著者
池田 誠
出版者
日本イギリス哲学会
雑誌
イギリス哲学研究 (ISSN:03877450)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.37, pp.31-44, 2014-03-20 (Released:2018-03-30)
参考文献数
38

John Rawls is famous for his Kantian conception of justice, and also well known for reviving the significance of Henry Sidgwick's ethical thought in contemporary ethics. Rawls praises Sidgwick partly because Sidgwick attempted to justify a Method of Ethics by appealing to its ʻreflective equilibriumʼ with our considered judgments. However, this interpretation of Sidgwick by Rawls has been criticized by some utilitarians such as Peter Singer. I argue that, against his wish, Singer rather supports Rawlsʼs interpretation of Sidgwick as a reflective-equilibrium-theorist. Furthermore, I defend Rawlsʼs reflective-equilibrium methodology by pointing out his conception of justification behind it and by showing Singerʼs inappropriate conception of objectivity in ethics.
著者
渡邊 裕一
出版者
日本イギリス哲学会
雑誌
イギリス哲学研究 (ISSN:03877450)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.38, pp.43-58, 2015-03-20 (Released:2018-03-30)
参考文献数
22

In the Two Treatises of Government, Locke regards the right to charity as a natural right. This right allows a needy person to obtain from the surplus of a rich manʼs property the goods which are necessary for the preservation of his own life. The right to charity is a means to realizing the right of subsistence. Locke defines the right to charity as an imperfect right, or the kind of right which cannot be enforced. The idea of common charity, however, can be so utilized as to support the view that in case of necessity, political power could transfer goods from the rich to the poor.
著者
青木 滋之
出版者
日本イギリス哲学会
雑誌
イギリス哲学研究 (ISSN:03877450)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.36, pp.29-42, 2013-03-20 (Released:2018-03-30)
参考文献数
21

It is widely agreed that the British empiricism originated with John Locke (1632-1704). As is well known among the scholars, although Locke developed his matured empirical epistemology in his philosophical masterpiece An Essay concerning Human Understanding (1690), the main tenets of his epistemology had already been in shape in the Draft A and Draft B of the Essay both written in 1671. Essays on the Law of Nature (1663-4) is also known to have been the starting point of his empirical epistemology. This paper examines these two origins of the Essay and concludes that his debt to the experimental philosophy was decisive for the orientation of the British empiricism.
著者
和田 泰一
出版者
日本イギリス哲学会
雑誌
イギリス哲学研究 (ISSN:03877450)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.37, pp.93-107, 2014-03-20 (Released:2018-03-30)
参考文献数
37

The aim of this article is to formulate the purely semantic structure of representation treated in Hobbesʼs Leviathan. While the political covenant developed in The Elements of Law and De Cive is characterized by several features as the consent and unity for the purpose of achieving peace and safety, the exercise of the right of nature by the sovereign, and the performance of covenant by subjects, the theory of representation in Leviathan introduces new aspects as authorization, the sovereignʼs right of representing each one of a multitude, the ownership of all the actions of the sovereign by subjects, and serves to strengthen Hobbesʼ s claim. The structure of representation is founded on semantic union of signifiant and signifié, or représentant and représenté, of which the ensemble of a chain of representations is composed.
著者
大谷 弘
出版者
日本イギリス哲学会
雑誌
イギリス哲学研究 (ISSN:03877450)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.40, pp.37-52, 2017-03-20 (Released:2018-07-25)
参考文献数
32

According to a commonplace view about the later Wittgensteinʼs philosophical method, a truly critical stance in philosophy is incompatible with the respect for common sense that Wittgensteinʼs official metaphilosophy endorses. Against this idea, I will claim that these are compatible. Especially, I will argue that (i) the role of common sense in Wittgensteinʼs philosophy is no more than to offer models for clarifying various philosophical utterances, and (ii) Wittgensteinʼs philosophy is truly critical in that it examines our framework of thoughts including common sense, so that Wittgenstein can be properly called a philosopher of common sense and enlightenment.
著者
森 達也
出版者
日本イギリス哲学会
雑誌
イギリス哲学研究 (ISSN:03877450)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.28, pp.19-32, 2005-03-20 (Released:2018-03-30)
参考文献数
58

