著者
舞田 敏彦 Toshihiko MAITA 武蔵野大学 Musashino University
出版者
東洋館出版社
雑誌
教育社会学研究 = The journal of educational sociology (ISSN:03873145)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.82, pp.165-184, 2008-06-15

Children's academic achievements differ by social class. Today, many researchers investigate schools that effectively reduce these differences. They have pointed out that in schools that are successful in this endeavor, there are many practices aimed at raising the academic achievements of children from lower classes. In this paper, I attempt to clarify the effects of these practices from the viewpoint of added value. This study aims to compare the actual achievement levels of children of each region with those estimated based on their socio-economic conditions and to clarify the educational conditions in the regions in which the actual levels are higher than expectations. For my method, I analyzed the data of academic achievement tests. I clarified children's achievement levels in 49 cities and wards in the Tokyo metropolitan area and in school districts in Adachi Ward (73 primary school districts, 38 junior high school districts). I examined the relations between the achievement levels and the socio-economic conditions of each region. Using this data, I estimated achievement levels using regression analysis. Regions were then divided into types by comparing the expected levels and actual ones. I named regions whose achievement levels were higher than expected "Effort types." The opposites are named, "Problem types." I then investigated the differences of educational conditions between these two types. It was found that in Effort types, the numbers of children per school, class and teacher are relatively small. School size, class size and teacher's burden are small in these regions. In Problem types, they are relatively large. These differences are significant in the data from school districts in Adachi Ward. Based on the findings, I concluded as follows: 1. The influence of social background on children's academic achievement can be reduced by the improvement of educational conditions such as reducing class size, which is the task of educational administrations. 2. The improvement of educational conditions is less effective for raising the absolute level of academic achievement. It is effective for the reduction of the social determinants of children's academic abilities. 3. Evaluations of schools from the viewpoint of added value are needed.
著者
間山 広朗 Hiroo MAYAMA 立教大学大学院 Graduate School Rikkyo University
出版者
東洋館
雑誌
教育社会学研究 = The journal of educational sociology (ISSN:03873145)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.70, pp.145-163, 2002-05-15
被引用文献数
0 or 11

Ijime suicide (or suicide caused by bullying) has been one of the most serious problems in Japanese primary and secondary schools since the late 1970s. The problem has been widely studied in Japan. Generally speaking, the prevailing view is that though bullying has always existed, the situation of children committing suicide because of bullying is getting worse. Against this prevailing view, some scholars in the field of the sociology of education claim that "ijime suicides" existed in the past, and bullying condition may not be getting worse, but what has happened is that people have become more sensitive. In other words, they refer to the social condition itself. However, if we strictly observe the methodological standard of social constructionism, the bracketing of the ontological status of "social problems, " we must conclude that they are making an error of "ontological gerrymandering." We may have a tendency to regard ijime as bullying. However, according to Jeff Coulter, To claim that 'X' is the same action as 'Y' can mean creating a connection between them rather than simply recording a pre-existing relationship. We may misunderstand the property of our description. According to Peter Winch, the human activity we study is carried on according to rules. Therefore, we need to study the rulefollowing discourse of "ijime suicide" carefully. I would claim that "ijime suicide" does not exist until people learn of this term and the discourse. This is not an empirical, but rather a conceptual problem. Consequently, the aim of this paper is to solve this problems and explain "ijime suicide" itself analytically by focusing on the discourse involved, and then to indicate the possibility that a discursive reformation can dissolve "ijime suicide."
著者
浜井 浩一 Koichi HAMAI 龍谷大学 Ryukoku University
出版者
東洋館出版社
雑誌
教育社会学研究 = The journal of educational sociology (ISSN:03873145)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.80, pp.143-162, 2007-05-31

