著者
岩見 和彦 山本 雄二 関口 理久子 松原 一郎
出版者
関西大学
雑誌
関西大学社会学部紀要 (ISSN:02876817)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.38, no.3, pp.133-184, 2007-03

発展や進歩の概念はつねにアンビバレントな意味を含んでいる。というのは、それらは未来によりよい状態を想定し、人や社会に希望を与える一方で、今われわれが生きている現在を未来への単なる途上として位置づけ、未来の幸福に資する限りで有意義であるような位置に押しとどめるからである。「成熟した社会」であると言われる現代にあって、「現在」がこのような貧しい意義しか持っていないとしたら、その「成熟」はことばのまやかしである。経済の成長に希望を託すことができない時代である今こそ「社会の成熟」を考える好機である。この論文では第2章から第5章まで、4人の研究者が「成熟」に関して考察している。第2章は、現代社会と個人における「成熟」概念の困難と希望を、理論的な側面から考察している。第3章は、戦後教育思想の浸透に伴って忘れられてきたもの、すなわち「暴力」の問題を事例に基づいて考察した。第4章は自伝的エピソード記憶の再生にかかわる性差と抑うつ気分の影響を実験によって調べ、検証した。第5章は、震災復興支援の経験から、物よりも社会関係資本の構築が支援策としては重要であることを論じている。
著者
山本 雄二
出版者
関西大学社会学部
雑誌
関西大学社会学部紀要 (ISSN:02876817)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.48, no.1, pp.61-90, 2016-11-15

本稿は2013年度・関西大学研修員制度による研究成果の一部である。
著者
石津 日出雄 山本 雄二 守屋 文夫 宮石 智 仙波 昌三
出版者
Okayama Medical Association
雑誌
岡山医学会雑誌 (ISSN:00301558)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.103, no.3, pp.145-153, 1991-06-18 (Released:2009-08-24)
参考文献数
31

The progress of sex identification methods for forensic materials such as dried bloodstains and others in legal medicine is reviewed.Dixson and Torr (1956) first described a scientific method to identify human sex from forensic materials by detection of X chromatin in female cell nuclei. In 1972, we introduced a method for detecting Y chromatin in the human interphase nuclei by fluorescent microscopy as a new tool for decisive male sex determination from forensic materials. This method was accepted in forensic practice as the only reliable means to identify sex. In 1983, we reported sexes were distinguishable from dried bloodstains by the ratio of sex hormones, testosterone and progesterone, determined by radioimmunoassay. Gene analytical methods to prove the human Y chromosome specific DNA sequences have been introduced in this field. We also examined the method of Witt and Erickson (1989) to detect Y and X chromosome specific sequences using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and we improved this technique to exhibit its ability to identify sex in forensic practice. Our improved PCR method is expected to have a broad applicability in forensic practice because of its simplicity, sensitivity and reliability.
著者
山本 雄二
出版者
日本教育社会学会
雑誌
教育社会学研究 (ISSN:03873145)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.84, pp.65-81, 2009-05-31 (Released:2018-05-01)
参考文献数
11

The purpose of this paper is to apply text theory to the reading of documents and to show an example of how the theory is applied.In the field of cultural studies, there has been an accumulation of attempts to read texts. Among texts, a document is a special text, since it is written to be read from the beginning and therefore requires a particular way of reading. One method of analysis is to locate a document in different discourses in which some words gain meanings and others lose them. This paper examines a judicial ruling as an example of a document and attempts to show how to read it.The judicial ruling taken here is a decision on a lawsuit seeking compensation for a suicide caused by bullying in Iwaki City (1990). The victim was a third-year male junior high school student. It attracted considerable attention because it was the first case in Japan in which a court accepted professional negligence by school teachers as the cause for the suicide of a student. Three different meanings in three different discourses, that is, judicial, sociological, and educational radiate from this decision. First, in the judicial discourse, it is seen as quite senseless since it accepts the negligence of school teachers who could not foresee the suicide of the victim.This senseless decision, however, may be understandable in a sociological discourse. For, as Durkheim states in The Suicide, people tend to commit suicide for reasons of trifling matters when they cannot feel any bond with their society. If people accept the thought that ijime bullying breaks the feelings of a bond with society, and if they recognize the maliciousness of this, school officials can be seen as responsible for preventing the worst possible outcome, even if the particular direct causes of a suicide are not necessarily identified. This is the logic of the ruling.At the same time, the ruling placed 40 percent of the negligence on the victim himself. This 40 percent acknowledges his will and reason, in other words, his personality until immediately before death. This indicates that other people can work with a victim as long as he is alive. There is no education without a personality. This is none other than to read the ruling as an educational discourse.As I have shown in the example above, reading a document in different discourses gives us opportunities to consider the many possible issues it potentially entails.
著者
山本 雄二
出版者
関西大学社会学部
雑誌
関西大学社会学部紀要 (ISSN:02876817)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.48, no.1, pp.61-90, 2016-11-15