Berlin's studies on the history of ideas have been the focus of severe criticism recently. I argue that this is due to the lack of discussion on his “existentialist view of history.” This Crocean view mediates his study of history and his liberal political philosophy on the one hand, and implies that Berlin's books on Romanticism — especially those on J. G. Hamann — reflect his intellectual path, his political concern and his own identity as a Jew, on the other. Although Berlin was sensitive to nationalism, he affirmed Zionism. The Crocean view enables us to make sense of his paradoxical attitude.
著者
木島 泰三
出版者
日本イギリス哲学会
雑誌
イギリス哲学研究 (ISSN:03877450)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.22, pp.5-19, 1999-03-27 (Released:2018-04-25)

In 1957, Howard Warrender published an influential and controversial work, The Political Philosopy of Hobbes, which gives so-called “religionist interpretation” of Hobbes's “natural law” theory. We critically evaluate Warrender's claim that God plays an essential role in the foundation of Hobbes's rational/natural law theory. This examination mainly deals with chapter 31 of Leviathan, “of the Kingdom of God by Nature”, on which Warrender's claim is based. After having examined the Hobbesian topic in the chapter, “natural punishments”, we conclude that Warrender's “religionist interpretation” is unsustainable.
著者
高橋 和則
出版者
日本イギリス哲学会
雑誌
イギリス哲学研究 (ISSN:03877450)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.35, pp.37-52, 2012-03-20 (Released:2018-03-30)
参考文献数
26

Edmund Burke seems to be a thinker who was one of critics to the modern social contract theory. But he had the idea of social contract. I think he did not deny the theory of social contract itself. This paper aims to reconstruct his theory from some writings and speeches. To do it, it is necessary to articulate the relation of civil society and civilized society in his thought, and to make clear how he understood the natural state. It seems to me that these arguments show the natures and conditions of modern government in his thought.
著者
古田 拓也
出版者
日本イギリス哲学会
雑誌
イギリス哲学研究 (ISSN:03877450)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.37, pp.77-91, 2014-03-20 (Released:2018-03-30)
参考文献数
34

The aim of this paper is to present John Lockeʼs arguments in the Two Treatises of Government as a comprehensive response to Robert Filmerʼs vehement criticism of the contract theory. Filmer argues that contract theory neither works in theory nor in practice, and so is, as such, a theory of anarchy. Partly accepting these criticisms, Locke constructs a contract theory such that Filmerʼs attacks lose their theoretical sting, that is, an individualistic contract theory which rejects the stigmatization of anarchy. However, Lockeʼs reconstruction is based on the theological foundations which we cannot reasonably share today. Acknowledgement of this fact, in turn, enables us to appreciate the contemporary significance of both Locke and Filmer.
著者
佐藤 岳詩
出版者
日本イギリス哲学会
雑誌
イギリス哲学研究 (ISSN:03877450)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.32, pp.57-73, 2009-03-20 (Released:2018-03-30)
参考文献数
23

It is widely admitted that moral judgments are universalizable, but whether this universalizability is formal or subjective is still in controversy. In this paper, I will investigate R.M.Hare’s argument for the formality of the universalizability. It is often said that his attempt fails because he derives a subjective moral conclusion like utilitarianism from that principle. However, Hare does not derive the moral conclusion from universalizability alone. Rather, what attaches morality to Hare’s utilitarianism is the concept of prescriptivity and rationality, not universalizability. In conclusion, I will vindicate Hare’s theory, but at the same time point out a problem of the normativity of rationality that is included in his theory.
著者
池田 誠
出版者
日本イギリス哲学会
雑誌
イギリス哲学研究 (ISSN:03877450)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.32, pp.75-89, 2009-03-20 (Released:2018-03-30)
参考文献数
37

In his Lectures on the History of Political Philosophy, Rawls investigates J.S. Mill's moral philosophy. In order to secure liberty and equality, Mill's utilitarianism requires secondary principles of society including the principle of liberty. Rawls argues that they have substantially the same content as the principles of justice and the idea of public reason in Rawls's “justice as fairness.” But if so, why does he have to criticize utilitarianism? I address the question by mentioning Rawls's distinction between distributive and allocative justice. He seems to think that utilitarians tend to consider social justice as the latter and ignore the former, although Mill does not.