Although Japan traditionally enjoyed a reputation for being one of the most crime-free economically advanced countries in the world, since the late 1990s its crime rates have increased and clear up rate have dropped. It now appears that the Japanese public has lost confidence in the effectiveness of the criminal justice system and is more anxious about safety. The Japanese public now believes that young offenders are becoming increasingly violent and that more and more adolescents are committing serious offenses. This view stems from a belief that there has been a breakdown in family life and that as a consequence, young people have become more amoral. In response, the Japanese government is trying to overhaul the national education curriculum, with a major focus on imposing and improving public morality. However, a careful examination of crime statistics shows that the perception of ever-increasing youth crime is groundless. There has been no decline in the age of youngest offenders. On the contrary, the average age of young offenders has risen, partly because the job market for young people, especially those without skills and/or a high school diploma, has become tight. The delinquency rate in Japan used to peak at age of 15 and then drop sharply. Most juvenile delinquents had ceased to offend by the age of 20. There is a large gap between what the public believes about youth offenses and the reality. The measures adopted by the government to prevent youth offenses, mainly focusing on morality, are based on a kind of stereotypical young offender. If the government continues to ignore the real problem, i. e., the shrinking job market for unskilled young people, it will create a self-fulfilling prophecy of future violent offenses by young people.
著者
吉田 美穂 Miho YOSHIDA 中央大学大学院 Graduate School Chuo University
出版者
THE JAPAN SOCIETY OF EDUCATIONAL SOCIOLOGY
雑誌
教育社会学研究 = The journal of educational sociology (ISSN:03873145)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.81, pp.89-109, 2007-11-30

This paper examines the control system of secondary schools and teachers' survival strategies in the 2000s, a time known as an era of accountability, through an ethnography of a low-ranked high school in the metropolitan area. Student guidance and maintaining school order are important tasks for Japanese teachers. The culture of administration in secondary education has changed over time. In the late 1990s, a "counseling mentality" and "internal understanding" were emphasized in student guidance rather than administering the exterior aspect of students, under the system of "kanri kyoiku", until the 1980s. Earlier papers indicate that there was a process of "consummatorization of schooling." How, then, is order maintained in schools in the 2000s? The main data for this paper were gathered from April 2005 to August 2006. Participatory observation and interviews were carried out to describe the control system under which teachers avoided conflict with students. For example, teachers kept discipline indirectly by recording absence times in five-minute units. The maximum period of absence for receiving credits for the class was made known to students who were considered problematic and who tended to miss class. Some inappropriate behaviors, such as failing to wear the school uniform and eating in class, were also dealt with as absent time. In this way, teachers were able to keep their classes in order and avoid conflicts with students. Teachers often behaved gently and kindly, supporting the students under the assumption of this count system. In this paper, this behavior by teachers is called "Osewa mode, " with osewa meaning "caring" in Japanese. The teachers used this strategy to conceal their authority to set rules and to keep order in a way that avoided conflicts with students. They soothed students with gentle behavior and familiar words. They often directed students' attention to the absent time count and advised them to attend classes with a proper attitude. This strategy was transmitted to other teachers through group interactions. The school kept order through a "Control system to avoid conflict with students" and the "Osewa Mode, " which is an individual strategy based on that system. On the other hand, this system and strategy fits well into an era of accountability. Teachers often gave notification to parents of the numerical value of the absent time count. This made it easy for teachers to justify their treatment of students to their parents. Teachers' culture differs by regions. Therefore, there are some limits to the usefulness of the descriptions in this paper, as they would differ in different teachers' cultures in rural areas. However, the metropolitan area tends to lead in the areas of accountability, loss of teachers' authority and "consumerization of schooling." Thus, the "Osewa Mode" and "Control system to avoid conflict with students" in this ethnography in the metropolitan area may show important characteristics of teachers' culture in the 2000s.
著者
木村 祐子 Yuko KIMURA お茶の水女子大学大学院 Graduate School Ochanomizu University
出版者
東洋館出版社
雑誌
教育社会学研究 = The journal of educational sociology (ISSN:03873145)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.79, pp.5-24, 2006-12-10

