sharp shooting were significantly lower than that of the deer captured using foot snare traps (p<0.01). The mean of the creatine kinase levels of deer captured using corrals was significantly higher than that of the deer captured using sharp shooting (p<0.01), but was equal to that of the deer captured using foot snare traps and grand hunt.
著者
横畑 泰志 横田 昌嗣
出版者
「野生生物と社会」学会
雑誌
野生生物保護 : Wildlife conservation Japan (ISSN:13418777)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.5, no.1, pp.1-12, 2000-07-19

Uotsuri-jima Island in the Senkaku Islands, southwestern Japan is a small island characterized by very valuable biota with high endemicity which has formed over a long period of isolation. The ecosystem on this island is under the risk of total destruction because of the presence of domestic goats, Capra aegarus, were introduced in 1978 by a private political party in Japan and increased to more than 300 individuals. This problem is made more difficult due to the territorial conflicts over the Islands by Japan, China and Taiwan.
著者
中沢 智恵子
出版者
「野生生物と社会」学会
雑誌
野生生物保護 (ISSN:13418777)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.12, no.2, pp.19-38, 2010-03-01 (Released:2017-09-20)
参考文献数
41

The causes of the extinction of the Japanese wolf (Canis lupus hodophilax), once found in three-Honshu, Shikoku, and Kyushu-of the four Japanese large islands, were documented by surveying official documents of northeastern Honshu from the Meiji era (1868-1912). The results showed many instances of nuisance killings of the animals, motivated by attacks on free-ranging livestock by the animals. The extirpation policies and their implemental measures were planned and authorized by the prefectural administrations of Aomori, Iwate, Iwai (then occupying parts of both present-day Iwate and Miyagi Prefectures), and Miyagi. In Aomori Prefecture, the police killed wolves. In Iwai Prefecture, the police commanded hunters to conduct the nuisance killings. The government of Iwate Prefecture enacted a bounty system in 1875, and 201 wolves were killed in 6 years. The government of Miyagi Prefecture followed it in 1877. In Fukushima Prefecture, local people conducted nuisance killings. Besides, the documents showed that fur, meat, and other parts of wolves were traded and used in northeastern Honshu. Thus, it can be concluded that the nuisance killings and hunting of wolves in the late 19th century contributed to the extinction of these animals in northeastern Honshu.
著者
上田 剛平
出版者
「野生生物と社会」学会
雑誌
野生生物と社会 (ISSN:24240877)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.1, no.2, pp.71-78, 2014-05-01 (Released:2017-06-16)
被引用文献数
3

There has been a marked decline in the hunter population in Japan. For the success of wildlife management, local governments should build a sustainable wildlife population management system (SWPMS). Here, I show the trend in the hunter population over the past 40 years and discuss the programs for building SWPMS. The decline in the hunter population started simultaneously across the whole of Japan from 1979. One of the reasons for this decline was that the hunting and gun ownership regulations were strengthened in 1978. As a result of these revisions, gun hunters have been declining since 1979. In contrast, the number of trappers, who desire to kill nuisance animals, has been increasing since the 1990s. According to our questionnaire surveys, which were conducted in 2012, the average retirement age of trappers (64.2 years) was younger than that of gun hunters (69.5 years). However, the average hunting career of trappers (9.3 years) was considerably shorter than that of gun hunters (40.0 years). These results suggest that the increase in trappers may not be effective for SWPMS. Three programs are necessary for SWPMS. The first is to increase the bag per hunter. The second is to increase and educate the candidates for hunting. The third is to provide economic incentives for population management activities. Implemented in combination, these programs would make it possible to build SWPMS.
著者
橋本 啓史 須川 恒 西野 麻知子 石川 俊之
出版者
「野生生物と社会」学会
雑誌
野生生物保護 (ISSN:13418777)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.14, no.1-2, pp.15-29, 2013-07-01 (Released:2017-09-07)
参考文献数
40

We studied the impacts of human disturbances by boats on wintering waterbirds at 2 sites, in the North and South of Lake Biwa, a Ramsar wetland in Shiga Prefecture, Japan. Most land-feeding ducks (Anas platyrhynchos, An. poecilorhyncha, An. crecca, and An. formosd) slept offshore during the daytime. Herbivorous ducks (An. penelope, An. strepera, and An, falcata) foraged on the water surface. Diving herbivorous waterbirds (Fulica atra) foraged by diving offshore in the North, and by surface-feeding over a wide area of the water surface in the South. Most diving ducks (Ayihya ferina, Ay. fuligula, Ay. marila, and Bucephala clangula) slept on the water surface near the shoreline during the daytime, and some individuals started diving to forage in the afternoon. At both sites, waterbirds were often disturbed by fishing boats. Some birds flew away from the disturbance, but the species foraging in the daytime tended to come back to the same area and resume foraging promptly, whereas the species sleeping in the daytime tended not to come back.
著者
小寺 祐二 神崎 伸夫
出版者
「野生生物と社会」学会
雑誌
野生生物保護 (ISSN:13418777)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.6, no.2, pp.67-78, 2001-07-31 (Released:2017-10-17)
参考文献数
9

