- 東洋史研究 (ISSN:03869059)
- vol.74, no.4, pp.678-715, 2016-03
This paper clarifies the activities of groups of Turkish 鐵勒 troops in the central government and military cliques in Northern China during the latter half of the Tang era through an examination of the Rebellion of Zhu Ci 朱泚 that occurred during the Jianzhong era (AD. 780-783). These Turkish groups occupied important positions in the central government and military cliques in Northern China during the latter half of the Tang era as they gradually moved their power bases to the Daibei 代北 and Hedong 河東 districts. This paper argues that these corps of Turkish warriors, while maintaining strong influence over a large area extending over the Daibei, Hedong districts and as far as the Ordos, merged with the Shatuo 沙陀 Turks, and that this was the background of the establishment of the Shatuo (Five) Dynasties. In the first section, the author takes up the Zhu Ci rebellion as an example of the spread of the nomadic tribes in military cliques in North China after the Anshi Rebellion, and points out these nomads occupied high positions not only in the central government but also in the military cliques and that they included many Turks and Soghdians. In the second section, the author points out that Hun Jian 渾瑊, who was a famous premier and general during the reign of Emperor Dezong, was a chief of the Hun 渾 Turks, doubled as commander of Gaolanzhou, which was a Jimizhou 羈縻州 established for the Turks, and was a relative by marriage to Qibi 契苾 Turks, who composed one of the Daibei Five tribes 代北五部. The movements of the Hun and Qibi Turks resembled one another, both migrating from Lingwu 靈武 to Daibei, where they held great power. A hidden factor behind the energetic activity of Hun Jian was the large migration of Turks, who had built up power in this area and merged with the Shatuo Turks. At this time, there was a movement of Turkish, Soghdian, and Tangut 党項 peoples to migrate to Daibei and Hedong, and at the end of the Tang dynasty many of these groups joined the Shatuo Turks. Therefore, behind the establishment of the political power of the Shatuo Turks, we can see the coalescing of these nomadic tribes.