著者
中澤 篤史 西島 央 矢野 博之 熊谷 信司
出版者
東京大学大学院教育学研究科
雑誌
東京大学大学院教育学研究科紀要 (ISSN:13421050)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.48, pp.317-337, 2009-03-10

In secondary school of Japan under the current national curriculum (course of study), the club activities had not been corroborated institutionally despite that they were very important aspect of schoollife alike lesson activities. But on the coming national curriculum, it has described that club activities should be related with school curriculum properly, especially paying attention to circumstances or situations of each school. Nevertheless it had not got such information and those data. In this paper we'll endeavour to illuminate the circumstances about adviser-teacher of club activities, the relations of teaching on club activities to guidance, also to the other school affairs from the questionnaire survey to teachers in the Tokyo metropolitan area and seven prefectures, Iwate, Niigata, Shizuoka, Nara, Kagawa, Yamaguchi, and Kagoshima./ We will deal with the following issues in this paper. 1) School survey; the relations between the size of schools and club activities, the obligation on participation in club activities, assignment of adviser-teachers, school aims concerning club activities. 2) Teachers survey; circumstances of club activities, the management system of club activities and coaches, teachers'experiences about club activities, management and coaching, the other school affairs, teachers'opinions concerning coaching and teaching.
著者
中澤 篤史
出版者
一般社団法人 日本体育学会
雑誌
体育学研究 (ISSN:04846710)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.53, no.2, pp.315-328, 2008-12-10 (Released:2009-02-25)
参考文献数
27

The Undoukai (Athletic Association) at the Imperial University of Tokyo was a student association that consisted mainly of sports club members. The Undoukai was a departure point for Japanese sports, and led to the establishment of school sports in the Meiji period, being incorporated as a foundation in 1934. The purpose of this study is to describe the process of how the Undoukai was organized as an incorporated foundation from the late Taisho era to the early part of the Showa era, focusing on interactions among students and the university. The main documents are gathered from the Imperial University Newspaper.The results of this study are summarized as follows.1) This study describes the history after establishment of the Undoukai, which was integrated into the Gakuyukai (Athletic and Cultural Association) at the Imperial University of Tokyo in 1920. The Gakuyukai was an all-university association that included cultural activities. However, the members of the sports clubs left the Gakuyukai and organized the Undoukai again in 1928.2) This study clarifies two oppositional relationships among students during the organizational process of the Undoukai. One was between sports club members and the other students, and the other was between the left-wing students and the right-wing students. In both relationships, sports club members would win the understanding of non-athletic students and would distance themselves from the left-wing students. Both practices enabled the Undoukai to become independent from the Gakuyukai.3) This study clarifies that strong assistance from the University contributed to the reorganization of the Undoukai. There were two problems that the University needed to address: one was how to prevent students' illnesses, and the other was how to discourage students from becoming inclined to the politcal left. Therefore, the University expected general students to aspire to “healthy body” and to have “healthy idea”. While the University would recommend sports to general students in order to realize the expectation of “healthy body”, at the same time it would separate general students from left-wing students in order to realize the expectation of “healthy idea”. These expectations and practices of the University provided the impetus that nurtured the Undoukai.
著者
西島 央 矢野 博之 中澤 篤史
出版者
東京大学大学院教育学研究科
雑誌
東京大学大学院教育学研究科紀要 (ISSN:13421050)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.47, pp.101-130, 2008-03-10