Since the later half of the 1990s, lack of adaptability of children to the educational setting has been explained through the new medical category of "developmental disabilities." In this paper, medical intervention is conceived of as "medicalization," and the educational setting is focused on and inspected. In particular, the paper focuses on "developmental disabilities" as a medical diagnosis characterized by uncertainty, situational dependence and feelings of resistance toward labeling, and clarifies how these characteristics are interpreted in the educational setting. Section 1 reviews previous studies that look critically at the elements of medicalization, pointing out the characteristics and problems of "developmental disabilities" as medicalization. (1) The elements of "developmental disabilities" are vague despite the fact that they are medical concepts, and consequently there is a lack of scientific grounds, standardized tests and treatment. This enables interpretation by a diverse range of knowledge. (2) These disabilities function as a form of "risk management." This study dynamically analyzes how these medical diagnoses are interpreted in the educational setting, with the aim to approach the reality of medicalization. Section 2 summarizes the research method which was used in the interview research of nine teachers. Section 3 examines medicalization in children, first from the viewpoint of responsibility and the role and position of children. The viewpoint of medical treatment has made rapid advances through the intervention of institutionalized medicine. Medical labeling exempts parents and teachers from responsibility, based on the assumption that the problem is a "disability." In this way, the children are obliged to play the "sick role." Parents and teachers sometimes display feelings of rejection or resistance toward medical labeling. In addition, uncertainty regarding the cause of the "developmental disability" creates difficulties in medical practice. However, the feelings of rejection and the medical uncertainty can be minimized by medical practice and interpretation in the educational setting.
著者
須藤 康介 Kosuke SUDO 東京大学大学院 Graduate School The University of Tokyo
出版者
THE JAPAN SOCIETY OF EDUCATIONAL SOCIOLOGY
雑誌
教育社会学研究 = The journal of educational sociology (ISSN:03873145)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.81, pp.25-44, 2007-11-30

The purpose of this paper is to grasp how science is taught in Japanese junior high schools, and to show the influences of teaching methods on academic achievement and differences between social classes, using the data of TIMSS2003. It is found that science lessons in junior high schools are taught using four teaching methods: the experiment-investigation method, society-daily life method, homework-examination method, and hearing-practice method, as well as combinations of these methods. They are not trade-offs, but are linked to one another. In this paper, the author emphasizes the following three points regarding the influence of these four teaching methods. Firstly, looking at two of the "Traditional Views on Academic Achievement, " the hearing-practice method tends to improve academic achievement, while the homework-examination method may degrade it. Thus, a return to the "Traditional Views on Academic Achievement" could potentially lead to an unintended further decline in academic achievement. Secondly, the society-daily life method, which is based on the "New Views on Academic Achievement, " may promote increased differences of academic achievement between social classes, but does not bring about a decline of academic achievement. Thirdly, an additional effect takes place on academic achievement when the hearing-practice method and society-daily life method are combined. Based on these findings, the author suggests that we should not regard "New Views on Academic Achievement" and "Traditional Views on Academic Achievement" as being in binary opposition. Rather, we should discover effective teaching methods (and a combination of them) among many kinds of "new" and "traditional" teaching methods.
著者
北沢 毅 Takeshi KITAZAWA 立教大学 Rikkyo University
出版者
東洋館
雑誌
教育社会学研究 = The journal of educational sociology (ISSN:03873145)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.63, pp.59-74, 1998-10-20

This paper argues about the possibility of discourse analysis from the point of view of social constructionism. Under this theory, social problems are defined as the activities individuals or groups making grievances and claims with respect to certain putative conditions.Therefore, this theory "directs attention to the claims-making process, accepting as given and beginning with the participants' descriptions of the putative conditions and their assertions about their problematic character."(Ibarra and Kitsuse 1993, p.28.) However, there is a criticism that regarding the claims-making process as given is ontological gerrymandering by constructionists, because claims-making activities are cast as having the same ontological status as the conditions claimed by members: But, according to Coulter, this paper asserts that claims-making activities or discourses and the objects indicated by them are not ontologically equal, and these things are shown by members' everyday practices them-selves. Taking these methodological positions, this paper examines the 1997 Kobe murder case in order to figure out how the"juvenile"category has been used by members. For example, the 14-year old suspect in this case remained unnoticed and a month passed after he committed his second murder in May 1997 in spite of many possibilities that he could be recognized. The way members have used the "juvenile" category in everyday life made him visible but unrecognizable. Therefore, this murder case teaches us that the "juvenile" category should not be taken for granted and should be reconsidered all the time.
著者
山本 宏樹 Hiroki YAMAMOTO 一橋大学大学院 Graduate School Hitotsubashi University
出版者
日本教育社会学会
雑誌
教育社会学研究 = The journal of educational sociology (ISSN:03873145)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.83, pp.129-148, 2008-12-15

