著者
中西 啓喜
出版者
北海道大学高等教育推進機構
雑誌
高等教育ジャーナル : 高等教育と生涯学習 (ISSN:13419374)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.24, pp.63-74, 2017-03

This paper attempts to clarify the relationship of university studentsʼ performance with entrance examinations through panel data analysis. Martin Trow (1972) discussed on transition from elite to mass higher education with educational growth. However, he also wrote that some elite education sectors will remain in a mass higher education society. Therefore some elite education sectors or students would maintain their status. Many universities in Japan, including elite universities such as the national ones, have adopted methods for entrance examinations without written tests in these few years. Though Nakamura (2011) pointed out that expansion of the entrance system without the need to apply for entrance to specific faculties or courses of study should be recognized as ʠmass selection,ʡand that we must consider the effects of such systems on elite sectors. Therefore this paper examines how such entrance systems affect elite university students. The panel data used in this paper are from theʠSurvey of the career consciousness of high school students,ʡwhich were collected by questionnaire from 2005 through 2011. The purpose of the survey was to inquire about the career consciousness of high school students, and to follow-up their career situations. I analyzed the academic performance of university students using multiple regression analysis. The results suggested that the dummy variable of an entrance system without written examinations was not significant after controlling for high school rankings and individual academic tracks. In addition, the results showed that female students perfomed better than males in both of elite universities and others. Several recent British studies set the decline in academic achievement and exclusion from the labor market of male students as a social problem (Deborah 2006, Weiner et al. 1997). The results of this paper suggest that we should consider the linkage between the better performance in school and success in labor markets among Japanese women.
著者
細川 敏幸 山田 邦雅 宮本 淳
出版者
北海道大学高等教育推進機構
雑誌
高等教育ジャーナル : 高等教育と生涯学習 (ISSN:13419374)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.25, pp.69-73, 2018-05

Japanese universities are recommended to introduce an assessment policy to certify the quality of education. The policy should have a checklist that shows the methods used to assess the degree of achievement of the diploma policy. We describe an example of the checklist in detail in this paper. It shows the important role of a survey of the students, including a questionnaire for alumni. It is important in this assessment that the survey uses common questionnaire items. It also should report the results of the assessment and ideas for educational reform. This will be the last step to create a PDCA cycle in our education system.
著者
櫻井 義秀
出版者
北海道大学高等教育機能開発総合センター
雑誌
高等教育ジャーナル : 高等教育と生涯学習 (ISSN:13419374)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.15, pp.1-14, 2007-12

On July 28, 2006 the Asahi Shimbun began to critically report the controversy about the Christian Gospel Mission (called “Setsuri” in Japan), and Japanese belatedly acknowledged cult problems on campus. Jung Myung Seok, the founder of this cult, was internationally arraigned by the Korean police on suspicion of rape of female disciples and he escaped overseas in 1999, finally being arrested in China on May 12, 2007. In Korea and Japan there are allegedly several hundred victims. Providence conducted controversial proselytization on campuses and got approximately two thousand members in Japan. They concealed actual information about Providence in terms of the theology, the founder, and organization and set up various sports and cultural circles camoufl aging its missionary work object. According to the investigation by Asahi News Company, former members of Providence, and the Student Affairs Division of Hokkaido University, Providence has a church in Sapporo and proselytizes on the Hokkaido University campus. Faculty members should realize the fact that students in Hokkaido University are exposed to their masked proselytization. We must also take measures to protect the students’ right to safely study on campus and their freedom of religion. So far there has been little academic research concerning Providence except for the authors’ report in the monthly Journal “Chuou Kouron,” issued in October, 2006, titled ‘How should we protect students from controversial campus missions.’ I conducted additional research into former members of Providence and herein I illustrate their beliefs and behavior not only for faculty members of Hokkaido University but also for all student affairs offi cials and professors to understand the actual nature of Providence and the risk of their free campus mission. The contents of this paper are as follows: Chapter 1 introduces the reports and investigations of Providence. Chapter 2 explains the history and theology of Providence. Chapter 3 analyzes the method of recruitment and proselytization of new members and their daily mission work. Chapter 4 discusses the controversial mission of Providence and its harmful effect on students. The last chapter proposes possible measures to confront the controversial mission on campus.
著者
宮本 淳 出口 寿久 伊藤 一馬 川西 奈津美 河野 未幸 鈴木 里奈 高原 めぐみ 中川 紗百合 柳川 仁美 細川 敏幸
出版者
北海道大学高等教育推進機構
雑誌
高等教育ジャーナル : 高等教育と生涯学習 (ISSN:13419374)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.25, pp.49-54, 2018-05