During the course of this research our goal has been to illustrate the factors that affect the commitment of secondary school pupils'vis-a-vis their schools and future educational goals and career trajectories. In doing so, we will propose "a plural model of school culture". In spite that actualities of club activities are very significant for pupils in their school life, its institutional position is vague in the current course of study. So it causes many issues about the coaching and management of club activities, for example the issue of overwork of teachers, and so on. In light of this we made a questionnaire survey to teachers of sports club activities in order to clarify two subjects. One is actual condition how teachers coach and manage club activities. The other is consciousness which the teacher have toward club activities. Based on the survey, this study is to examine six points: 1) commitment of teachers, 2) support system of club activities, 3) gap of the consciousness between teachers and pupils, 4) intensification of teachers, 5) opinions of teachers on what club activities to be in future, 6) further discussion about club activities. The results are as follows. 1) Teachers who strongly commit club to activities are inclined to expect much to them, don't have problems in them, and cope with them as eagerly as other activities outside class. 2) Teachers with external coach don't strongly commit to club activities and don't have experiences by themselves on the activities. Teachers with a parental organization strongly commit to club activities. 3) We found a certain gap between teachers and pupils on their ways of view about club activities. In spite that teachers can find pupils'expectations to club activities, they seem to be inclined to have more internal goals in educational points. 4) Teachers are pressed by business not because the participation to club activities restrained their time, but because they recognize problems about it, for example the vagueness whether club activities are in/out of their duty. 5) We found out some knowledge on opinions of teachers on what club activities to be in future which is below. Their opinions differ from pupils'. There is a wide variety of opinions among teachers according to the locality where schools are, the athletic event of club teachers have charge of, how many times and which day of the week teachers attend their clubs, and whether teachers are bothered by heavy burdens or institutional ambiguity of them. 6) Teachers whose main role is to manage club activities are bothered by heavy burdens or institutional ambiguity of them. And whether they recognize insufficiency of facility, equipment and administrative cost as problem differ from one activity to another.
著者
中澤 篤史
出版者
一般社団法人 日本体育学会
雑誌
体育学研究 (ISSN:04846710)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.56, no.2, pp.373-390, 2011 (Released:2011-12-28)
参考文献数
41
被引用文献数
1

In Japan, teachers not only teach students inside the classroom, but also manage extracurricular sports activities outside the classroom. This system of extracurricular sports activities is a distinctive feature of school education in Japan, and is totally dependent on the voluntary attitude of teachers. Although extracurricular sports activities are not included in the Course of Study, teachers are positively willing to manage them as school educational activities. Why should this be so? Furthermore, the contents of extracurricular sport activities seem to have no relationship with school education. Then, how do teachers identify sports as school educational activities? In order to examine these questions, this study focused on teachers' interpretations of difficulties in combining sports with education, as these difficulties ultimately determine whether teachers are positively willing to manage extracurricular sports activities. In managing school educational activities, teachers inevitably encounter certain difficulties (e.g. coping with diversity among students). How, then, do teachers interpret these difficulties? The purpose of this study was to clarify the reasons why teachers are positively willing to manage extracurricular sport activities in Japan by analyzing their interpretations of difficulties with combining sports and education. The data were gathered by fieldwork at a public junior high school in the Kanto area. At this school, 12 teachers who managed extracurricular sport activities were observed and interviewed. Among them, a male teacher managing the rugby club was the most positive. This study focused on this individual as a case example to examine the reasons for his positive attitude. This teacher divided the students into a high-skill and a low-skill groups in order to coach them efficiently. However, that division caused high-skill students to bully those with a low skill level, which obviously was not desirable in educational terms. However, the teacher interpreted the presence of a bully as a good opportunity to educate his students. Therefore, this difficulty was “solved” by the interpretation of this particular teacher. In conclusion, various individual teachers' interpretations can “solve” certain difficulties and allow them to combine sports with education, allowing them to positively manage extracurricular sports activities as school educational activities without any conflict.
著者
中澤 篤史 西島 央 矢野 博之 熊谷 信司
出版者
東京大学大学院教育学研究科
雑誌
東京大学大学院教育学研究科紀要 (ISSN:13421050)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.48, pp.317-337, 2009-03-10

In secondary school of Japan under the current national curriculum (course of study), the club activities had not been corroborated institutionally despite that they were very important aspect of schoollife alike lesson activities. But on the coming national curriculum, it has described that club activities should be related with school curriculum properly, especially paying attention to circumstances or situations of each school. Nevertheless it had not got such information and those data. In this paper we'll endeavour to illuminate the circumstances about adviser-teacher of club activities, the relations of teaching on club activities to guidance, also to the other school affairs from the questionnaire survey to teachers in the Tokyo metropolitan area and seven prefectures, Iwate, Niigata, Shizuoka, Nara, Kagawa, Yamaguchi, and Kagoshima./ We will deal with the following issues in this paper. 1) School survey; the relations between the size of schools and club activities, the obligation on participation in club activities, assignment of adviser-teachers, school aims concerning club activities. 2) Teachers survey; circumstances of club activities, the management system of club activities and coaches, teachers'experiences about club activities, management and coaching, the other school affairs, teachers'opinions concerning coaching and teaching.
著者
西島 央 藤田 武志 矢野 博之 荒川 英央 中澤 篤史
出版者
東京大学
雑誌
東京大学大学院教育学研究科紀要 (ISSN:13421050)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.42, pp.99-129, 2003-03-10