Researchers seem to agree unanimously on the unreliability of official statistics on futoko children (school refusers), making it difficult to uncover the social factors behind the phenomenon. Though many researchers have questioned whether the official statistics can explain the reality of futoko, there has been no verification of the reliability and validity of the statistics. The aim of this study is to examine this issue and formulate an alternative plan for statistics. To achieve this aim, the author used the "School Basic Survey" from 1966 to 2006 and examined futoko rates within the "Long absentee" data from 47 prefectures, which is divided into subclasses by the following reasons: "Illness," "Economic reason," "Futoko" and "Others." The actual differences between areas were then analyzed using a five-number summary. As a result, the two following facts were clarified. Firstly, it is impossible to compare the data on "Futoko," "Illness" and "Others" between prefectures because of differences in the investigation methods. From the beginning, the classification standards differ from prefecture to prefecture, and this leads to local differences. Secondly, the method for sorting data was changed in 1998, comparisons across time periods invalid. In conclusion, the author recommends using data on "Long absentees" as a measure for the futoko phenomenon because the official statistics on futoko have already lost validity. Statistics on long absentees are much better than those on futoko to show the reality of the phenomenon. Finally, the author discusses both the advantages and disadvantages of using data on "Long absentees," confirms the existence of differences among regions at the prefectural level for long absentees, and considers future prospects and tasks.
著者
石川 良子 Ryoko ISHIKAWA 東京都立大学大学院 Graduate School of Social Sciences Tokyo Metropolitan University
出版者
東洋館出版社
雑誌
教育社会学研究 = The journal of educational sociology (ISSN:03873145)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.79, pp.25-46, 2006-12-10

The purpose of this paper is to describe and interpret interviews with persons who regard themselves as "hikikomori," and to point out the negative effects, especially for such individuals, caused by the confusion of the concepts of "hikikomori" with "NEETs." "Hikikomori," which refers to youth in a state of social withdrawal, has been noted since the latter half of the 1990s in Japan. In recent years, the concept of "NEETs" has also come to attract attention. "NEETs" refers to young people who are "not in education, employment, or training." The concept of "hikikomori" has been partly incorporated into discussions about "NEETs," and it is commonly said that the two can be discussed in the same context. Moreover, some organizations dealing with "hikikomori" have started to support "NEETs." However the understanding of "hikikomori" that has accumulated may be distorted by the confusion between the two concepts. Moreover, this confusion has a direct effect on individuals who consider themselves to be "hikikomori." Therefore, it is necessary to distinguish the two concepts. Based on this perspective, the author describes and interprets interviews with such individuals, and points out the problems of providing support for "hikikomori" sufferers within the concept of "NEETs." The interviewed revealed the following facts. People who consider themselves to be "hikikomori" see themselves as inferior and withdraw from relationships with others because though they have difficulty working, they worry excessively that "working is the natural state for an adult." Their self-esteem cannot be restored immediately even if they participate in a self-help group. Informants re-construct stories about themselves and their lives and come to see the norm of life-courses in relative terms, and regain self-esteem from this. However, this can lead to a decline in their motivation to start working. Moreover, informants cannot overcome their distrust and fear of society. Therefore, sufferers of "hikikomori" seek a new way of life as they again ask themselves various questions, such as, "why must we work?" "What do I want to do?" "Who am I?" and so on. As they think through these questions, they resolve to make a fresh start. This process of struggle is in essence the process of recovery from "hikikomori." Current measures for "NEETs," are based on the idea that it is more important to start working than to think too much about the meaning of working. However, individuals suffering from "hikikomori" have regained their self-esteem by asking the various questions concerning working and their own lives. Therefore, it is likely that the confusion of the two concepts will not only deprive people suffering from "hikikomori" of the opportunity for recovery but will also lead them to abandon their own efforts voluntarily.
著者
伊佐 夏実 Natsumi ISA 大阪大学大学院 Graduate School Osaka University
雑誌
教育社会学研究 = The journal of educational sociology (ISSN:03873145)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.84, pp.125-144, 2009-05-31