Institutional research (hereafter referred to as “IR?) activities in Japanese universities have shifted from the introductory stage in which organizations were set up to the productive period of embodying their activities. The fundamental task of IR relating to education is to collect data from a questionnaire survey of students about their learning activities and various teaching data as provided by the university administrative office, and to thereby objectively determine the strengths and weaknesses of the university. Furthermore, it is important to promote detailed analysis by collaborating with each department in the university to make use of this in educational improvement. However, the IR organization structure varies depending on the university. Therefore, it is difficult to use a single educational evaluation model commonly applied to every university. For this reason, the IR staff at each university is seeking a number of concrete examples leading to educational improvement such as the type of data used, analysis examples, and useful procedures. In this paper, we report examples of IR seminars held by Hokkaido University through collaboration with the administrative staff and faculties. This is an important and meaningful example of one type of IR activity.
著者
山本 堅一
出版者
北海道大学高等教育推進機構
雑誌
高等教育ジャーナル : 高等教育と生涯学習 (ISSN:13419374)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.24, pp.185-190, 2017-03

In active learning, we must focus on learners’ motivation to learn. Since we have both positive and negative motivation in each lecture, we should also be sure to study the negative type. When the negative motivation is stronger than the positive one, that learner will negatively influence other learners. This article focuses on the diversity of motivation. We try to create a new classification of motivation, and insist on the necessity of taking various way of dealing with it. There are many existing theories regarding motivation. But it is hard to motivate all learners by only following those theories. Sometimes instructors need to improve the atmosphere in the room, and sometimes there are problems that can be solved only by learners. It is important to consciously control learners’ motivation so that most learners can learn truly and cooperatively with others during a lecture.
著者
山田 邦雅 宮本 淳 細川 敏幸
出版者
北海道大学高等教育推進機構高等教育研究部
雑誌
高等教育ジャーナル : 高等教育と生涯学習 (ISSN:13419374)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.26, pp.67-76, 2019-04

Abstract - Institutional Research (IR) in higher education not only gathers information from within the instituiton, but also collects a wide range of data without limitation, connects the with the student ID as a key and adjusts data to a standard among universities. Data gathered via such a policy might be able to reveal new concepts that could not be shown clearly until now. In this paper, we focus on the characteristic patterns of the university students' lifestyles as a concept that has been hard to determine and made an attempt to simulate them using the data. Using IR data of the Universities IR Consortium that includes 40 universities, the universities were divided into 6 types of students. In some combinations of these types, there were large differences in questionnaire results. We ran a simulation to determine unique features of the university using data from Hokkaido University according to a policy in which the characteristics appeared based on reference points of the categories in the university.
著者
宇田川 拓雄
出版者
北海道大学高等教育推進機構
雑誌
高等教育ジャーナル : 高等教育と生涯学習 (ISSN:13419374)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.24, pp.107-116, 2017-03

The Preparing Future Faculty (PFF) Initiative (1993-2002) is a project made possible through the partnership of the Council of Graduate Schools (CGS) and the Association of American Colleges and Universities (AAC&U). PFF is a training seminar for graduate students who desire to become professors. The initiative aims to develop useful models for PFF and to disseminate those models nationwide. The author conducted research on the experimental programs of four sociology departments, which were funded by the PFF Initiative in cooperation with the American Sociological Association (ASA). Only two sociology departments had active PFF programs; however, all four graduate schools had components of PFF programs in their curricula and graduation requirements. The PFF Initiative has succeeded in transforming the culture of graduate training. However, several problems have been identified with regard to faculty members. The primary goal for a junior professor is to earn tenure and a promotion. However, participating as partner faculty members in a PFF program may decrease junior professorsʼ research time and keep them from achieving their goals. Because the place of PFF in the professorship is unclear, it is sometimes considered to be a pro bono service activity in which only professors with little interest in aʠgenuineʡprofessorship participate. Using Burawoyʼs (2002) model of public sociology, Pescosolid (2008) redefined the professorship and identified PFF as one of the core roles of scholarship and of teaching. His thesis offered strong support for the promotion of PFF.
著者
山田 邦雅
出版者
北海道大学高等教育推進機構
雑誌
高等教育ジャーナル : 高等教育と生涯学習 (ISSN:13419374)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.24, pp.167-172, 2017-03