G.H.ミードの考えは多くの場合、誤解され、変形された上で日本のアカデミズムに受容されてきた。どのように変形されてきたのかを、ミードのオリジナルテクストの語用論的分析によって明らかにし、またどのように理解されるべきかもまた示した。同時に、テクストの日本語への翻訳そのものが無理解と通俗的発想とによってすでに変形されているかについても実例を示しながら明らかにした。
著者
山本 雄二
出版者
日本教育社会学会
雑誌
教育社会学研究 (ISSN:03873145)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.49, pp.94-113, 1991-10-20 (Released:2011-03-18)
参考文献数
17
被引用文献数
1
著者
石川 隆紀 宮石 智 土井 裕輔 高田 智世 今林 貴代美 稲垣 幸代 吉留 敬 山本 雄二 石津 日出雄
出版者
Okayama Medical Association
雑誌
岡山医学会雑誌 (ISSN:00301558)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.114, no.3, pp.303-308, 2003-01-31 (Released:2009-03-30)
参考文献数
11

We encountered two cases of unnatural death occurring indoors in early spring in Okayama Prefecture. The two cases were both females aged 31yearsold and 88yearsold. Autopsies revealed death from hypothermia as the cause of death. The diagnosis of death from cold was not based solely on the characteristic findings of the dead body. After confirming that there were no other accidents and diseases that may cause death, an overall evaluation should be made considering the conditions surrounding occurrence of death from cold. We describe these procedures using these two autopsy cases of death from hypothermia.
著者
石津 日出雄 宮石 智 山本 雄二 高田 真吾
出版者
Okayama Medical Association
雑誌
岡山医学会雑誌 (ISSN:00301558)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.105, no.9-10, pp.839-845, 1993 (Released:2009-03-30)
参考文献数
5

A 63-year-old male died in the hospital from erroneous drip infusion of thrombin, a local hemostatic, after polypectomy for intestinal polyposis. At autopsy, thromboses were observed in the cutaneous veins of the right arm, the right axillary vein and the right subclavian vein, and soft fibrin clots in the superior vena cava, the right atrium, the right ventricle and the pulmonary arteries. Thrombi were also found in the rami of the arteries in both lungs under the microscope. Leucocyte infiltration was recognized in the thrombus, but no organization. This finding shows that the thrombi were fresh. The remainder (150ml) of the drip solution was analyzed for thrombin activity and 8 to 16 units of thrombin activity per ml were demonstrated. From these results, the cause of death was considered pulmonary thrombosis due to intravenous administration of thrombin.
著者
山本 雄二
出版者
関西大学社会学部
雑誌
関西大学社会学部紀要 (ISSN:02876817)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.38, no.3, pp.149-167, 2007-03-30

学部共同研究費 20040401-20050331Kansai University Grant-in-Aid for the Faculty Joint Research Program 20040401-20050331〈成熟〉概念の社会学的研究(分担執筆)
著者
山本 雄二
出版者
関西大学社会学部
雑誌
関西大学社会学部紀要 = Bulletin of the Faculty of Sociology, Kansai University (ISSN:02876817)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.48, no.1, pp.61-89, 2016-11

