著者
井庭 崇
出版者
社会・経済システム学会
雑誌
社会・経済システム (ISSN:09135472)
巻号頁・発行日
no.28, pp.59-67, 2007-10-13
被引用文献数
5

In this paper, we would like to explain the mechanism of creative collaboration and "pattern language", based on the social system theory proposed by Niklas Luhmann. Creative collaboration is focused on as the source of innovation in the several areas today, however it is not enough to understand the essential mechanism. Collaboration is a social activity when more than one person cooperates to aim for a goal that cannot be reached alone. In a team or an organization that does an effective collaboration, not only do they have an effective division of work, but also a process of ideas increasing is so massive that no one can tell who came up with the idea. These are a characteristic and what collaboration can lead us to. In this paper, we propose the concept of "creative thinking", "creative action", and "creative communication", applying and extending the social system theory, and explain the creative collaboration as the nexus of creative communication. Creative thinking means the creation by imagining or thinking something in his/her brain. Creative action means the creation by drawing or building something with his/her body. Creative communication means the creation by communicating with some others. According to social system theory, communication is the element of social system and "communication" is defined as the synthesis of three selections: "information", "utterance", and "understanding". In this framework, communication can be creative, because the communication is just selection process. We, in this paper, focus on "pattern language" as the support method for creative collaboration. Pattern language is the method proposed by Christopher Alexander in architecture. In the pattern language, the tacit knowledge of creation is summarized into a pattern, which composed of three parts: "situation", "problems", "solution". Pattern language is worked as the media for thinking and communication. According to the social system theory, "language" is a media of coupling between consciousness and communication. We explore the possibility to apply the method of pattern language into new areas.
著者
山口 節郎
出版者
社会・経済システム学会
雑誌
社会・経済システム (ISSN:09135472)
巻号頁・発行日
no.2, pp.7-12, 1984-11-01

The debate between J. Habermas and N. Luhmann on the "program of a theory of society" has stimulated much concern among sociologists because of its intention to grasp the society in its totality against the main trend in sociology to work without society. Some main points of controversy such as "constitution of meaning, " "discourse" and the "unity of theory and practice" are discussed here. It seems that the understanding of "subject" divides the two models of "Gesellschaftstheorie." Luhmann's notion of subject is more convincing and supported by paradigms of contemporary philosophical studies. But once applied to the everyday social life, his system theory seems to bring hopeless heteronomy and powerlessness in individuals confronted with the "world-complexity" and "system rationality."
著者
奥田 栄
出版者
社会・経済システム学会
雑誌
社会・経済システム (ISSN:09135472)
巻号頁・発行日
no.18, pp.103-109, 1999-11-10

When a method of specific knowledge creation is dominant, knowledge created by means of other methods would not be recognized as knowledge. Therefore, those who engaged in such a knowledge creation had to be isolated socially. But resent development of communication technology boosts not only centralization but also diversity and complexity of the world, and works in a direction canceling their social isolation. In other words, knowledge which would never growth in former environment will get new (virtual) footholds for knowledge production and be possible to exceed critical point. In this report we discuss the methods how to support such footholds for knowledge creation dispersing in global scale, clarify their course of growth, and attempt to make a knowledge connection between them. We also consider how such knowledge creation footholds related with each other, and the logic such as coexistence and an integration or rejection working between those new footholds and existing ones. The case adopted here is so called Sokal Affair which has been struggled between natural scientists and philosophers of science based on cultural studies.
著者
依田 博
出版者
社会・経済システム学会
雑誌
社会・経済システム (ISSN:09135472)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.10, pp.59-63, 1991-10-25 (Released:2017-07-28)