The Japanese situation of institutional research (IR) in the university is different from that of the United States because a campus-wide database system has not been constructed. Therefore Japanese IRers expend substantial manpower on efforts to collect data from each faculty member and consolidate them. For IR to demonstrate its true value by utilizing data, I think support of IRer is necessary. The most inefficient work of the Japanese IRer is the basic tasks that should be performed by a computer. Therefore I, a beginner in programming, developed an application that checks for incomplete IR data for IRers. When I checked the IR data of the last year with this application, I found that the values of 4.3% of the cells were incomplete and our IRer understood them. I also checked whether this application was user-friendly by using Fogg’s consumption model.
著者
末本 哲雄 田中 清裕 金井 俊輔 笠原 茂佳 石上 歩 池田 紘美
出版者
北海道大学高等教育機能開発総合センター
雑誌
高等教育ジャーナル : 高等教育と生涯学習 (ISSN:13419374)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.15, pp.45-60, 2007-12

If a specialist, especially someone belonging to a university, visits a high school or a school of lower stage and gives lectures about his or her specialty, such lectures (or such an acitivity) are called delivery-lectures. Although a high school-college collaboration, especially the deliverylectures, is spreading rapidly in Japan, learning in such a collaboration tends to be one-way from college to high school. To make it supply effects in the opposite direction, we took up deliverylectures designed and performed not by professors but by graduate students. During the activities, the graduate students realized that they got some educational effects such as expanding of their horizons, getting teacher’s mind, understanding the diffi culty of teaching and behaving in a positive attitude. The high school students considered that the lectures were benefi cial and the graduate students had enough ability to teach. These results suggest that delivery-lectures by graduate students are available as two-way learning between high schools and colleges.
著者
小林 建一
出版者
北海道大学高等教育推進機構
雑誌
高等教育ジャーナル : 高等教育と生涯学習 (ISSN:13419374)
巻号頁・発行日
no.25, pp.23-36, 2018-03

The change of regulation concerning faculty meetings of university in the School Education Law has changed the administration of the university. The president has become able to make all of the administrative decisions of the university, because the president can freely deny the opinions of the faculty meeting. This is called the "ultimate decision-making authority" by the Ministry of Education. There is no definition or direct regulation of the decision-making authority in the School Education Law. This power is due to the interpretation of law by the Ministry of Education. The technique of interpretation is a fiction of law. This technique is strongly technical and arbitrary, indicating a limitation of the law. This fiction of the law is based on the theory that the ultimate decision-making power rests with the chief of an organization because the legislation concerning the power in the law of administrative organization is not sufficient. Practically, however, the chief cannot decide by himself and needs a consensus on the various steps in the administrative organization. The Ministry of Education says that the president has the power to decide because of his ultimate responsibility based on the principle of power corresponding with responsibility, but the relationship between decision-making authority and responsibility is complex, and not easy to clarify. We can understand it by considering the problem of legal responsibility, because someone must actually take responsibility in spite of not having the ultimate decision-making authority in the organization. Therefore, the power with responsibility needs a fictional explanation. The ultimate decision-making authority is a fiction of the law but is actually defined for the university by the Ministry of Education. Appropriate legislation is needed to prevent abuse of this fiction of the law with the understanding that the president's power of decision should be circumscribed within the constraints of political majority rule.
著者
石井 治恵
出版者
北海道大学高等教育推進機構高等教育研究部
雑誌
高等教育ジャーナル : 高等教育と生涯学習 (ISSN:13419374)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.26, pp.1-9, 2019-04

