著者
鈴木 翔 須藤 康介 荒川 智美 寺田 悠希 澁谷 功太郎
出版者
東京大学大学院教育学研究科
雑誌
東京大学大学院教育学研究科紀要 (ISSN:13421050)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.51, pp.103-116, 2012-03-10

The purpose of our study is to make clear the significance of a boyfriend or girlfriend for junior high school students. For this purpose, we firstly investigated the determining factors of having a boyfriend/girlfriend, and then clarified the effects of the fact that one has a boyfriend/girlfriend on their self-consciousness. As a result of our analyses, we got following two findings. First, there are various factors which determine whether junior high school students have a boyfriend/girlfriend or not, and the factors differ according to each student's gender. Furthermore, the levels of academic accomplishment of the school also make a difference. Second, when we analyze the effects of that fact on their self-consciousness, it is necessary to consider not only the very thing that one has a boyfriend/girlfriend or not, but also if she or he is likely to have a boyfriend/girlfriend. Our analysis suggests that a success in love for girls in junior high has a more complex meaning compared with that for boys.
著者
橋本 鉱市 齋藤 崇德 加藤 靖子 千田 恭平
出版者
東京大学大学院教育学研究科
雑誌
東京大学大学院教育学研究科紀要 (ISSN:13421050)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.52, pp.61-86, 2013-03-10

The graduate schools in Japan have been expanding since 1990's. In this paper, we focused on the doctoral courses of humanities & social sciences which have been limited in research and analysis as compared with natural sciences and analyzed the employment qualifications in the academic market. To put it concretely, we conducted quantitative analysis of application qualifications by using the data of JREC-IN (Japan Research Career Information Network). Through this analysis, we 1) analyzed the employment situation of doctoral students in humanities & social sciences, 2) investigated the qualifications and employability expected in the academic market, and 3) extracted the prospective problems of the doctoral education in humanities & social sciences.
著者
橋本 鉱市 齋藤 崇德 加藤 靖子 千田 恭平
出版者
東京大学大学院教育学研究科
雑誌
東京大学大学院教育学研究科紀要 (ISSN:13421050)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.52, pp.61-86, 2012

The graduate schools in Japan have been expanding since 1990's. In this paper, we focused on the doctoral courses of humanities & social sciences which have been limited in research and analysis as compared with natural sciences and analyzed the employment qualifications in the academic market. To put it concretely, we conducted quantitative analysis of application qualifications by using the data of JREC-IN (Japan Research Career Information Network). Through this analysis, we 1) analyzed the employment situation of doctoral students in humanities & social sciences, 2) investigated the qualifications and employability expected in the academic market, and 3) extracted the prospective problems of the doctoral education in humanities & social sciences.
著者
鈴木 翔 須藤 康介 荒川 智美 寺田 悠希 澁谷 功太郎
出版者
東京大学大学院教育学研究科
雑誌
東京大学大学院教育学研究科紀要 (ISSN:13421050)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.51, pp.103-116, 2012-03-10 (Released:2012-04-05)

The purpose of our study is to make clear the significance of a boyfriend or girlfriend for junior high school students. For this purpose, we firstly investigated the determining factors of having a boyfriend/girlfriend, and then clarified the effects of the fact that one has a boyfriend/girlfriend on their self-consciousness. As a result of our analyses, we got following two findings. First, there are various factors which determine whether junior high school students have a boyfriend/girlfriend or not, and the factors differ according to each student's gender. Furthermore, the levels of academic accomplishment of the school also make a difference. Second, when we analyze the effects of that fact on their self-consciousness, it is necessary to consider not only the very thing that one has a boyfriend/girlfriend or not, but also if she or he is likely to have a boyfriend/girlfriend. Our analysis suggests that a success in love for girls in junior high has a more complex meaning compared with that for boys.
著者
野崎 有以
出版者
東京大学大学院教育学研究科
雑誌
東京大学大学院教育学研究科紀要 (ISSN:13421050)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.50, pp.243-252, 2011-03-10

