著者
渡邊 裕一
出版者
日本イギリス哲学会
雑誌
イギリス哲学研究 (ISSN:03877450)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.38, pp.43-58, 2015-03-20 (Released:2018-03-30)
参考文献数
22

In the Two Treatises of Government, Locke regards the right to charity as a natural right. This right allows a needy person to obtain from the surplus of a rich manʼs property the goods which are necessary for the preservation of his own life. The right to charity is a means to realizing the right of subsistence. Locke defines the right to charity as an imperfect right, or the kind of right which cannot be enforced. The idea of common charity, however, can be so utilized as to support the view that in case of necessity, political power could transfer goods from the rich to the poor.
著者
藤田 祐
出版者
日本イギリス哲学会
雑誌
イギリス哲学研究 (ISSN:03877450)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.27, pp.39-54, 2004-03-20 (Released:2018-04-25)

In his ‘Evolution and Ethics’ T. H. Huxley formulates the antagonism between nature and art. In this formulation, human beings and society have in themselves both natural and artificial aspects, to which he attaches ambiguous values. This view is closely connected with his political argument in ‘The Struggle for Existence in Human Society’, which seeks the middle course between ‘Anarchic Individualism’ and ‘Regimental Socialism’. In his formulation, the antagonism between individualism and socialism is parallel to that between nature and art. It can be argued, therefore, that his middle-of-the-road politics is based on his ambiguous attitudes to nature and art.
著者
池田 誠
出版者
日本イギリス哲学会
雑誌
イギリス哲学研究 (ISSN:03877450)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.37, pp.31-44, 2014-03-20 (Released:2018-03-30)
参考文献数
38

John Rawls is famous for his Kantian conception of justice, and also well known for reviving the significance of Henry Sidgwick's ethical thought in contemporary ethics. Rawls praises Sidgwick partly because Sidgwick attempted to justify a Method of Ethics by appealing to its ʻreflective equilibriumʼ with our considered judgments. However, this interpretation of Sidgwick by Rawls has been criticized by some utilitarians such as Peter Singer. I argue that, against his wish, Singer rather supports Rawlsʼs interpretation of Sidgwick as a reflective-equilibrium-theorist. Furthermore, I defend Rawlsʼs reflective-equilibrium methodology by pointing out his conception of justification behind it and by showing Singerʼs inappropriate conception of objectivity in ethics.
著者
安倍 里美
出版者
日本イギリス哲学会
雑誌
イギリス哲学研究 (ISSN:03877450)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.42, pp.15-32, 2019-03-20 (Released:2020-04-28)
参考文献数
17

This looks to examine how the relationship between obligation and reasons should be understood, on the assumption that normativity should be understood in terms of reasons. Though the analysis of obligation in terms of exclusionary reasons given by Joseph Raz fails as a reductive definition of duty in terms of reasons, it provides a significant suggestion. I argue that Raz's analysis can be modified by distinguishing between normativity and the framework of justification; and by doing this we can gain an outline of a non-reductive explanation of the concept of duty.
著者
井上 弘貴
出版者
日本イギリス哲学会
雑誌
イギリス哲学研究 (ISSN:03877450)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.39, pp.19-34, 2016

<p>In his<i> Triumphant Democracy</i>(1886)Andrew Carnegie claimed that American people found something lacking for the original Britons in some races including the German and the French, while he celebrated the British as a basic material to create the American republic. But he came to put more great value on the Teutonic origin for both Britain and America to envision the idea of an Anglo-American reunion in his article, A Look Ahead(1893)which was the new concluding chapter in the revised edition of <i>Triumphant Democracy</i>. Carnegie changed his view again in 1905, the year following the Entente Cordiale between Britain and France. He seemed to take the concept of republic as an important one which could include the three nations, Britain, France, and America while he continued to keep the idea of Teutonic because he thought that it could unite Britain and America with Germany, the Teutonic Power in a peaceful union. In this paper I argue how Carnegie shifted the emphasis in his writing on the balance between the notion of republic and that of race.</p>
著者
青木 滋之
出版者
日本イギリス哲学会
雑誌
イギリス哲学研究 (ISSN:03877450)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.36, pp.29-42, 2013-03-20 (Released:2018-03-30)
参考文献数
21

It is widely agreed that the British empiricism originated with John Locke (1632-1704). As is well known among the scholars, although Locke developed his matured empirical epistemology in his philosophical masterpiece An Essay concerning Human Understanding (1690), the main tenets of his epistemology had already been in shape in the Draft A and Draft B of the Essay both written in 1671. Essays on the Law of Nature (1663-4) is also known to have been the starting point of his empirical epistemology. This paper examines these two origins of the Essay and concludes that his debt to the experimental philosophy was decisive for the orientation of the British empiricism.
著者
和田 泰一
出版者
日本イギリス哲学会
雑誌
イギリス哲学研究 (ISSN:03877450)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.37, pp.93-107, 2014-03-20 (Released:2018-03-30)
参考文献数
37

