- 北東アジア研究 (ISSN:13463810)
- no.1, pp.245-268, 2001-03
I Under the Circumstances Leading up to the Foundation of NCTT : The Telecommunications Problems of the East Hebei District and Hebei-Chahar District before and after the Lukouqiao Incident II The Trend of NCTT under the East Asian Telecommunication Block System III The Reorganization of NCTT on the Final War System This article is a basic research for summing up the East Asian media history in the former century and establishing the historical viewpoints to foresee the forthcoming multimedia society in the 21st century. From the viewpoint of the political cultural media history, I argue various topics about NCTT, which was established in Aug. 1938 and was famous as the nonpolitical telecommunication company in North China. Fortunately, there are 2, 256 volumes of documents about NCTT written in Japanese at the 2nd Historical Archives (Nanjing). So we can research the wartime telecommunication block and control system by using them. Before the Chinese-Japanese War, Manchuria Telegraph & Telephone Co. (MTT) took advantage of the agreement to reform the telecommunication system with the Autonomous Committee in East Hebei and got the opportunity for invading beyond the Great Wall. After Lukouqiao Incident, MTT established telecommunication bureaus at Tianjin and Beijing and began to control the telecommunication system of major cities in North China area. But NCTT encountered many difficulties, which Japan's North China Garrison Army compelled it to undertake. And it had to manage its own business under the contradictory control between MTT, which was looking forward to construct the second Manchuria Kingdom, and Japanese Ministry of Telecommunication (JMT), which was seeking to extend the Japanese Style System. And to oppose against Chongqing Nationalist Government and the Chinese Communist Party, NCTT had to develop original and applicable technologies (ex. nonloaded cable, a Japanese telegraph code, and so on) and to seek "Enclosed Innovation" under East Asian Telecommunication Block Regime. In April 1941, NCTT was attempting to integrate and coordinate the East Asian Telegraph Telephone System, which included North China, Manchuria, Mongol, and Central China. This new system would mean that the JMT leading Japanese system would came to include the networks of North China and Central China. NCTT's Organization was changed into decentralized Local General Bureaus at Beijing, Tianjin, Qingdao, Jinan, Taiyuan, and Xuzhou. In December 1941, as the Asia-Pacific War broken out, North China and Central China came to be important regions as military base for entering the South area. As the System moved to a wartime structure, rising prices and the lack of materials had serious impact on NCTT. In January 1942, according to the Telecommunication Business Agreement of East Asia Mutual Prosperity Bloc, a new mutual aid system was introduced to an integrated structure within the area of Japanese Imperial domination. But in fact, this united structure had many systematic problems. In January 1943, the Nationalist Government decided to join World War II , the managing condition of NCTT became tense. In 1944, the telecommunication functions were gradually paralyzed, so by 1945, NCTT could no longer manage them at all. On the other hand, in 1941, after the Nationwide Telecommunication Conference, the Nationalist Government was set to reform the domestic long-distant telephone network. And by using wireless networks, it could escape deviating from worldwide telecommunication networks. The contrast between these strategies and the visions of NCTT was remarkable.