著者
照井 滋晴 秋山 吉寛 野本 和宏
出版者
「野生生物と社会」学会
雑誌
野生生物と社会 (ISSN:24240877)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.10, pp.27-34, 2022 (Released:2022-10-25)
参考文献数
31

As a conservation measure associated with development projects in Kushiro Marsh, egg sacs and adults of Siberian salamander (Salamandrella keyserlingii) were translocated to artificial ponds in two periods (1986-1990 and 1996-1998). Following the first translocation, Kushiro City Board of Education commenced a continuous monitoring survey for 29 years from 1991 to 2019. The survey revealed that the translocated individuals spawned annually in the artificial breeding ponds by 2016; however, the number of egg sacs continuously decreased, after 2017, no further spawning was observed. Therefore, we consider that the translocated individuals are now either extinct or on the verge of extinction, indicating that the translocation project has failed. In this report, we discuss the factors that caused the failure of translocation projects and summarize factors to consider while translocating Siberian salamander.
著者
照井 滋晴 佐藤 孝則
出版者
Association of Wildlife and Human Society
雑誌
野生生物と社会 (ISSN:24240877)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.8, pp.25-32, 2020 (Released:2020-09-02)
参考文献数
30

Currently, several solar power plants have been constructed in wetland areas in Kushiro National Park without prior environmental impact assessment, as it was not required by the relevant laws in Japan. We surveyed abundance of individuals and egg sacs of the threatened Siberian salamander (Salamandrella keyserlingii) at a solar power plant site, prior to, during (2015-2016), and after (2017) its construction. We confirmed the presence of adults (n = 5 in 2015, n = 3 in 2016, and n = 1 in 2017), and metamorphs (n = 8, only in 2016) as well as egg sacs (n = 11 in 2015, n =37 in 2016, n = 36 in 2017) of this species during the survey period. For habitat conservation, we suggested the following measures to solar power producers: 1) installation of photovoltaic panels in the salamander's main habitat area should be avoided, and 2) the main habitats should be preserved as habitat “conservation area.” The solar power producers agree to implement our suggested conservation plan, and it was decided that we would monitor the salamander population– in this site for the next several years. We believe that this endeavor, supported jointly by producers and conservationists, sets a valuable precedent for the conservation of salamanders in areas with solar power plant construction.
著者
久井 貴世
出版者
「野生生物と社会」学会
雑誌
野生生物と社会 (ISSN:24240877)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.1, no.1, pp.7-20, 2013-12-20 (Released:2017-06-16)
被引用文献数
1

The Tancho, or Japanese Crane (Grus japonensis) which inhabits Japan, has been on the brink of extinction because of intense hunting activity, and loss of habitat, since the Meiji Era. In modern Japan, the hunting targeted at the Japanese cranes is still active. The Japanese cranes are dazzling targets for hunting and are used to make valuable products. Japanese hunters at that time lacked the forethought of wildlife protection, and their intense hunting became a threat to the cranes' survival. The Japanese hunters tracked cranes not only in Japan, but also on the Korean peninsula. The Japanese cranes were important for industry and thought of as a special product of the Korean Peninsula, especially for Japanese people. Even on the Korean Peninsula, poaching was rampant after the Hunt Rule was established. These cranes were a connecting point of importance to the Japanese people. The value of the cranes caused an increase of pressure to hunt them. In addition, it can be thought that these factors, which include the development of hunting techniques, the imperialistic expansion, and the hunters' sense of ethics, overlapped to cause a sharp decrease of Japanese cranes in modern Japan and the Korean Peninsula.
著者
竹内 健悟
出版者
Association of Wildlife and Human Society
雑誌
野生生物と社会 (ISSN:24240877)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.7, no.1, pp.41-49, 2019 (Released:2019-12-29)
参考文献数
21