The aim of this article is to formulate the purely semantic structure of representation treated in Hobbesʼs Leviathan. While the political covenant developed in The Elements of Law and De Cive is characterized by several features as the consent and unity for the purpose of achieving peace and safety, the exercise of the right of nature by the sovereign, and the performance of covenant by subjects, the theory of representation in Leviathan introduces new aspects as authorization, the sovereignʼs right of representing each one of a multitude, the ownership of all the actions of the sovereign by subjects, and serves to strengthen Hobbesʼ s claim. The structure of representation is founded on semantic union of signifiant and signifié, or représentant and représenté, of which the ensemble of a chain of representations is composed.
著者
木宮 正裕
出版者
日本イギリス哲学会
雑誌
イギリス哲学研究 (ISSN:03877450)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.37, pp.45-60, 2014-03-20 (Released:2018-03-30)
参考文献数
30

Adam Smithʼs concept of fellow-feeling can be divided into two types: sensibility for others and affective feeling with others. This paper focuses on the former and explores its characteristics. Fellow-feeling as sensibility for others is not only the kind of beneficence that is part of humanity but also the sense of what is owed to fellow-creatures. For Smith, this is the basis of public welfare. Although Smith thinks this sensibility is a universal feeling in principle, it could be felt strongly among those who share common sensibilities and inclinations, namely, by his definition, countrymen. This implies that Smithʼs concept of justice, which depends on countrymenʼs fellow-feeling, could be practically formed and maintained in each country.
著者
井上 弘貴
出版者
日本イギリス哲学会
雑誌
イギリス哲学研究 (ISSN:03877450)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.39, pp.19-34, 2016-03-20 (Released:2018-03-30)
参考文献数
28

In his Triumphant Democracy(1886)Andrew Carnegie claimed that American people found something lacking for the original Britons in some races including the German and the French, while he celebrated the British as a basic material to create the American republic. But he came to put more great value on the Teutonic origin for both Britain and America to envision the idea of an Anglo-American reunion in his article, A Look Ahead(1893)which was the new concluding chapter in the revised edition of Triumphant Democracy. Carnegie changed his view again in 1905, the year following the Entente Cordiale between Britain and France. He seemed to take the concept of republic as an important one which could include the three nations, Britain, France, and America while he continued to keep the idea of Teutonic because he thought that it could unite Britain and America with Germany, the Teutonic Power in a peaceful union. In this paper I argue how Carnegie shifted the emphasis in his writing on the balance between the notion of republic and that of race.
著者
大谷 弘
出版者
日本イギリス哲学会
雑誌
イギリス哲学研究 (ISSN:03877450)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.40, pp.37-52, 2017-03-20 (Released:2018-07-25)
参考文献数
32

According to a commonplace view about the later Wittgensteinʼs philosophical method, a truly critical stance in philosophy is incompatible with the respect for common sense that Wittgensteinʼs official metaphilosophy endorses. Against this idea, I will claim that these are compatible. Especially, I will argue that (i) the role of common sense in Wittgensteinʼs philosophy is no more than to offer models for clarifying various philosophical utterances, and (ii) Wittgensteinʼs philosophy is truly critical in that it examines our framework of thoughts including common sense, so that Wittgenstein can be properly called a philosopher of common sense and enlightenment.
著者
岡村 太郎
出版者
日本イギリス哲学会
雑誌
イギリス哲学研究 (ISSN:03877450)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.39, pp.51-65, 2016-03-20 (Released:2018-03-30)
参考文献数
10

Many of our mental states are directed toward something or have an “intentionality”. In the Treatise of Human Nature, David Hume describes passions like pride as intentional. My aim is to interpret this intentionality of passions in an appropriate way. Many have interpreted it as an “extrinsic” property of passions, but they cannot explain some distinct characters of intentional passions. Criticizing these interpretations, a new interpretation has appeared, which understands intentionality as an “intrinsic” property of passions. This is a strong interpretation except for dismissing a passionʼs significant role: directing our cognition. Modifying this point, I offer an alternative “intrinsic” interpretation.
著者
佐藤 岳詩
出版者
日本イギリス哲学会
雑誌
イギリス哲学研究 (ISSN:03877450)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.32, pp.57-73, 2009-03-20 (Released:2018-03-30)
参考文献数
23

It is widely admitted that moral judgments are universalizable, but whether this universalizability is formal or subjective is still in controversy. In this paper, I will investigate R.M.Hare’s argument for the formality of the universalizability. It is often said that his attempt fails because he derives a subjective moral conclusion like utilitarianism from that principle. However, Hare does not derive the moral conclusion from universalizability alone. Rather, what attaches morality to Hare’s utilitarianism is the concept of prescriptivity and rationality, not universalizability. In conclusion, I will vindicate Hare’s theory, but at the same time point out a problem of the normativity of rationality that is included in his theory.
著者
中村 隆文
出版者
日本イギリス哲学会
雑誌
イギリス哲学研究 (ISSN:03877450)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.30, pp.79-95, 2007-03-20 (Released:2018-03-30)

Epistemological status of moral judgment, or the question concerning the existence of moral values, has been and still is one of the biggest issues in metaethics. Some ( especially called ‘Humean’ ) insist that the values, including moral values, are really products of ’attitudes’ projected into the world, and others argue that they are independent of the activity of the subject’s mind. We find Hume’s phrases often referred to in this sort of disputes. But the fact that many philosophers are getting inspiration from Hume does not always mean that they, both Humeans and anti-Humeans, correctly understand what Hume intended to claim. This paper tries to reply some of the serious problems appearing in the controversy by showing that it is proper from Hume's standpoint to assume the morality located in the external world.