The purpose of this paper is to clarify the concepts of "Seikatsu-Kagaku" under the world war II and home economics after the war. The concepts of "Seikatsu-Kagaku" and home economics are similar. "Seikatsu-Kagaku" was encouraged under the war, because it was considered to be useful for practicing the rational life. However, home economics was trivialized after the war. The concept of "Seikatsu-Kagaku" was dealt with by several scholars. This paper takes up three scholars who dealt with "Seikatsu-Kagaku". On considering the tendency of home economics in post war Japan, home economics of elementary and secondary education are especially focused on, because they had some problems more conspicuous than that of higher education. Although it was out of step with the aims of its establishment, home economics of secondary education became the required subject for only girls. This research conciders the reason why home economics in post war Japan was trivialized.
著者
喜始 照宣
出版者
東京大学大学院教育学研究科
雑誌
東京大学大学院教育学研究科紀要 (ISSN:13421050)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.52, pp.137-146, 2013-03-10

The aim of this paper is to examine how the university experience of geneki is different from the experience of ronin, based on interviews with art university students in Japan, and to discuss the relationship between art university students and yobiko (prep schools). The major findings can be summarized as follows: (1) most students think art university is a world away from yobiko, but cultural resources acquired from yobiko are necessary to pass the university entrance exam and useful for their production of artworks in university; (2) the education provided by yobiko functions as a cultural “buffer” for university experience and also provides a common language for artmakers; and (3) some geneki students report feeling a “geneki complex”, but they cope with this by pursuing their artistic expression.
著者
喜始 照宣
出版者
東京大学大学院教育学研究科
雑誌
東京大学大学院教育学研究科紀要 (ISSN:13421050)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.55, pp.79-90, 2016-03-31

The aim of this paper is to examine what kind of students in art universities have experienced yobiko (prep schools) life and how they evaluate the experiences, using quantitative data obtained from students in four art universities in Japan. The main results are summarized as follows: (1) About 80% of the respondents have attended classes at yobiko before entering university; (2) experiencing yobiko life is influenced by factors such as social class, place of origin and type of high school; (3) most of the students who have regularly attended classes at yobiko think that they had positive experiences there.
著者
堤 孝晃
出版者
東京大学大学院教育学研究科
雑誌
東京大学大学院教育学研究科紀要 (ISSN:13421050)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.52, pp.147-156, 2013-03-10

What should we teach in education? This question has been one of the central concerns in places of education and social scientific study in education. The “relevance” can be utilized as a key concept when one tries to reveal the answer to that question. The purpose of this paper is to reconsider the assumptions about the “relevance,” not in a normative but in an empirical way. For this purpose, I examine the relation between the vocational education and the political attitudes, which have not been examined in prior studies, through an analysis of the data from a questionnaire survey to high school students in vocational courses and general courses in the Tokyo Metropolitan area. / The analysis shows the following three points. First, compared with the general school students, more students in the vocational courses tend to have orientation toward political independence. Second, comparing subjects in vocational courses, studying the special subject hard doesn't reflect students ’ orientation toward political independence, but it could mediate studying the social studies hard and their orientation toward political independence. Finally, the relation between the vocational education and the students’ orientation toward occupational independence is not found. / These findings are contrary to our conventional expectations. In conclusion, we should reconsider thoroughly our common assumptions about the “relevance”.
著者
中澤 篤史 西島 央 矢野 博之 熊谷 信司
出版者
東京大学大学院教育学研究科
雑誌
東京大学大学院教育学研究科紀要 (ISSN:13421050)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.48, pp.317-337, 2009-03-10

In secondary school of Japan under the current national curriculum (course of study), the club activities had not been corroborated institutionally despite that they were very important aspect of schoollife alike lesson activities. But on the coming national curriculum, it has described that club activities should be related with school curriculum properly, especially paying attention to circumstances or situations of each school. Nevertheless it had not got such information and those data. In this paper we'll endeavour to illuminate the circumstances about adviser-teacher of club activities, the relations of teaching on club activities to guidance, also to the other school affairs from the questionnaire survey to teachers in the Tokyo metropolitan area and seven prefectures, Iwate, Niigata, Shizuoka, Nara, Kagawa, Yamaguchi, and Kagoshima./ We will deal with the following issues in this paper. 1) School survey; the relations between the size of schools and club activities, the obligation on participation in club activities, assignment of adviser-teachers, school aims concerning club activities. 2) Teachers survey; circumstances of club activities, the management system of club activities and coaches, teachers'experiences about club activities, management and coaching, the other school affairs, teachers'opinions concerning coaching and teaching.
著者
黒田 友紀 杉山 二季 望月 一枝 玉城 久美子 船山 万里子 浅井 幸子
出版者
東京大学大学院教育学研究科
雑誌
東京大学大学院教育学研究科紀要 (ISSN:13421050)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.49, pp.317-325, 2010-03-10