This study traced historical records regarding hawk hunting and crane trapping of the Hirosaki clan during the early Edo period. It revealed that there were many designated fields where Goshawk, Sparrowhawk, and Peregrin falcons were captured for falconry purposes. Falconers played important roles by regularly providing meat for the castle kitchen throughout the year. The falconers hunted numerous Skylark and Common quail during summer, and hunted goose and wild ducks from autumn to spring. The findings this study also indicate that the grassland was wide during that time period. Japanese cranes were recorded from spring to autumn; thus, the data indicates that Japanese cranes are likely to have been breeding in the Tsugaru region; these cranes were often captured by peasants. On the other hand, white-naped cranes and hooded cranes were captured during the spring and fall migration period. Such records suggest that these cranes flew over the Tsugaru region when they migrated from north to south, and vice versa.
著者
森光 由樹
出版者
「野生生物と社会」学会
雑誌
野生生物と社会 (ISSN:24240877)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.3, no.1, pp.35-40, 2015-11-01 (Released:2017-06-16)

Conflicts between wild animals and humans have been increasing during the recent years, resulting in damage to human environments and infrastructure as well as injuries to humans. In urban areas, capturing the wild animals is a difficult task because, by law, firearms cannot be used. As a method for rapidly incapacitating and capturing these animals, it has become legal to use tranquilizer guns, as they are non-lethal, and there is little danger of damage to the property. Capturing via tranquilizer gun is a safe method; however, operational problems remain. Because tranquilizer guns are drug delivery systems and not firearms, written tests and practical exams for the use of tranquilizer guns are not imposed. A person who does not have basic firearm training can still use the guns, as long as he/she passes police inspection. Because there are various problems in the positioning and operation of tranquilizer guns in the amended law, there is an immediate need to create user manuals and to formulate rules to prevent accidents.
著者
藤井 忠志 稲葉 正和 湯浅 俊行 横山 恵一
出版者
Association of Wildlife and Human Society
雑誌
野生生物と社会 (ISSN:24240877)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.7, no.1, pp.33-40, 2019 (Released:2019-12-29)
参考文献数
48

Mt. Hayachine, which is the famous mountain of Iwate, has had reported sightings of the Rock Ptarmigan Lagopus muta since ancient times, but there was never any evidence to support it. However, in a school collection in Ehime Prefecture, a stuffed specimen suspected of being a Rock Ptarmigan from Mt. Hayachine in Iwate Prefecture was analyzed, and the authenticity of the production area was examined.
著者
Kazumi Shionosaki Shigeki Sasaki Fumio Yamada Shozo Shibata
出版者
Association of Wildlife and Human Society
雑誌
野生生物と社会 (ISSN:24240877)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.3, no.2, pp.1-13, 2016 (Released:2017-06-17)
参考文献数
45

To protect endangered endemic species from predation by domestic cats (Felis silvestris catus) in Amami-Ohshima Island, Japan, the five local governments on the island issued a regulation in October 2011 on the proper raising and management of domestic cats. We studied the changes in owned and unowned free-roaming cats' activities in a mountain forest (2 km2 in size), near residential areas in Amami City, following the enforcement of the regulation, specifically the prohibition on cat feeding. A camera-trapping method was used to monitor cat activities for six months, prior to the regulation being in force, (2010-2011), and for seven months following the regulations' enforcement (2011-2012).  In response to food availability following the regulation enforcement, the number of unowned cats decreased by almost half, and their activities shifted to nocturnal. Moreover, both owned cats and unowned free-roaming cats tended to utilize the forest interior more than other areas (forest roadside and forest edge adjacent to the residential areas). Although the goal of the regulation is the protection of endemic species against domestic cat predation, the results of the present study indicate that the regulation will increase rather than decrease predation risk to endemic species. Therefore, even though the prohibition on feeding can be effective in reducing free-roaming cat reproduction in the long-term, more direct approaches, such as the removal of free-roaming cats from the endemic species' habitats, might be more effective in the short-term, as well as educating cat owners on the risks owned free-roaming cats pose to endemic species.
著者
山田 晋也 大竹 正剛 大場 孝裕 山口 亮 大橋 正孝
出版者
「野生生物と社会」学会
雑誌
野生生物と社会 (ISSN:24240877)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.1, no.1, pp.1-5, 2013-12-20 (Released:2017-06-16)