To analyze the status of wild boar (Sus scrofa), crossbred of pig×wild boar farming, and those feral populations, a written questionnaire was sent to 47 prefectural government offices, 679 branches of Dainippon Ryoyukai (Hunters Club) and 42 farmers. A verbal survey was also conducted on farmers in Gunma, Wakayama, Hokkaido, and Aomori prefectures. Breeding farms of wild boar and crossbreeds existed in 30 (63.8%) and 22 (46.8%) prefectures, respectively. The number of farms trippled between 1955 and 1964. It was the highest in the 1980s and the most popular motivation was to attract tourists. Feral crossbreds have been discovered in 36 prefectures (76.6%). The sources of feral animals were mostly unknown (69.8%). However, 0.9% of feral animals were reported to have been released intentionally. Almost half of the hunters (43.3%) surveyed responded to a question concerning their opinion of feral animals and they agreed to eliminate the animals. 23.0% welcomed them as hunting resources. Breeding was regarded as an industry that reinvigorated the local economy in Wakayama and Gunma prefectures. Delay of counter measures caused the feral crossbreed population to survive in Hokkaido.
著者
上田 剛平 小寺 祐二 車田 利夫 竹内 正彦 桜井 良 佐々木 智恵
出版者
「野生生物と社会」学会
雑誌
野生生物保護 (ISSN:13418777)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.13, no.2, pp.47-57, 2012-05-31 (Released:2017-09-07)
参考文献数
32
被引用文献数
5

The Japanese hunter population has been declining and aging since the 1970s. As hunters' removal of nuisance animals is important for the prevention of agricultural damage, their retention is critical for sustainably managing Japan's wildlife. In order to understand the reasons for the decline in the number of hunters and propose appropriate retention measures, we surveyed 1,409 people who did not renew their hunting licenses in 2008 and 2009. The respondents who revoked their trap hunting licenses were younger and had significantly shorter hunting careers than those who revoked their gun hunting licenses. The former had mostly carried on hunting for nuisance control until the cost of hunting became too expensive for them to continue. Therefore, provision of economic incentives could be an important retention measure. While the main reason given by both big game and bird hunters was the reinforcement of gun holding regulations, bird hunters indicated that the reduction in the number of game birds and loss of hunting area were also problematic factors. Thus, in order to retain bird hunters, it is important to improve the environmental conditions of bird hunting.
著者
古林 賢恒 筱田 寧子
出版者
「野生生物と社会」学会
雑誌
野生生物保護 (ISSN:13418777)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.7, no.1, pp.1-24, 2001-12-25 (Released:2017-10-17)
参考文献数
29
被引用文献数
2

By using documents handed in by local peasants for permission to use guns to counter agricultural damage by wildlife and records of deer hunting, the distribution of sika deer (Cervus nippon) around the Kanto plain during Edo era was demonstrated. As a result of the analysis of 540 historical documents, (1) agricultural damage was shown to have been caused by sika deer and boar, which were driven from fields all the time, (2) agricultural damage existed in lowlands, tablelands and hills, and happened only at fields, not in forestry regions, (3) complaints to agricultural damage was concentrated especially in the "takaba" regions, (4) agricultural damage occurred continuously through out the Edo era at each place. The similarity between land-use of the area where the documents continuously existed and that of the outskirts on the area suggests that sika lived everywhere at that time.
著者
山城 明日香 山城 考 土肥 昭夫 伊澤 雅子 遠藤 晃
出版者
「野生生物と社会」学会
雑誌
野生生物保護 : Wildlife conservation Japan (ISSN:13418777)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.9, no.1, pp.47-61, 2004-12-27
被引用文献数
1

The food habits of the Kerama deer (Cervus nippon keramae) were investigated on the basis of feeding mark observations in the field, as well as fecal analysis. The feeding mark investigation found 118 plant species were eaten by the Kerama deer: 7 ferns, 23 woody plants, 35 forbs, 42 graminoids (Gramineae, Cyperaceae), and 11 non-graminoid monocots. With graminoids, many feeding marks were found on young leaves and reproductive organs. In the fecal analysis, the proportions of five plant categories (ferns, woody plants, forbs and non-graminoid monocots) dominated throughout the year at forest site, but the proportion of graminoids varied according to season at the marsh site. At marsh sites, the proportion of graminoids began to increase in March and was highest in August. These results suggest that the Kerama deer selectively eat high quality parts of graminoids. On this point, food habits of Kerama deer are quite different from those of Sika deer populations in northern Japan, where the proportion of graminoids increases in winter due to the lack of food. The study concluded that the food habits of the Kerama deer were the concentrate selector (CS) type.
著者
小池 伸介 羽澄 俊裕 古林 賢恒
出版者
「野生生物と社会」学会
雑誌
野生生物保護 (ISSN:13418777)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.8, no.1, pp.19-30, 2003-02-21 (Released:2017-10-18)
参考文献数
44
被引用文献数
1

The authors studied the likelihood that seeds were being dispersed by the Japanese black bear (Ursus thibetanus japonicus) in a deciduous forest near Ashikawa Village, Yamanashi Prefecture. The forest was composed of 113 tree species. Japanese black bear ate fruits and seeds belonging to 37 species (including 7 unidentified). About 86.7 to 99.7% of seeds identified in 360 samples of bear feces were in good condition for 17 species (10 drupes, 5 berries, 1 multiple fruit of droplets and 1 pome). However, no intact seeds were found for 5 nut species. The germination rate of Yamasakura (Prunus jamasakura) seeds taken from feces was the same as for uneaten seeds. The results of this investigation suggest a high likelihood of seed dispersal by the Japanese black bear.