The purpose of this paper is to examine how gender imbalance is constructed and what gender issues occur in teacher allocation at elementary schools. We conducted an interview survey to 10 male teachers in metropolitan areas to examine the actual conditions of male teacher allocation in elementary schools and analyze how gender imbalance occurs. Female teachers are prone to be allocated to lower grades and male teachers aren't much even if they want to. This imbalance results from gender biased consideration for female teachers, who carry out responsibility for care of their family and young children. Work of upper grades is so tough and hard that female teachers tend to avoid taking charge of upper grades. And then male teachers are often taken their workplaces in upper grades and they do busy and hard work. Male teachers are also expected masculine and controlling role to student behavior. Additionally work of upper grades is in a spotlight or central parts at schools, on the other hands, work of lower grades is regarded as shadow work. This gender imbalance works as sexual discrimination in elementary schools. Some experiences of male teachers suggest possibilities to change gender imbalance in teacher allocation. Changing balance of disproportionate work between lower grades and upper grades and sharing hard work will improve institution and structure in schools.
著者
三宅 なほみ 齊藤 萌木 飯窪 真也 利根川 太郎
出版者
東京大学大学院教育学研究科
雑誌
東京大学大学院教育学研究科紀要 (ISSN:13421050)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.51, pp.441-458, 2012-03-10

The Consortium for Renovating Education for the Future, founded at the University of Tokyo in 2009, has been striving to help teachers develop a networked community for creating authentically learner-centered classrooms. The classes are designed on a cognitive framework where the constructively interactive components during classroom student discussions provide individual students with a chance to express and reflect upon their own ideas as well as others, for integrating and constructively deepening them. This community currently involves more than 100 teachers coming from sixty-nine schools, ranging from elementary to high-schools. The paper reports its success for helping teachers to create sub-communities around their locations as well as their subject areas, so that they could collaboratively share the prime plans for similar classes and reflect upon their outcomes. Discussions on future plans conclude the paper.
著者
西島 央
出版者
東京大学大学院教育学研究科
雑誌
東京大学大学院教育学研究科紀要 (ISSN:13421050)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.43, pp.57-76, 2004-03-10

In Japan, what sort of people attend classical music concerts? It has been said that the classical music is an orthodox current of culture from the West, which was set up alongside the establishment of the modern educational system in Japan. Recently, however, the number of classes of music and other arts related subjects has been reduced as a result of the new national curriculum. In addition, the development of the Internet has provided a dramatic increase in terms of alternative access points to music. These are resulting in a dramatic change of music culture. Under these conditions, is it probable to think that attitudes towards classical music concerts might be in a process of change? The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the current conditions in relation to classical music concerts attendance from a sociological perspective. Methodologically, the paper draws upon evidence garnered from a questionnaire survey conducted at classical music concerts in Tokyo, Niigata and Kagoshima, between April and August 2002. To date, there have been few studies to investigate the sociological profile and associated behaviour related to classical music concert attendees, except the index of a stratum research. In this research, I will make use of sociological description of attendance, exploring the issue of regional difference. Subsequently I will analyze attendee's first experiences vis-a-vis the concert. Finally I will specify the features of attendance in relation to those classified as "Jouren" i. e. regular goers and those labeled "Ichigen" i. e first-timers. I will analyse the differences between them in light of a number of sociological indicators and their musical experiences during their formal education. As a kind of pilot study, I will propose a research framework that could provide a signpost for future research exploration.
著者
辻 直人
出版者
東京大学大学院教育学研究科
雑誌
東京大学大学院教育学研究科紀要 (ISSN:13421050)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.40, pp.27-35, 2001-03-15