Since mid-seventies, a number of the Diet members, especialy LDP (Liberal Democratic Party) Diet members, recruited from 'political families' has gradually increased. On the 39th General Election in 1990, LDP won 288 seats in the Diet, and a nember of LDP Diet nembers who are recruited from political families is 121. Most candidates seeking for a seat in the Diet have a privately owned organization(so called 'Kouenkai')to make it to collect votes in order to get elected. Leaders of this organization and candidate oneself cooperatively from the interest community in which their interest would be expected to be maintained and increased by a politicain executing his / her political influence. Thrire desire is that the interest community is inherited by the legitimate inheritor who should be a member of political family, and they truely fear disappearing its interest community as a result of nobody inheriting its organization. This is the reason of the increasing number of Diet members from political families. This is the crisis of Status Democracy in the political field in Japan which has been one of principles in modern society.
著者
岡田 直樹
出版者
社会・経済システム学会
雑誌
社会・経済システム (ISSN:09135472)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.28, pp.129-142, 2007

The Purpose of this paper is to explore internal relation between social theory of Karl Marx and General system theory. Some researchers including Piaget, Wallerstein, Okishio have indicated affinity of them, but no one really argued joining of Marx and system theory. But as Althusser pointed out, Marx made a 'immeasurable theory revolution' by discovering 'structural causality' and 'epistemological criticism'. These features are in parallel with general system theory. Generally speaking, 'system' is defined as 'constructional whole of relations between elements'. Marx wrote 'society was not composed of individuals, but it was summation of relations of individuals'. And today it is generally accepted argument that Marx's theory was relationism. However, we have to investigate the concept of 'relation' of Marx. In 'Preface of the Critique of Political Economy', he argued that the production-consumption relation was internal self-vanishing process. He virtually showed the world view as incessantly changing energy flow. Marx in 'Grundrisse' believed that society (and capital) is reproductive process of social individuals which produces society (and capital) itself. Social system theory of Marx is very similar to autopoiesis theory of Maturana and Varela. They thought autonomic life as a autopoietic system, which means a system whose components reproduce network of productive relation which produces components. This view of life is consonant of that of Marx, who thought individual as a self-reproductive life. And we can closely parallelize 'autopoiesis' of Maturana and 'society' of Marx. Firstly, productive relations of autopoietic system are transient chemical processes. Social relations in Marx's theory are productive self-vanishing processes. The affinity of them is tangible. Secondly, the definition of society (and capital) by Marx exactly fits into the definition of autopoietic system. A poor worker of a capitalist society reproduces the network of productive relationship which produces the worker and his poverty. Finally, we compare the Marx's theory as an autopoietic system and social system theory of Niklas Luhmann. Components of our social system theory are persons, while that of Luhmann's one are communications. Luhmann claims that components of a system must be of the same kind, and he just negates an existence of man-machine system and that of ecosystem. They are essencial aspect of the social system theory of Karl Marx, that implies openness of his theory to other scientific fields.
著者
色川 卓男
出版者
社会・経済システム学会
雑誌
社会・経済システム (ISSN:09135472)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.27, pp.91-97, 2006-10-14 (Released:2017-07-28)

This paper examines the causal relationships between marriage and subjective well-being in detail in a longitudinal data set spanning 12 years. We get the following ; 1) when there are wives with children at the time of first marriage, they should not be so happy. In other words, childless single women who will get married are happier than single women with children who will get married. In Japan, at least, we find that there is an order model for marriage. 2) Single women who will marry are not much different subjective well-being than those who will not marry in 4 year ago at the time of first marriage. Single women gain subjective well-being by marrying. 3 ) Wives with small differences in their level of education between spouses don't gain, on average, much different subjective well-being from marriage than wives with large differences. For Japanese wives, differences in their level of education between spouses have no effect on their subjective well-being from marriage. 4) Social stratification like income, education status of their household has some effect on their subjective well-being from marriage. In conclusion, as for the wives, all gain subjective well-being from marriage. But, it is slightly different between their social stratification
著者
木嶋 恭一
出版者
社会・経済システム学会
雑誌
社会・経済システム (ISSN:09135472)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.23, pp.51-65, 2002
被引用文献数
1