We evaluated the stress in deer that were captured using corrals, foot snare traps, grand hunt, and sharp shooting by determining the cortisol and creatine kinase levels. The means of the cortisol levels were 2.5±1.3μg/dL, 11.3±5.3μg/dL, 2.1±2.5μg/dL, and 0.4±0.1μg/dL for deer captured using corrals, foot snare traps, grand hunt, and sharp shooting, respectively. The means of the creatine kinase levels for deer captured using corrals, foot snare traps, grand hunt, and sharp shooting were 93.5±129.1×10^3U/L, 253.6±303.3×10^3U/L, 46.6±70.1×10^3U/L, and 2.6±2.0×10^3U/L, respectively. The means of the cortisol levels of the deer captured using corral, grand hunt, and sharp shooting were significantly lower than that of the deer captured using foot snare traps (p<0.01). The mean of the creatine kinase levels of deer captured using corrals was significantly higher than that of the deer captured using sharp shooting (p<0.01), but was equal to that of the deer captured using foot snare traps and grand hunt.
著者
池田 敬 白川 拓巳 鈴木 正嗣
出版者
Association of Wildlife and Human Society
雑誌
野生生物と社会 (ISSN:24240877)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.6, no.1, pp.13-20, 2018 (Released:2018-10-04)
参考文献数
30

We compared the attractiveness of five baits (mineral salt, corn, hay cube, rice bran, and Japanese cedar cutting seedling) to sika deer (Cervus nippon) and wild boar (Sus scrofa). We conducted four feeding experiments using camera traps from August 16 to November 19, 2017. To evaluate the attractiveness of the five baits, we counted the number of animals photographed per hour for each bait. We then evaluated the appearance patterns of deer and boar to feeding sites and clarified the influence of the appearance of each mammal on other mammal. Deer strongly preferred mineral salt (P < 0.001), while boar preferred rice bran (P < 0.01). In addition, deer and boar showed similar appearance patterns. To capture only deer, mineral salt would be the most effective bait.
著者
久井 貴世
出版者
Association of Wildlife and Human Society
雑誌
野生生物と社会 (ISSN:24240877)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.4, no.1, pp.1-21, 2016 (Released:2017-06-17)
参考文献数
45
被引用文献数
1

This paper has mainly studied the actual condition of crane hunting during the Edo period by investigating various rules and specific hunting methods about crane hunting. The systems of crane hunting were not unified all around the country, and different hunting system worked in each domain. In some domain, commoners were also permitted to capture crane under certain rules, but the cranes captured belonged to the lord and all the cranes were eventually gathered to the lord in such systems. It is speculated that the crane hunting activities for the purpose of private use (livelihood or entertainment, etc.) that did not benefit the lord were banned during the Edo period instead of prohibiting hunting cranes all together. In addition, the methods for hunting cranes included gun hunting using a wooden decoy, hunting with nets or traps beside the well-known falconry.
著者
上田 弘則 堂山 宗一郎 石川 圭介 江口 祐輔
出版者
Association of Wildlife and Human Society
雑誌
野生生物と社会 (ISSN:24240877)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.8, pp.33-41, 2020 (Released:2021-01-04)
参考文献数
27

In Japan, sika deer (Cervus nippon) cause serious agricultural damage. To reduce the damage, it is important to use fencing and to capture the deer causing the damage. Box traps are recommended for capturing deer around farms. However, there is little information about where to position the trip line to capture adult deer with a box trap. We determined the optimal position of the trip line where there was a high probability that a deer would be in contact with it. Three reared adult female deer were used to determine this, along with a mobile cage and polyester yarn as the box trap and the trip line, respectively. The height of the trip line was randomly changed between 20 cm to 90 cm at 10 cm intervals, while the distance of the trip line from the bait was positioned between 20 cm to 50 cm at 10 cm intervals. We investigated whether deer made contact with the trip line at each position. The relationships between trip line position and deer contact were analyzed using generalized linear mixed models. We found that trip line height significantly affected the deer contact. In contrast, the distance between the bait and the trip line did not affect the deer contact. The contact probabilities estimated by the best fitting model were high at trip line heights from 40 cm to 60 cm. In these positions, the deer contacted the trip line with their heads, necks, thoraxes, and backs.
著者
橋本 幸彦 森 豊
出版者
Association of Wildlife and Human Society
雑誌
野生生物と社会 (ISSN:24240877)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.5, no.2, pp.1-8, 2017 (Released:2018-04-21)
参考文献数
21
被引用文献数
1