This paper examines and presents the characteristics of the "emotional labor" of teachers by analyzing interviews with ten elementary teachers. Moreover, it discusses the notion that the emotional labor of teachers is a teacher strategy. The concept of emotional labor, introduced by Hochschild (1983), contends that the emotion of workers becomes commoditized when these acts are sold for a salary and thereby estranged from the individual. Although Hochschild emphasizes the negative aspects of emotional labor, I contend here that the emotional labor of teachers may have strategic aspects even if it is compulsory. The differences between Hochschild's argument and that put forward by this author arise from two points. The first depends on the autonomy of work. The second depends on the aspect of emotional labor as a means by which teachers carry out their core classroom purposes. In this paper, I present a concrete analysis of the latter point. In Hochschild's argument, the commercialization of feelings and their instrumentality are dealt with as identical things, but the two aspects should be distinguished. I insist that the emotional labor of teachers has an instrumental aspect rather than one of commercialization. That is to say, for emotional labor in teaching it is important to consider how teachers manage pupils' emotions. Japanese teachers hope that pupils will grow up not only academically but also emotionally. In addition, a teacher's instruction is based on working on pupils' feelings. Thus teachers need to manage both pupil's feelings and their own in order to build relationships in which the parties are linked together by emotional bonds in order to enable teachers to control classrooms. Because of this, teachers are required to carry out emotion management of their work, and in this sense they constrain their emotional labor. However they carry out emotional labor strategically by changing the meaning of heteronomous emotion rules into valuable instruments for their pedagogical purposes. This strategic aspect of the emotional labor of teachers is a skill acquired in the process of socialization as teachers. Thus negative aspects do not reside in the characteristics of the emotional labor of teachers, but are caused by aspects (compulsory/strategic) which are emphasized when a teacher carries out emotional labor. However, as Hochschild shows, emotional labor becomes negative and draining when poor working conditions make it impossible for teachers to perform their work well. Accordingly, it is necessary to conduct further studies concerning the emotional labor of teachers in relation to the circumstances surrounding the teacher.
著者
佐々木 洋成 Yosei SASAKI 東京都立大学大学院 Tokyo Metropolitan University
出版者
東洋館出版社
雑誌
教育社会学研究 = The journal of educational sociology (ISSN:03873145)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.78, pp.303-320, 2006-05-31

This paper examines trends in regional gaps in higher educational opportunities after the High Growth Period and the effects of structural factors. In the 1970s, educational policies were put in place with the aim to promote equal opportunity. Currently, regional gaps in higher educational opportunity are increasing. The purpose of this paper is to provide basic findings and knowledge on present conditions to contribute to the debate on educational opportunities. As an index of educational opportunity, we use capacity and college and university entrance rates. The findings are as follows: (1) in the 1975-1990 period, under the educational policy that aimed to spread education, gaps decreased in both indices of educational opportunity; (2) however, this decrease was the result of shrinking gaps in the three large metropolises of Tokyo Nagoya and Osaka, and educational opportunities were not necessarily expanding in the regions with the least educational opportunities; (3) after 1990, regional gaps began to increase again, due to rises in the three metropolises; (4) today, there are noticeable gaps not only among males but also among females by region; (5) the effects of socioeconomic conditions and school conditions on educational opportunities are increasing year by year. Today's regional inequalities are nearly equal to those in the 1970s when the educational policies were adopted, there is a possibility that equality of opportunities for education may become a political issue.
著者
酒井 朗 島原 宣男 Akira Sakai Nobuo Shimahara 東京大学 ラトガーズ大学 University of Tokyo Rutgers University
出版者
東洋館
雑誌
教育社会学研究 = The journal of educational sociology (ISSN:03873145)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.49, pp.135-153, 1991-10-20
被引用文献数
1 or 0

The purpose of this paper is to present, from a sociology of knowledge perspective, a critical analysis of dominant traditional teaching methods deeply rooted in the culture of teaching. The previous studies on this research topic were influenced by Western scholars and failed to offer a clear understanding of the process of learning teaching methods. We use an ethnographic approach to study the Process. Based on an analysis of our ethnographic data we conclude that: (1) Teachers uncritically accept the traditional teaching method as a taken-for-granted approach to teaching. These methods are not used as a survival strategy to cope with constraining situations they encounter. (2) The reason why teachers predominantly use the traditional method is grounded in ethnopedagogy which integrated various aspects of teaching. Beginning teachers come to share ethnopedagogy through intersubjective interaction with experienced teachers. Its emphasis is placed not on instructional methods but on the relationship of trust between teachers and students. Because the traditional instructional method is compatible with ethnopedagogy, teachers are not actively seeking new methods. (3) Structural factors contribute to the perpetuation of ethnopedagogy. First, the absence of interaction that exists between universities and schools tends to prevent infusion into schools of innovative pedagogical theories formulated by scholars. Second, relatively closed interaction among teachers is conducive to the continuation of traditional pedagogy. Third, ethnopedagogy is the most influential practical approach that integrated various aspects of teaching and teacher responsibilities. (4) Influence of official policies of the Ministry of Education on deciding teaching strategies is not obvious. Rather it is established in its control of curriculum and the legitimacy that suggest traditional instructional methods.
著者
耳塚 寛明 Hiroaki MIMIZUKA お茶の水女子大学 Graduate School of Humanities and Sciences The Ochanomizu University
出版者
東洋館出版社
雑誌
教育社会学研究 = The journal of educational sociology (ISSN:03873145)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.80, pp.23-39, 2007-05-31