本稿の目的は,「複雑で不確実性に満ちた」意思決定状況(問題)を構造化するための方法論として提案されたソフトシステムアプローチについて多角的に検討することである。まず,ソフトシステムアプローチの基本的な考え方をその提案の背景となったハードシステムアプローチと比較しながら説明する。ついで,その中でもっとも広く知られている方法論であるソフトシステム方法論(SSM)について詳しく説明する。この方法論は,様々な価値観が存在する状況でディベートなどによって関与者間に「結局何が問題なのか」に関して相互理解と学習をもたらすプロセスを支援する方法論として特にマネジメントの分野で広く知られている。最後に,方法論自身を取り扱う方法論(meta-methodology)の立場から,ソフトシステムアプローチを位置づけてみる。あわせて,様々なシステムアプローチを組み合わせて現実の問題に対処しようとするマルチメソドロジー(multi-methodology)の考え方にも言及する。
著者
七邊 信重
出版者
社会・経済システム学会
雑誌
社会・経済システム (ISSN:09135472)
巻号頁・発行日
no.32, pp.175-183, 2011-10-25

Independent productions of manga, game and music, etc. are the cultures with which it is widely familiar in Japan. These cultural practices are done by using services of shops selling independent production goods, print companies, etc. In a modern Doujin Field, the role of "Cultural mediators" (Bourdieu 1979=1990; Negus 1996=2004) or "Business components" (Deguchi, Tanaka, and Koyama 2009) that has a great knowledge of Contents are thought to be a very large. However, this agents' role has been hardly studied up to now in the doujin culture research of sociology and cultural studies. So, in this paper, using "the Field of Cultural Production Theory" of Pierre Bourdieu and participatory observation approach, paying attention to the "Doujin Shops", I analyze practices and strategies of "Cultural mediator" in Doujin Field and structures and norms by which they are conditioned.
著者
久世 律子
出版者
社会・経済システム学会
雑誌
社会・経済システム (ISSN:09135472)
巻号頁・発行日
no.26, pp.163-176, 2005-11-12

The purpose of this thesis is to examine how the welfare state handles the risks by using the frame of "Observation" and of "Decision maker/Affected" of Luhmann through the comparison with the insurance company. The welfare state is discussed that the influence of the insurance technology was strong at the beginnings. And the same time, there are the discussions about the limit of the risk - approach with the insurance technology in the industrial society and the welfare state because of present "New risk." In an insurance risk approach of the welfare state and the insurance company, there are the following common features. They prepare large amount of money collected from the wide range for the case, which the citizens of the state or the insured persons will fall into the specific accident in the future. However, there are some points of difference between the welfare state and insurance company in how to use the insurance technology. When we look at those points that who is observing the risk and who is the decision maker or the affected of the risk, it become apparent that the welfare state has compelling power, and, has a change possibility of the decision making based on this power. The insurance company or the insured persons has no outstanding ability like this because of the symmetric relationship between them. In addition, the principle of the charge and the distribution in the welfare state is not an economic rationality but "need" of insurance. When the welfare state uses the collected money for the risks, it is not only one-to-one correspondence of a specific resource with a specific risk. The welfare state put individual premiums and/or general tax in various related risks. The predictability by an insurance calculation declines in the situation of a modern risk. The welfare state can change the decision making to fit this situation, however, it is necessary to seek the approval by citizens in each time. The load of the explanation about changing increases and it is not necessarily to be approved. In addition, because it is possible to change it, the decision makings have possibility of being distrusted by the citizens. And we will have to think about not only problems of the risk handling in the welfare state but also advantages of the compelling power and of the possibility of decision changing et al.
著者
高尾 義明
出版者
社会・経済システム学会
雑誌
社会・経済システム (ISSN:09135472)
巻号頁・発行日
no.23, pp.88-93, 2002-10