In this study, we describe a transition in the distribution of Japanese serow (Capricornis crispus) in the Suzuka Mountains Japanese Serow Protection Area, along the border between the Mie and Shiga Prefectures. We sampled serow distributions using camera traps at high and low elevations and light census methods in high elevation areas. Two and five cameras were placed in high elevation areas in 2014 and 2015, respectively, and light censuses were conducted monthly, except during the snowy season. Additionally, we placed two and four cameras in low elevation areas in 2014 and 2015, respectively. Despite a report of high serow density in the 1970s in high elevation areas, we found no evidence of the species. However, in low elevation areas, where serows were rarely found in the 1970s, we found the species at all camera locations and confirmed the birth of offspring. These results show that the distribution of serows in the protected area is contracting. Second, we documented changes in serow distribution by analyzing the results of monitoring data collected five times at 5-9-year intervals. In the 1980s, serow density in the center of the protected area (high elevation) was greater than that along the edges (low elevation). More recently, this pattern changed such that densities declined in both areas. In contrast, the density of Sika deer (Cervus nippon) has increased rapidly. The effect of increasing populations of Sika deer on Japanese serow density should be examined, and an action plan for serow conservation should be developed.
著者
上田 剛平
出版者
「野生生物と社会」学会
雑誌
野生生物と社会 (ISSN:24240877)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.1, no.2, pp.71-78, 2014-05-01 (Released:2017-06-16)
被引用文献数
3

There has been a marked decline in the hunter population in Japan. For the success of wildlife management, local governments should build a sustainable wildlife population management system (SWPMS). Here, I show the trend in the hunter population over the past 40 years and discuss the programs for building SWPMS. The decline in the hunter population started simultaneously across the whole of Japan from 1979. One of the reasons for this decline was that the hunting and gun ownership regulations were strengthened in 1978. As a result of these revisions, gun hunters have been declining since 1979. In contrast, the number of trappers, who desire to kill nuisance animals, has been increasing since the 1990s. According to our questionnaire surveys, which were conducted in 2012, the average retirement age of trappers (64.2 years) was younger than that of gun hunters (69.5 years). However, the average hunting career of trappers (9.3 years) was considerably shorter than that of gun hunters (40.0 years). These results suggest that the increase in trappers may not be effective for SWPMS. Three programs are necessary for SWPMS. The first is to increase the bag per hunter. The second is to increase and educate the candidates for hunting. The third is to provide economic incentives for population management activities. Implemented in combination, these programs would make it possible to build SWPMS.
著者
石原 孝 亀崎 直樹 松沢 慶将 石崎 明日香
出版者
「野生生物と社会」学会
雑誌
野生生物と社会 (ISSN:24240877)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.2, no.1, pp.23-35, 2014-12-01 (Released:2017-06-16)
被引用文献数
3