The measurement of children's academic achievements and the explanation of differences between social classes should not be dismissed by sociologists of education. Although inequality is a major theme of the field, the sociology of education has lacked empirical evidence on the structure of disparities in academic achievements. This is partly due to the difficulties involved in collecting sufficient data on academic achievement through schools. In and after 2002, studies were begun on the relationship between academic achievement and social class in Japan. At the time, schools were being heavily criticized within the context of the debate over falling children's academic achievements. Some significant surveys were administered at that time, though they were small in number. However, they left some important issue to be solved. The first is that analyses of the determinants of academic achievement are inadequate for clarifying what factors will diminish class differences in achievement. The second concerns the reliability and validity of the variables collected. In particular, variables on the economic conditions of households are lacking. Finally, the surveys were conducted only in large cities. This paper examines the factors that affect children's academic achievements, and the extent of the effect of such factors, through an analysis of the data of the Japan Education Longitudinal Study 2003 (JELS2003). JELS2003 was conducted in two areas: one a middle-sized city within the capital metropolitan areas, and the other a small local city. It also contains variables about the economic conditions of households. The major findings of the paper are as follows. 1. In the small local city, the differences of academic achievement between social classes were relatively small. 2. In the middle-sized city within the metropolitan area, children's academic achievements were affected by the level of monthly educational expenses, level of educational expectations of the child, and income level of the family. Inequalities in children's academic achievements in our society should be grasped in the context of the substitution of "parentocracy" for meritocracy.
著者
古田 和久 Kazuhisa FURUTA 大阪大学大学院 Graduate School Osaka University
出版者
東洋館出版社
雑誌
教育社会学研究 = The journal of educational sociology (ISSN:03873145)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.80, pp.207-225, 2007-05-31

This paper examines the impact of social class and a variety of attitudes regarding society and education on attitudes toward educational expenditures. In Japan, the rapid rise of educational participation rates has been strongly supported by household expenditures. The scale of private funding is very large in comparison with other countries, and not only high income parents, but also low income ones, make expenditures for their children's education. Therefore, the following question arises: what motivates Japanese people to give education to their children? Previous research on economics and the sociology of education has focused on investment and consumption. However, considering that the motives for educational expenditures are complex and are influenced by a variety of characteristics of parents, including attitudes on society and education, this paper investigates attitudes toward educational expense using data from the 2003 National Survey on Work and Daily Life. In order to identify significant patterns in many variables, decision tree analysis is used as a data mining techniques. Following a brief introduction of decision tree analysis, the technique is applied to delineate the key features that distinguish between people who are eager to pay their children's educational expenses and those who are not. First, the data indicate that many people believe that parents should pay for nearly all of their children's educational costs. Second, decision tree analysis reveals that the most important factor influencing the payment of educational expenses is not the benefit of education, but rather the recognition of educational inequality in contemporary Japanese higher education. People who perceive educational opportunities as being equal are more willing to pay for their children, because they believe that there is stiff competition for educational credentials. Third, investment and consumption are important factors for people who believe there is educational inequality. As a result, the motive for making educational expenditures depends on attitudes toward society and education. On the other hand, the group that showed most strongly negative attitude is people who believe that educational opportunities are closed by family income and that their own subjective social status is low, and that education does not play a central role for achieving high income and social status. This finding suggests that at present, educational costs are very heavy, and that if the burden of tuition fee and other educational expenses clearly brings an awareness of educational inequalities according to family income, many people will perceive education as being meaningless for them.
著者
有海 拓巳 Takumi ARIKAI 浜銀総合研究所 Hamagin Research Institute Ltd.
出版者
THE JAPAN SOCIETY OF EDUCATIONAL SOCIOLOGY
雑誌
教育社会学研究 = The journal of educational sociology (ISSN:03873145)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.88, pp.185-205, 2011-06-10