This paper examines a problematique of risk management on organization systems referring to Niklas Luhmann's risk theory. Luhmann focuses on 'second-order' observations of how risks are explained rather than first-order observations of risk existence. And he propounds the distinction of risk/danger. We apply these ideas to organization systems, in which risks are observed very easily. Recently, to elude risks of organizational decisions, organization systems are building risk management systems into organizational "structure", which distinguishes organizational decisions with others. Most risk management systems correspond only to first-order observations of risk/security. Therefore, whenever unexpected damages happen, risks of risk management systems are observed and its reconstruction is claimed. Furthermore, reinforcements of risk management systems may be more promoted, since introductions of risk management systems have effects on escalation of observation of risks. However, reinforcements of risk management systems themselves can be a risk, because it is observed to be accompanied by dysfunctions of decision making delay, inflexible action, and avoidance of innovation. To avoid such a situation, It is necessary to design second-order risk management which intend to influence distinction of risk/danger. As a clue of such second-order risk management, we can refer to discussions about corporate governance. In recent reformation of corporate governance, we can find a function of management on shareholders' observations of risk/danger by employing embedded institutions, which all organization systems do not always have.
著者
安島 進市郎
出版者
社会・経済システム学会
雑誌
社会・経済システム (ISSN:09135472)
巻号頁・発行日
no.24, pp.73-79, 2003-10-25

The purpose of this paper is to extract factors of volunteer satisfaction from the viewpoint which looks on volunteers as customers of programs. To retain volunteers and keep high quality of service, NPOs need to pursue volunteer satisfaction. Most of former studies about volunteer management have looked on volunteers as only human resources, and volunteer satisfaction has been argued from the viewpoint of job satisfaction. And those studies have assumed that volunteers belong to organizations. But some volunteers who are interested in only their activities have mobility and emotional aspect in regard to their participation to programs. Therefore, such volunteers can be looked on rather as customers than as human resources, and volunteer satisfaction need to be grasped comprehensively. In this study the author undertook a survey, and extracted satisfying factors and dissatisfying factors. Especially empathical factor had a great impact to volunteer satisfaction. Empathical factor may change the volunteer's value, promote his/her empathy itself, and give him/her a greater satisfaction. Therefore it follows that volunteer satisfaction can be pursued compatibly with NPO's organizational purpose.
著者
佐藤 勉
出版者
社会・経済システム学会
雑誌
社会・経済システム
巻号頁・発行日
vol.1, pp.12-20, 1983

It is held generally that the theory of "life-world" is not compatible with system theory. This view shows that sociology fails to explain fully the interrelations of action and "Hand-lungszusammenhang" i. e. social order. As to Parsons, his theory is said to have remained aloof from the phenomenological concept "life-world". For example, according to J, Habermas, Parsons lacks any adequate concept equivalent to life-world, which is based on intersubjective communication. But is this true? In my opinion, Parsons' system theory does contain the conception of life-world. He cannot, however, integrate this conception with system theory. Recently, J. Habermas, in his attempt to conceptualize society as life-world, uses this concept as complementary to that of communicative action. Proceeding along this path, he comes to conceive of society as the synthesis of "social integration" and "system integration". In contrast, N, Luhmann asserts that life-world is adequately comprehended in terms of system theory. From this perspective, which is based on the paradigm change of system theory, he intends to grasp the interpenetration of individual and social system based on this change. I think that his basic conception concerning system makes possible a new approach to life-world.
著者
田中 絵麻
出版者
社会・経済システム学会
雑誌
社会・経済システム (ISSN:09135472)
巻号頁・発行日
no.30, pp.45-53, 2009-10-17