A nationwide interview survey was conducted from 2009 to 2013 to evaluate the state of sea turtle bycatch in Japanese coastal fisheries. A total of 1,074 fishermen and other industry representatives were interviewed at 175 sites, and 2,087 responses regarding the various fishing methods used were collated. Bycatch frequency of more than 5-10 sea turtles annually per operation was reported in large and small pound net, gill net, bottom trawl, boat seine, surround net, rod and line, and trawl fisheries. The highest bycatch frequency was reported from large pound net fisheries, especially in the Pacific coast of Shikoku, followed by the East coast of Ki-i Peninsula. However, bycatch frequency among large pound net fisheries varied widely by operation. Bycatch mortality rate in large pound nets were also divided, with 30 of 40 valid respondents reporting low or nearly 0% mortality rate, while 5 respondents reported high or nearly 100% mortality rate. Small pound nets also demonstrated a relatively high bycatch frequency, although lower than large pound nets. The findings of this study suggest that the priority for addressing sea turtle bycatch in Japan should be placed on individual large pound nets with high sea turtle mortality. However, mitigation measures for coastal fisheries bycatch should be developed to ensure fish landings, especially since sea turtle nesting activities in Japan are increasing and exhibiting recovery from past trends.
著者
寺尾 愛也 日野 貴文 鈴木 正嗣 近藤 誠司 吉田 剛司
出版者
Association of Wildlife and Human Society
雑誌
野生生物と社会 (ISSN:24240877)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.3, no.2, pp.41-50, 2016 (Released:2017-06-17)
参考文献数
24

In Japan, the use of firearms to culling in areas surrounding the main road would be an effective option to control overabundant deer. This culling practice is linked to the laws and regulations regarding road and traffic; however, wildlife managers lack knowledge of these laws and regulations. We have identified Japanese regulations and conditions, and have focused on problems and prospects of the existing laws on sharpshooting, which was practiced at the National Route 453 in Shikotsu, Hokkaido, as a model case. Under these laws and regulations, strict safety control by blocking traffic and attending to public interests for culling is required in order to engage in culling around the road. However, the Road Law and Road Traffic Law do not specifically support road usage for culling intended for wildlife population control. Consequently, those laws require a viewpoint of wildlife management to solve conflicts that occur in and around the road.
著者
立脇 隆文 小池 文人
出版者
Association of Wildlife and Human Society
雑誌
野生生物と社会 (ISSN:24240877)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.3, no.2, pp.15-28, 2016 (Released:2017-06-17)
参考文献数
48

Collecting and accumulating records of wildlife-vehicle collisions are useful for two purposes: to improve road safety, and to monitor the density of wildlife. Such records in Japan are obtained largely from roadkill collected by road managers or cleaners from local or national governments; however, little is known about the records within municipalities. The objective of this study was to provide an overview of roadkill records within municipalities in Japan. Particularly, this study aimed to reveal: the proportion of municipalities that have records of roadkill; the bureau that is mainly responsible for these records within municipalities; how the records are used by municipalities; and what information is usually available in these records. A questionnaire was sent to 650 municipalities across Japan, and was returned by 503 (77.4%) of the municipalities. Of the municipalities that answered the questionnaire, 68.6% recorded roadkill incidents in some way. The answers showed that in the majority of municipalities, cleaners within the municipality recorded roadkill, and road managers did not. About 90% of the records were discarded after 5 years had passed since they were recorded. The municipalities sometimes used the records for accounts of removing roadkill, or to reply to inquiries from citizens or prefectural offices, but rarely used them for preventing wildlife-vehicle collisions. Of the municipalities that answered the questionnaire, 50.1% collected roadkill not only from the municipal roads, but also from the prefectural or national roads, which municipalities have no responsibility to manage. The person removing the roadkill was usually the one to identify what species it belonged to. Each municipality recorded roadkill differently, as either a hand written note or as an electronic file in Microsoft Excel. The information available about roadkill in the majority of municipalities were month, location, and the species or taxa of animal removed. However, only 39.4% of the municipalities recorded all three characteristics. Based on these results, we suggest there should be a standardized system to collect roadkill records in Japanese municipalities, which could be used to improve road safety and monitor the density of local wildlife.
著者
大澤 剛士
出版者
Association of Wildlife and Human Society
雑誌
野生生物と社会 (ISSN:24240877)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.5, no.1, pp.17-27, 2017 (Released:2017-12-08)
参考文献数
85
被引用文献数
3