Sending students abroad (ryugakusei) has been one of the important policy for higher education system in modern Japan. They were intended to be a professor after coming back to Japan. Especially, when the expansion of higher education system began in 1900's, more professors were required. So the number of studensts sent abroad increased in 1900's. But meanwhile, another opinion occurred : that is demanding the immediate reform or abolition of the student-sending system because of their bad reputation. These arguments influenced some part of the system. Monbusho, the ministry of education reinforced the supervision over the students in foreign countries, and tried to select more qualified person worthy for sending abroad by public subscription. We can also see some changes in the selection from the Imperial University of Tokyo, but it didn't alter as demanded.
著者
白山 映子
出版者
東京大学大学院教育学研究科
雑誌
東京大学大学院教育学研究科紀要 (ISSN:13421050)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.51, pp.363-375, 2012-03-10

During the Meiji Restoration, Japan adopted Western culture, ideas, education and technology, and even introduced new animal breeds from the West, including new varieties of rabbits. Cross-breeding with domestic varieties produced rabbits with unusual coloring, and around 1873 these became the target of speculative trading. This phenomenon is known as the "Rabbit Mania". In the same period, the genre Kaika-mono (lowbrow fiction) was popular among the ordinary people. Stories in this genre include "Seiyou Douchuu Hizakurige" (1870), "Aguranabe" (1871), "Bummei Kaika" (1873), "Kaika Mondou" (1874) and "Bummei Inaka Mondou" (1878). This paper discusses two stories belonging to this genre that deal with the "Rabbit Mania" : "Tori Gekka Mondou" and "Usagi no Mondou". The style of these stories is light and comical, and the former has a rather risqué flavor. The author explores the "Rabbit Mania" through an examination of the dialogue in these stories, and reports about the phenomenon in both English and Japanese newspapers. The paper also refers to related nishikie (colored woodblock print) parodies.
著者
山口 恭平 田口 賢太郎 松本 郁恵
出版者
東京大学大学院教育学研究科
雑誌
東京大学大学院教育学研究科紀要 (ISSN:13421050)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.51, pp.21-39, 2011

In recent years, difficulties in living together with disparate others are discussed in the educational theory. Among such difficulties, we take up what originates in desire, especially sexuality. First of all, desire itself is examined refering to theory of A. Kojève and that of G.Bataille. Next, based on the analysis of desire, we examine three subjects. First, we take up 'queer pedagogy', whose purpose is to undo identities of subjects through reading. Second, we consider the possibility for sexual minorities themselves to undo others'identities through writing, taking up some works of O.Wilde. Third, unavoidable risk of sexuality in public sphere is examined through rethinking about thought of E.Fromm.
著者
鈴木 翔 須藤 康介 荒川 智美
出版者
東京大学大学院教育学研究科
雑誌
東京大学大学院教育学研究科紀要 (ISSN:13421050)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.51, pp.103-116, 2011

The purpose of our study is to make clear the significance of a boyfriend or girlfriend for junior high school students. For this purpose, we firstly investigated the determining factors of having a boyfriend/girlfriend, and then clarified the effects of the fact that one has a boyfriend/girlfriend on their self-consciousness. As a result of our analyses, we got following two findings. First, there are various factors which determine whether junior high school students have a boyfriend/girlfriend or not, and the factors differ according to each student's gender. Furthermore, the levels of academic accomplishment of the school also make a difference. Second, when we analyze the effects of that fact on their self-consciousness, it is necessary to consider not only the very thing that one has a boyfriend/girlfriend or not, but also if she or he is likely to have a boyfriend/girlfriend. Our analysis suggests that a success in love for girls in junior high has a more complex meaning compared with that for boys.
著者
渡邉 茉奈美
出版者
東京大学大学院教育学研究科
雑誌
東京大学大学院教育学研究科紀要 (ISSN:13421050)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.51, pp.191-202, 2012-03-10