本稿は2013年度・関西大学研修員制度による研究成果の一部である。G.H.ミードの考えは多くの場合、誤解され、変形された上で日本のアカデミズムに受容されてきた。どのように変形されてきたのかを、ミードのオリジナルテクストの語用論的分析によって明らかにし、またどのように理解されるべきかもまた示した。同時に、テクストの日本語への翻訳そのものが無理解と通俗的発想とによってすでに変形されているかについても実例を示しながら明らかにした。This study focuses on the concept of the "generalized other", which was introduced by George Herbert Mead. Although this concept is recognized as being important to the theory of the self, it is often explained based on misunderstanding of itself in Japan. "Generalized other" has been thought as taken by an individual person by mean of generalizing particular attitudes of other members: however Mead's text indicates that it is taken by each individual through one's direct experience of a social act with other members who have attitudes of their society as a whole. The author examines the characters of this misunderstanding by verifying Mead"s text and, at the same time, indicates that it is inevitably accompanied with the ignorance of the fact that the experience of taking the "generalized other" is a physical experience, as well.G. H. ミードのgeneralized otherの概念は自我論にとっては欠かせない概念であるにもかかわらず、わが国の社会学関係の事典や研究苦には誤解に甚づく説明と思われる記述がすくなくない。本稿はこの誤解の性格をミードのMind, Self. & Societyにおけるgeneralized otherの語用論的分析から明らかにする。さらにこの誤解と同じ前提、すなわち「一般化された他者」とは複数の他者が私に向ける態度や期待を一般化したものであるとの前提が翻訳晋にもまた共有されていることを示す。以上の分析を通して新たに明らかになったのは、通俗的な説明においては「一般化された他者」の態度を個人が取り入れる契機となる社会的行為の身体性もまた同時に無視されているということである。
著者
山本 雄二郎
出版者
日本農業気象学会
雑誌
農業気象 (ISSN:00218588)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.41, no.3, pp.273-280, 1985-12-10 (Released:2010-02-25)
参考文献数
23
被引用文献数
5 5
著者
山本 雄二
出版者
日本教育社会学会
雑誌
教育社会学研究 (ISSN:03873145)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.59, pp.69-88, 1996-10-15

"Ijime" has been one of the most serious problems in the field of primary and secondary education in Japan since late 1970s. "Ijime" is generally thought of as continual acts of violence including insulting words on victims by their classmates which sometimes force the victims to kill themselves. But the arguments have often suffered from the following question : how do we distinguish it from other similar acts? Ijime was defined by physical and mental pain of victims and this definition made it logically invisible. This paper focuses the arguments around the logically invisible ijime and discusses what effects the arguments have actually had on school management and the general concept of education. For this purpose, I analyzed the discursive formations of ijime-discourse from the view point of "articulation" which was introduced into the field of cultural studies by Stuart Hall et al. It sees a discursive formation as complex processes of articulation, de-articulation and re-articulation of discursive elements. Ijime-discourse consists of various elements, for instance, victims' deaths which made ijime a serious problem, the attitude of the audience and other indifferent classmates, the responsibility of teachers or school boards, and the school system itself. Ijime-discourse is not just unity but a compound of contradictory discourses. All the elements in it echo, confront or reinforce each other and ijime-discourse can be transformed beyond the control of discourse-makers. It also makes ijime-discourse open to possibilities for de-construction of itself. One of them is to put it into wider educational context which demands a charmge of the concept of education itself. Another one is de-construction of ijime-discourse into political discourse. Both examples of de-construction show that any one of the practices of discursive formation is political. Most ijime-discourses, however, have concealed their political character and have tried to fill every school with a psychological perspective which is, in itself, a very political way of management of schools. To know that any practice of discursive formation is political may lead us onto new horizons where we can see our education in a different way.
著者
山本 雄二
出版者
日本教育社会学会
雑誌
教育社会学研究 (ISSN:03873145)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.84, pp.65-81, 2009-05-31