In this research, we will endeavour to illuminate the factors that affect high school students'commitment to their schools; their future educational goals and career trajectories. Examining how they have been involved in various club activities at school will provide the basis for this evaluation. In doing so, we will propose "a plural model of school culture." The research is being carried out within a context of significant educational change. The implementation of the new national curriculum (course of study), a five-day week school system, and the co-operative linkage of schools, homes, and communities are likely to have some form of impact that will need to be assessed. This leads us to adopt a methodological approach that makes extensive use of a series of research surveys. These will seek to identify the effects which the new national curriculum will have upon students'school lives, especially in relation to club activities. So far, we have carried out two extensive questionnaires in 1999 and 2001 along with additional participant observation in a limited number of schools. Our target group has been junior high school students. In light of the above and in view of our proposed new series of research surveys for high school students we will construct a hypothetical analysis in order to prepare a survey for use in the reinvestigation of the matter in 2004. This series of research surveys on high school students aims to propose an agenda for school education which should take account of what form club activities should take in the future. To date, we have analysed data stemming from 4,500 questionnaires. These have been collected from high-school students in two (Shizuoka and Niigata) different prefectures and the Tokyo metropolitan area in March 2002. In this paper we will deal with the following four issues. 1, Using four clusters which based on the levels of commitment to their various aspects of the school life, classes, official events, and club activities, we discuss the students'adaptability to school life. 2, Focusing on the differences of the opportunities in sports/culture activities being influenced by the students'family backgrounds, we argue the significance of club-activities for students in their junior high school days. Besides we explore the issues so as to realize "the lifelong sports-society", focusing on the sports club-activities. 3, We examine students'behaviours from the viewpoint of whether they are an active club member or whether they have withdrawn from such activities. This will be used, in part, as a predictor for the various path-ways that students take as they adapt themselves to the changing nature of life during their high school experiences.
著者
中澤 篤史
出版者
一般社団法人 日本体育学会
雑誌
体育学研究 (ISSN:04846710)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.56, no.2, pp.373-390, 2011

In Japan, teachers not only teach students inside the classroom, but also manage extracurricular sports activities outside the classroom. This system of extracurricular sports activities is a distinctive feature of school education in Japan, and is totally dependent on the voluntary attitude of teachers. Although extracurricular sports activities are not included in the Course of Study, teachers are positively willing to manage them as school educational activities. Why should this be so? Furthermore, the contents of extracurricular sport activities seem to have no relationship with school education. Then, how do teachers identify sports as school educational activities? In order to examine these questions, this study focused on teachers' interpretations of difficulties in combining sports with education, as these difficulties ultimately determine whether teachers are positively willing to manage extracurricular sports activities. In managing school educational activities, teachers inevitably encounter certain difficulties (e.g. coping with diversity among students). How, then, do teachers interpret these difficulties?<br> The purpose of this study was to clarify the reasons why teachers are positively willing to manage extracurricular sport activities in Japan by analyzing their interpretations of difficulties with combining sports and education. The data were gathered by fieldwork at a public junior high school in the Kanto area. At this school, 12 teachers who managed extracurricular sport activities were observed and interviewed. Among them, a male teacher managing the rugby club was the most positive. This study focused on this individual as a case example to examine the reasons for his positive attitude.<br> This teacher divided the students into a high-skill and a low-skill groups in order to coach them efficiently. However, that division caused high-skill students to bully those with a low skill level, which obviously was not desirable in educational terms. However, the teacher interpreted the presence of a bully as a good opportunity to educate his students. Therefore, this difficulty was &ldquo;solved&rdquo; by the interpretation of this particular teacher.<br> In conclusion, various individual teachers' interpretations can &ldquo;solve&rdquo; certain difficulties and allow them to combine sports with education, allowing them to positively manage extracurricular sports activities as school educational activities without any conflict.<br>
著者
中澤 篤史
出版者
一橋大学
雑誌
研究活動スタート支援
巻号頁・発行日
2009

日本固有のスポーツのあり方である運動部活動は、いかなる構造の中で存立している/してきたのか。本研究では、運動部活動の存立構造を明らかにするために、ボランティアとしての教師の積極性に注目し、なぜ教師が運動部活動へ積極的にかかわるのかを、質的・歴史的アプローチから明らかにすることを目的とした。質的アプローチからは、中学校運動部活動へのフィールドワークで得られたデータを下に、顧問教師の運動部活動への意味づけ方を考察した。歴史的アプローチからは、戦後から現在までの運動部活動そのものと顧問教師のかかわり方の変遷を考察した。