Abstract - In Japan, universities have experienced an increase in the number of students seeking counseling services. While many university counseling centers perceive crisis management to be challenging, the crisis intervention literature only provides scattered evidence of its effectiveness and lacks a comprehensive classification of these interventions, making it difficult for university counseling centers to implement research-informed crisis management policies and plans. This paper presents a classification model of crisis intervention specific to university settings where three factors are displayed along the three axes of a cube. The axes consist of 3 stages of crisis, 3 scales of crisis intervention, and 3 foci of crisis intervention, resulting in 27 categories. Rationales and descriptions for these three axes are provided, followed by a discussion of the limitations and possible contributions of the cubic classification model.
著者
細川 敏幸 山田 邦雅 宮本 淳
出版者
北海道大学高等教育推進機構高等教育研究部
雑誌
高等教育ジャーナル : 高等教育と生涯学習 (ISSN:13419374)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.26, pp.59-65, 2019-04

Abstract - The questionnaire on learning situations used by the University IR Consortium was introduced by Yamada et al. in 2004 with reference to the Cooperative Institutional Research Program (CIRP) used in the USA. A questionnaire based on the National Survey of Student Engagement (NSSE) used in USA was also introduced in Korea in 2009. The questionnaires (CIRP and NSSE) referred to in both countries have been gradually reorganizad after that, and there are several different parts. In this report, we focus on the CIRP compared with the other three questionnaires, and summarize recent trends in US questionnaire contents. This will assist in future discussions about the contents of student survey questionnaires.
著者
宇田川 拓雄
出版者
北海道大学高等教育推進機構高等教育研究部
雑誌
高等教育ジャーナル : 高等教育と生涯学習 (ISSN:13419374)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.26, pp.25-33, 2019-04

Abstract - In 2017, the Japanese Goverment announced the plan of the New Policy for Human Development, aiming to reduce inequality and nurture the workforce needed for the development of 21st-century Japan. It includes tuition-free scholarships for low-income families, benefit-type scholarships, and income-linked repayment loans for university students. In contrast, a new, diffirent type of schlarship is in place in some states in the United States. In 2014, Governor Bill Haslam of Tennessee signed the Tennessee Promise Act, and it was implemented in 2015. It is a state scholarship that makes tuition for community colleges free for two years for all the first time students who attend any of the Tennessee community colleges. The completion rate for community colleges is only 25%. Why did the lawmakers decide to spend money on institutions of higher education with such low productivity? The Tennessee Promise has been an immense success and, by March 2018, fifteen states had followed Tennessee and enavted similar Promise-type programs. Today, in Japan, as well as in the United States, more than 50% of 18-yaer-olds attend college or university. We are at the universal stage of Martin Trow's model of higher education. Why free-tuition policies have appeared at this stage of universalization? In this paper, the author analyzes the features of Tennessee's free-tuition scholoarships and tries to explain the meaning of the program using Trow's model.
著者
亀野 淳
出版者
北海道大学高等教育推進機構
雑誌
高等教育ジャーナル : 高等教育と生涯学習 (ISSN:13419374)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.24, pp.137-144, 2017-03

This study revealed the relationship between generic skills of Hokkaido University students and their academic performance and employment. A progress report on generic skills (PROG) was used as a way of measuring these skills quantitatively and its results were linked with data obtained in a questionnaire survey on their career awareness. The findings included the following. (1) Although the literacy of Hokkaido University students was found to be high, their competency was found to be at roughly the same level as the national average. (2) Although no clear relationship was found between competency and academic performance, prospective employers tended to report higher satisfaction with students who had higher competency scores. (3) Although the competency score was high for students who were trying to act proactively and spontaneously, who were making efforts toward definite goals or who had high interest in other conntries, no relationship was found between competency and their enthusiasm in studies, club activities or part-time jobs.
著者
布施 泉 岡部 成玄 中西 通雄
出版者
北海道大学高等教育推進機構
雑誌
高等教育ジャーナル : 高等教育と生涯学習 (ISSN:13419374)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.24, pp.97-105, 2017-03

In a general information education class for freshmen of Hokkaido University, we used a CPU simulator in order to help students understand the calculation procedure on the CPU. The analysis of the results of a questionnaire concerning the course showed that understanding, interest and motivation with regard to the basic principles of computers were improved by solving exercises using the simulator in addition to textbook learning. As a result of the exercises, it was found that the material was useful not only to understand the principles of the CPU but to promote better understanding of “computational thinking.”