The purpose of this paper is to apply text theory to the reading of documents and to show an example of how the theory is applied. In the field of cultural studies, there has been an accumulation of attempts to read texts. Among texts, a document is a special text, since it is written to be read from the beginning and therefore requires a particular way of reading. One method of analysis is to locate a document in different discourses in which some words gain meanings and others lose them. This paper examines a judicial ruling as an example of a document and attempts to show how to read it. The judicial ruling taken here is a decision on a lawsuit seeking compensation for a suicide caused by bullying in Iwaki City (1990). The victim was a third-year male junior high school student. It attracted considerable attention because it was the first case in Japan in which a court accepted professional negligence by school teachers as the cause for the suicide of a student. Three different meanings in three different discourses, that is, judicial, sociological, and educational radiate from this decision. First, in the judicial discourse, it is seen as quite senseless since it accepts the negligence of school teachers who could not foresee the suicide of the victim. This senseless decision, however, may be understandable in a sociological discourse. For, as Durkheim states in The Suicide, people tend to commit suicide for reasons of trifling matters when they cannot feel any bond with their society. If people accept the thought that ijime bullying breaks the feelings of a bond with society, and if they recognize the maliciousness of this, school officials can be seen as responsible for preventing the worst possible outcome, even if the particular direct causes of a suicide are not necessarily identified. This is the logic of the ruling. At the same time, the ruling placed 40 percent of the negligence on the victim himself. This 40 percent acknowledges his will and reason, in other words, his personality until immediately before death. This indicates that other people can work with a victim as long as he is alive. There is no education without a personality. This is none other than to read the ruling as an educational discourse. As I have shown in the example above, reading a document in different discourses gives us opportunities to consider the many possible issues it potentially entails.
著者
山本 雄二 Yamamoto Yuji 関西大学 Kansai University
出版者
東洋館
雑誌
教育社会学研究 = The journal of educational sociology (ISSN:03873145)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.43, pp.70-83, 1988-10-03

P. Willis's Learning to Labour is one of the most important books in the field of sociology of education. In this book, he attempts to explain how working class kids get working class jobs and why they let themselves. To answer this question, he adopts an ethnographical approach which elucidates what happens to them in school. By setting two classes a priori outside the text (=his ethnography), he takes out some traits of working class culture in which working class kids willingly select manual labour. With his approach, he loses some possibilities of interpretation that lead us to see the text as a whole world in its own right. Therefore, this paper attempts to read the text without setting concepts for explanation such as "class" outside the text. It is contended that this text can be read as a story of self-discipline. Self-discipline can be defined by saying that the temporary self is not a "real self" and that one has to deny oneself to aim at a "real self". Willis's framework of the actors, that is, ear'oles, lads, and teachers may be interpreted in the following manner. Ear'oles, committed to self-discipline, have no concrete culture while lads, being far from self-disciplined, are integrated into a concrete group culture. This difference causes gaps between the two groups in the way they define themselves. Ear'oles cannot define themselves but in contrast lads believe themselves to be complete. Teachers, agents of self-discipline, feel ambivalent towards both ear'oles and lads. The Distinction betwetn self-discipline and two other similar notions -"individualism" by Willis and "internalized norms" by Bowles & Gintis, are made clear in the final part of the paper. Self-discipline, as the ethos of modern education, helps us not only understand the relations among members in school but also causes us to reconsider what modern education is about.
著者
山本 雄二 Yuji Yamamoto 京都大学大学院 Graduate School Kyoto University
出版者
東洋館
雑誌
教育社会学研究 = The journal of educational sociology (ISSN:03873145)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.40, pp.126-137, 280, 1985-09-30

There are many articles about the conflicts or dilemmas with which teachers confront. In these studies, conflicts are treated from two aspects: the one is structural conflicts which include status conflict or role conflict (Ambivalence), and the other is conflicts on the level of action (Dilemma). They treat dilemmas, however, just as the restatement of ambivalences, that is, they do not examine the particular features of dilemmas. This paper focuses on the dilemma itself with which teachers confront in the face-to-face situation. Such dilemma should be caused when teachers find out no response from their students (situational dilemma). When one tries to resolve a dilemma in one situation, it might bring out another new dilemma. In some cases, this causes a vicious cycle. There are very few sociological studies on the features of such a vicious cycle and the mechanism by which it is created. This paper analyzes, using the concepts of "situational dilemma" and "strategy," the problematic face-to-face situation and the vicious cycle which comes out in the effort of the resolution of dilemma. Firstly, I describe the features of the dilemma with which teachers confront in the interaction with their students (situational dilemma). Secondly, I explain the significance of strategies teachers use as a means of avoiding such a dilemma. By using the concepts of "situational dilemma" and "strategy" as the core of the study, we shall be able to make clear the process of the reproduction of teachers' alienated situation. Furthermore, it should provide a new perspective for the studies of staffroom culture, occupational socialization and deviance of teachers.