- マス・コミュニケーション研究 (ISSN:13411306)
- vol.97, pp.47-63, 2020-07-31 (Released:2020-09-26)
In the works of the author, Takumi Sato, who has been changed from aGerman modern history scholar to a media historian, the concept of “Mass” hascrucial importance. This paper examines the role of the active masses who supportedthe Nazi regime, collating the arguments of George L. Mosse, Thenationalization of the masses; political symbolism and mass movements in Germanyfrom the Napoleonic wars through the Third Reich (1975=1994) andTakumi Sato, The Fascist Public Sphere; Media Studies of Total War (2018).The Nazi regime did not succeed due to manipulation of the masses throughpropaganda, but was instead supported by voluntary movements by the massesfor national consensus building. From this viewpoint, the framework of mediastudies on the fascist movements should be changed from “Nazi propaganda” to“Nazi public relations.” As an outstanding analysis during the time of Nazi propaganda,Serge Chakotin, The Rape of the Masses; The Psychology of TotalitarianPolitical Propaganda (1939) can be reread. In recent years, the book hasbeen republished and translated around the world, including an edition in Japanese(2019). What does the revival of this book mean? It shows that the bulleteffect theory functions as an excuse for the active masses who take part in thepolitical public sphere. Theoretically, the bullet effect theory was denied in the1950s by the limited effect theory. However, it is thought that its popularity hasnot abated because of the support by the nationalized masses in the informationsociety.