We have to consider the effective program to prevent our children from child maltreatment because child maltreatment is increasing. What is the most effective for every parent? I think every parent has more or less parental anxiety. So the preventing program focusing on it can be effective for every parent. In this paper, I reviewed the studies of parental anxiety. Then I found the parental anxiety affects the parenting misbehavior and that it is changing with time. For example, there may be anxiety about abusing as everyone knows "child maltreatment" by the media. That is why I suggest that we should hear the real parents'voice to know what kind of anxiety they have. If we can know it, we are making the program of primary prevention of child maltreatment that focuses on it.
著者
伊藤 秀樹
出版者
東京大学大学院教育学研究科
雑誌
東京大学大学院教育学研究科紀要 (ISSN:13421050)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.54, pp.551-563, 2015-03-31

The aim of this paper is to show the overview of non-mainstream upper secondary schools. In Japan, non-mainstream upper secondary schools, such as part-time high schools, correspondence high schools, upper secondary specialized training schools, and support schools, take on a role of educational safety net for students who are not admitted to full-time high schools. This paper considers the following four questions to review papers about non-mainstream upper secondary schools. 1) What types of students tend to enter the non-mainstream schools? 2) What curriculums do non-mainstream schools organize? 3) What percentage of students drop out of non-mainstream schools? 4) What percentage of students graduate as part-time workers or the jobless?
著者
荻野 亮吾
出版者
東京大学大学院教育学研究科
雑誌
東京大学大学院教育学研究科紀要 (ISSN:13421050)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.53, pp.95-112, 2013

This paper discusses the applicability of social capital theory to research on adult and community education. In the field of adult and community education, clarifying the process of subjectivity has been a central task. However, because the self is restricted by society, it is necessary to adopt a relational approach. The leading theory of this kind is social capital theory, which regards social relationships as a sort of "capital", and clarifies the mechanisms of accumulation and diversion of this "capital". In the 1970s, there was discussion about the relationships between community and education. One approach was to view the community as a system and try to reveal its structure, and the other approach was to focus on the construction process of the community through residents' movements. Social capital theory has the potential to adjust this dichotomy between the subject and structure, by focusing on the process and the function of social relationships. The work of Robert D. Putnam, the leading proponent of social capital theory, has three characteristics. The first is conceptualizing the social condition of regulating or affecting governance as social capital. The second is regarding social relationships as a sort of capital, which makes it possible to measure the amount of social capital across the ages and to compare social capital across countries and regions. The third is developing the possibility of conducting intervention studies into the community in order to construct social capital. In Japan, policy makers and researchers have shown increasing interest in social capital theory, with the promotion of community governance in recent years. The theory of social capital affects the lifelong learning policies of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development and the European Union, and attempts have been made to identify point of contact between the theory and research on adult and community education. Experience has shown that adult and community education can create partnerships and trust among residents in a local community, and that these relationships can add to lead to changes in the community. Social capital can add to this understanding by providing a theoretical framework and guidelines for empirical research. When trying to apply the concept of social capital to research on adult and community education, it is necessary to clarify the level of analysis, to focus on social networks, to examine nature as "capital," and to reconsider the concept of social capital as a dynamic one. In future research on adult and community education, it is important to capture not only social relationships among individuals but also social relationships among associations and groups in the community, the process of getting engaged in community activities through belonging to such groups, and how the community is constructed through cumulative activities.
著者
本田 麻希子 遠藤 麻貴子 中釜 洋子
出版者
東京大学大学院教育学研究科
雑誌
東京大学大学院教育学研究科紀要 (ISSN:13421050)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.51, pp.269-286, 2012-03-10

In this article, we have reviewed the research on divorce and policy interventions for divorced families conducted during the past decade in Japan and in the United States, and examined the future prospects of family support practices. In Japan, because case study and interview have been two frequently adopted methods, it is necessary in the future to focus more on finding out general trends and evidences for the impact of divorce through longitudinal studies or with larger samples. In the U.S., although there exists a numerous research on divorce impact, gaps still remain in the search for factors which differentiate children's adjustment following parental divorce. While the U.S. make active attempts in openly providing psycho-educational support program designed in accordance with research results, interventions in Japan remain limited as they are often in small scale based on the U.S. models. The need of developing programs that are tailored to fit Japanese culture that target larger numbers of divorced families are stressed in this article.