本研究では,「地方/中央都市部の進学校に通う生徒の学習・進学意欲がいかにして維持されているのか」について,そのメカニズムの一端を明らかにすることを目的とし,(1)生徒が置かれている学習環境に差異があるなかで,それぞれの生徒の学習・進学意欲はどのようにして維持されているのか,(2)それぞれの生徒の学習・進学意欲には,いかなる達成動機(志向性)が作用しているのかという2点に着目し,分析を行った。分析の結果,地方の生徒については,学習塾等の教育機会が中央都市部と比べて乏しい学習環境にあるなかで,逆に,そのような環境に置かれているからこそ,入学した学校の教師との間の信頼関係が強くなることがわかった。さらに,地方の生徒に関しては,教師によって強調される「社会的な自己実現」といった志向性が,学習・進学意欲に作用していることが明らかになった。一方で,中央都市部の生徒については,周囲に学習塾や大学等の教育機会が多くあることから,学校の教師の積極的な介入が無くとも学習・進学意欲が維持されうる状況にあることがわかった。また,その際,学習・進学意欲に対しては,地位達成志向が強く作用していることが明らかになった。本研究を通じて,階層・高校ランク上位グループの学習・進学意欲がいかにして維持されているのか,地方/中央都市部という区分において,その説明図式には質的な差異が見られることを明らかにすることができた。The aim of this paper is to explain how academic high school students in rural/urban areas are motivated for learning and for higher educational achievement. This study focuses especially on differences in the learning environment and differences in the effects of value orientations among students in rural/urban areas. There are a number of gaps in learning environments between rural/urban areas. For example, students in rural areas have to make a geographical transition from their home town to central cities to go to "good" universities, and there is also a difference between rural/urban schools in the ratio of students who study at "juku." In the different learning environments, how are students in each area motivated for learning and for higher educational achievement? Are they motivated in the same way (with the same value orientations)? To answer these questions, we administered a survey to 3,767 senior students in 12 high schools, all of which admit academically top students in their area, and interviewed some of the teachers. The main findings are as follows. (1) The relationships between students and schoolteachers are different in rural/urban schools. In rural areas, students (and their parents) tend to have complete trust in their schools and teachers. On the other hand, urban school students tend to have a stronger relationship with their parents and/or "juku." (2) Teachers' attitudes toward their students differ between rural/urban schools. In rural schools, teachers try to motivate their students by emphasizing a type of value orientation known as "contribution to society." (3) Student motivation for learning and for higher educational achievement is associated with different value orientations in rural/urban areas. The motivation of rural students is positively associated with making a "contribution to society," while urban students are motivated more strongly by "status attainment." These results show clearly that students in rural/urban areas are motivated differently for learning and for higher educational achievement.
著者
千葉 勝吾 大多和 直樹 Shogo CHIBA Naoki OTAWA 東洋大学大学院 東京大学 Graduate School of Toyo University University of Tokyo
雑誌
教育社会学研究 = The journal of educational sociology (ISSN:03873145)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.81, pp.67-87, 2007-11-30 (Released:2017-02-28)

The school system continues to occupy a central position in the system of social distribution. However, the school is changing from a social screening institution, as it was in the 1970s, to a support institution. Schools now tend to support the decision-making of students based on their own academic achievements and career plans. It is difficult for schools to intervene in students' decision-making in the way they did in the 1970s. However, the relationship between student's school records and their academic and career achievements has not been broken down despite the drastic change in this internal process. In this paper, the authors describe this mechanism in the school by investigating one commercial high school in the Metropolitan area. The authors examine data from the "Student Kartes" of all students in 2002. In these documents, teachers record students' academic achievements and their process of career determing. The authors then analyze how students move between the various channels offered by the school to make academic and career choices, and show some typical patterns. The main conclusions are as follows. First, many students failed to attend group counseling formally provided by the school, and teachers need to give individual support to students. Second, ironically, due to the fact that academic affairs were not highly valued at the commercial high school and that academic competition was not stiff, students with a strong commitment to school tended to have better achievement than those who had a weak commitment. In that sense, the school, as a support institution, also functions as a social screening institution.
著者
日下田 岳史 Takeshi HIGETA 東京大学大学院 Graduate School of Education The University of Tokyo
出版者
THE JAPAN SOCIETY OF EDUCATIONAL SOCIOLOGY
雑誌
教育社会学研究 = The journal of educational sociology (ISSN:03873145)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.79, pp.67-84, 2006-12-10