In recent years we are facing a “declining population era” which means a continuously declining population. Along with population, agricultural activities are going into a decline especially in hilly and mountainous areas. Agricultural ecosystems have several ecosystem functions other than food production such as biodiversity conservation. Although traditional agricultural practices maintained biodiversity, recent agricultural situations may have negative consequences on biodiversity. In this paper, I reviewed the current agricultural situation in Japan, summarized studies on agricultural land use in a macro-scale, and discussed the future prospects for agricultural land use in Japan.
著者
羽根田 貴行 諸星 綾 小林 万里
出版者
Association of Wildlife and Human Society
雑誌
野生生物と社会 (ISSN:24240877)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.4, no.2, pp.1-10, 2017 (Released:2017-06-17)
参考文献数
21

The Pacific Ocean along the coast of eastern Hokkaido is rich in marine resources and many pinniped species inhabit the area. In this study, we report the pinniped numbers and species that are incidentally caught in salmon set nets in the waters off eastern Hokkaido from spring to autumn in 2012-2014. As a result, the number of by-catch individuals was higher in spring than in autumn, with the majority of animals caught in Konbumori and Hamanaka, respectively. Individuals of all the pinniped species that inhabit the Hokkaido coast were caught in spring. The main seal species caught in this season were harbor seals, spotted seals, and northern fur seals, whereas the majority of by-catch animals in autumn were harbor seals. Most of the by-catch seals were young individuals. However, in addition to pups, pregnant northern fur seal females were caught incidentally, likely while moving northward to breed. Migratory pinnipeds depends on the environment, the change in the number of by-catch by year was great. In contrast, resident species changed little. Therefore, status of the by-catch of migratory pinnipeds can be used as an indicator of environmental changes, whereas, the current inhabitant changes for resident species such as harbor seals.
著者
鳥居 春己 高野 彩子 村上 興正 白子 智康
出版者
「野生生物と社会」学会
雑誌
野生生物と社会 (ISSN:24240877)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.10, pp.43-50, 2022 (Released:2022-10-25)
参考文献数
35

The stomach contents of six adult female nutrias captured in June 2021 were analyzed using DNA metabarcoding to confirm foraging of Unionoid mussel and other invertebrate animal taxa in the Shirokita cove in the lower reaches of the Yodogawa River, Osaka prefecture. Nodularia douglasiae, N. nipponensis, Sinanodonta calipygos, S. sp., Beringiana japonica, Corbicula fluminea or C.leana. were detected in three nutrias. In particular, N. douglasiae was the dominant on the number of read. Ladybug beetles Propylea japonica or P. quatuordecimpunctata and whitefly (Aleurochiton sp.) were also observed, but these are thought to have been taken in along with plants. N. nipponensis has not been found in the Yodogawa river system, and Corbicula spp. have not been found in the midden of dead shell caused by nutria feeding, which was previously reported. This is the first record of the nutria preying on N. nipponensis, S. calipygos, B. fukuharai, but Lanceolaria oxyrhyncha which was previously reported was not detected. These results indicate that DNA metabarcoding is available for further analysis to clarify the nutria feeding habit including aquatic and terrestrial plants and impact on the ecosystems.
著者
松﨑 博季 真田 博文 和田 直史
出版者
Association of Wildlife and Human Society
雑誌
野生生物と社会 (ISSN:24240877)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.9, pp.75-85, 2021 (Released:2022-02-15)
参考文献数
12

This paper presents and discusses the acoustic measurement results of four different alert whistles that produce sounds through airflow and the investigation results of reactions of sika deer (Cervus nippon) to alert sounds played from a vehicle mounted loudspeaker. The acoustic measurement of the alert whistles revealed that the basic acoustic characteristics of these whistles are similar, and it was confirmed that these whistles produce sounds of approximately 3 kHz, which are similar to deer alarm calls or sounds of approximately 17-18 kHz. However, none of the sounds could be confirmed in the measurement experiments while the vehicle was running. The investigation of the sika deer reaction to the alert whistles sounds confirmed that the sika deer provided a vigilant reaction to the sounds of approximately 3 kHz and to those of deer alert played back through a loudspeaker.