This paper examines the reason why Japanese contents, which are famous for their "coolness", realize both media-mix and diversity simultaneously in terms of industrial structure of contents in Japan. In the US, media-mix or multi use of contents are often accompanied by concentration of copyright to media conglomerates because it is presumed that horizontal integration is desirable for maximize revenue from. deployment of a content. On the contrary, industrial structure in Japan is horizontally separated one and media-mix is implemented by transaction between companies from various sectors of content industry such as an advertisement sector, distribution sector, and production sector. Addition to transaction between companies, the existence small, but numerous content production companies are the key factor to the creation of content diversity. Historically, "production commission system" has been formed as cooperative organization to invest jointly to deploy contents to many forms and to share risk and return. "Production commission system" has merit for the participants since it limits the risk to producet content by sharing related copyrights and revenue from deployment contents. For example, movie industry and also amine industry have expanded the use of "production commission system" about mid 80's. Recently,. some mobile contents productions adopted "production commission system" to make short drama clips for distribution to mobile terminals. This system is unique to Japan and the mechanism of media-mix through "production commission system" is yet to be examined.. This paper analyzed the amine series' data of "Television Drama Database" from 1950's to mid 2000s to examine the expansion of production of amine series and to figure out what are the characteristics of actual media-mix cases. The result shows that the number of amine series is increased twice at around mid 80's and mid 90's. There are two main reasons of the increase. One is the increase of the content distribution platform by advent of the satellite broadcasting system. Other reasons are widening of time zones to broadcast amine series to mid-night time zone and expansion of TV stations to produce amine series to UHF stations and local stations. By identifying the original work of amine series, there is tendency that the types of the original work are diversified in 90's in Japan. Furthermore, many kinds of media-mix are actively conducted among different forms of contents along with diversification of content distribution platforms. Utilizing "production commission system", content production in Japan enables both media-mix among various platforms and diversity of contents produced by small but creative companies. This would be the unique mechanism that sustains the coolness of Japanese content.
著者
伊藤 正純
出版者
社会・経済システム学会
雑誌
社会・経済システム (ISSN:09135472)
巻号頁・発行日
no.11, pp.94-99, 1992-10-25

This paper discusses the relation of the vocational education for workers and social systems, and the author argues that this education may reform a social system. Fordism, which has promoted the mechanization of the way of production in the fixedly-divided work organization among workers, supervisors, and technicians, has taken no notice of the vocational education for workers. Yet the crisis of Fordish work organization has emerged as a result of the changing market structures and the resistance of workers during 1970s. Work-force versatility of workers by vocational education is foud in both Toyotism in Japan and Volvosism in Sweden. Yet there is a crucial difference in the level of compromise in the industrial relation. In Toyotism the trainers are large enterprises. Because most compromises which rested on company agreements are found in large enterprises. Therefore, these trainings for workers are inadeqate to the reform of a social system. In Volvoism as social democratic corporatism the trainers are the state and the enterprise.And trade unions influence them. Because negotiated involvement and compromise are accomplished on a social basis.In Kalmarism, one of the two kinds of Volvoism, the state educates workers for the progress of their vocational competence. In Uddevallism, the other kind of Volvoism, the enterprise does them.There is a possibility that these educations may bring about the reform of a social system.
著者
徳安 彰
出版者
社会・経済システム学会
雑誌
社会・経済システム (ISSN:09135472)
巻号頁・発行日
no.17, pp.27-33, 1998-10-24

In this paper I try to formulate pluralization of meaning construction in the process of globalization in terms of social systems theory, especially with reference to Luhmann's concept of the world society. With several paired concepts, such as nation society/world society, stratified differentiation/functional differentiation, diffuse/specific, universalistic/particularistic, inclusion/exclusion, I illustrate the transformation of social structure and its effects on the principle of meaning construction and the difinition of individual identity. The capacity of the nation society for vertical integration has been diminished in the process of globalization and functional differentiation. Every functional subsystem has become more autonomous, and the socio-cultural sources of individual identity has become more diversified:particular ascriptive traits such as ethnicity of religious tradition on the one hand, temporal combinations of universal but specific memberships in various groups and networks on the other hand. In this consequence the public sphere of political discourse has also become pluralistic, participated by various agents such as nation states and NGOs. Only this pluralism seems to produce more capacity to cope with future risks.