One premise of studies on the Japanese university participation rate is that there have been three stages: expansion, stagnation, and re-expansion. A second premise is the prefecture is used as the unit to determine whether students have moved upon entrance to university. However, the prefecture as a measurement unit does not always coincide with the zone from which students can attend university from home, or "the hometown." Therefore, using data from the "Student Life Survey" of the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, this study directly measures the ratio of members of the 18-year-old cohort who entered university from home, and the ratio of those living away from home (1968-1998). In this paper, the former is called the university participation rate from home, and the latter the university participation rate from away from home. The finding is that for girls, the university participation rate from home has risen fairly consistently. This is important knowledge for the first premise of studies on the university participation rate. It appears that the reason why preceding studies have not given a successful explanation of the university participation rate of girls based on economic variables, whereas that of boys has been successfully explained, is because the cost of movement has not been considered. Therefore, this study confirms the effect of the cost of movement, and clarifies the difference of the determining factors of the university participation rate from home according to gender or university location. Furthermore, this study confirms a difference between girls and boys for each economic variable effect including the movement cost effect after controlling for factors peculiar to university location. The results are that the limiting conditions are more sensitive in large cities than in rural areas, and that girls are more sensitive to the limiting conditions than boys when controlling for the factor peculiar to the area. This suggests the reproduction of the composition where "girls remain in the local area, and boys move out."
著者
岩田 弘三 Kozo IWATA 武蔵野大学 Musashino University
出版者
東洋館出版社
雑誌
教育社会学研究 = The journal of educational sociology (ISSN:03873145)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.82, pp.143-163, 2008-06-15

The entry rate into the elite of university graduates who graduated with honor was higher than that of other graduates in Japan in the pre World War II period. What kinds of effects can explain this phenomenon? Three possibilities can be considered to explain it: first, honor graduates may be more successful in any job, so that there would naturally be a correlation between the university adaptability indicated by high grades and vocational success; second, they might have found it easy to gain sponsorship from established elite groups because of their honor grades, even if there were no necessary correlation between college grades and vocational success through severe competition; third, they may have found it easier to enter vocational sectors which were more accessible to the elite. The aim of this paper is to clarify how these three possibilities worked to create elites in the pre-war period, sampling mainly Summa Cum Laude graduates from Tokyo Imperial University. The main findings are as follows: (1) it is clear that Summa Cum Laude graduates entered jobs which were more accessible to the elite, such as Imperial University professorships or prestigious government positions; (2) they were more successful in whatever job they entered; (3) however, it is obvious that the Summa Cum Laude graduates received some special treatment in becoming Imperial University professors and were sometimes given advantageous positions and experiences as government officers, despite the fact that the competition for high elite positions in private companies was based on merit.
著者
千葉 勝吾 大多和 直樹 Shogo CHIBA Naoki OTAWA 東洋大学大学院 東京大学 Graduate School of Toyo University University of Tokyo
出版者
THE JAPAN SOCIETY OF EDUCATIONAL SOCIOLOGY
雑誌
教育社会学研究 = The journal of educational sociology (ISSN:03873145)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.81, pp.67-87, 2007-11-30

The school system continues to occupy a central position in the system of social distribution. However, the school is changing from a social screening institution, as it was in the 1970s, to a support institution. Schools now tend to support the decision-making of students based on their own academic achievements and career plans. It is difficult for schools to intervene in students' decision-making in the way they did in the 1970s. However, the relationship between student's school records and their academic and career achievements has not been broken down despite the drastic change in this internal process. In this paper, the authors describe this mechanism in the school by investigating one commercial high school in the Metropolitan area. The authors examine data from the "Student Kartes" of all students in 2002. In these documents, teachers record students' academic achievements and their process of career determing. The authors then analyze how students move between the various channels offered by the school to make academic and career choices, and show some typical patterns. The main conclusions are as follows. First, many students failed to attend group counseling formally provided by the school, and teachers need to give individual support to students. Second, ironically, due to the fact that academic affairs were not highly valued at the commercial high school and that academic competition was not stiff, students with a strong commitment to school tended to have better achievement than those who had a weak commitment. In that sense, the school, as a support institution, also functions as a social screening institution.