著者
國原 美佐子
出版者
東京女子大学
雑誌
東京女子大学紀要論集 (ISSN:04934350)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.44, no.2, pp.27-53, 1994-03-16

The purpose of this paper is to consider the establishment of the tosenbugyo 唐船奉行 to regulate foreign relations, and the reason why Ino-Yamato no kami-Sadatsura 飯尾大和守貞連 was appointed as the first tosenbugyo. In the fourth year of Eikyo 永享 (1432), the diplomatic relations, which featured the tally trade (勘合貿易) between Japan and the Ming dynasty and were discontinued after the death of the third Muromachi shogun Ashikaga Yoshimitsu 足利義満, were then restored by the sixth shogun Ashikaga Yoshinori 足利義教. After Yoshinori's time, the totosen 渡唐船 (the fleet of the ships from Japan to Ming China) consisted of the ships belonging to three different kinds of owners: the Muromachi shogun, temples, and the shugo daimyo. According to Mansai Jugo Nikki 満済准后日記, the system of the tosenbugyo was established in 1434 (永享6年) to mediate all the business about the tally trade between the ship managers, the gozan-monks 五山僧, and the Muromachi shogun as monarch of Japan. The first main (tanto) tosenbugyo was Ino Sadatsura, who was the bugyonin (one of the shogun's executive officers) in the Muromachi period. The Ino family, especially the Yamato branch, the Kaga branch, and the Hizen branch, were influential among bugyonin called gozen satashu 御前沙汰衆 (direct judges), and were promoted by the Ashikaga shoguns. The main tosenbugyo and the sub tosenbugyo (aibugyo) were appointed from the three branch of the lno family for generations. The tosenbugyo's regular work can be devided as follows: (1) to defend the trading ships around Japan, (2) to procure export goods, (3) to mediate among the Muromachi shogun, the ship managers and the Gozan-monks (4) to manage the tallies. In addition, Ino Sadatsura also conducted negotiations with the diplomats of the Li dynasty as a representative of the Muromachi shogunate. It had been impossible for a government official to deal with the diplomatic issues during the Yoshimitsu's reign. The diplomacy of the Muromachi period particularly valued the trade and it affected domestic politics. Tosenbugyo did not play such an active part in Muromachi diplomacy as the Gozan-monks did, but it is significant that the Muromachi shogunate was the first organization to appoint the executive officers of the samurai class to high positions in its diplomatic organization.
著者
有賀 美和子
出版者
東京女子大学
雑誌
東京女子大学紀要論集 (ISSN:04934350)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.46, no.1, pp.185-203, 1995-09-20
著者
黒崎 政男(1954-)
雑誌
東京女子大学紀要論集 (ISSN:04934350)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.61, no.1, pp.27-53, 0000

A Japanese translation of Aristotle's De Anima that thematises what kokoro is has recently been discovered. It was done through the cooperation of Jesuit missionaries and Japanese in 1595 during the Kirishitan period (Kirishitan means early Christians in Japan in the 16th to 17th century). The manuscript fascinates us, not only because it tells us that the core of Western thought was already translated three hundred years before the Meiji era in which Japan truly encountered the West, but also because it includes an additional chapter on the permanence of anima rational humanica, which is not found in the Latin original.This suggests that it was absolutely necessary [for Christians] to preach the singularity and permanence of human kokoro (Quod anima intellectiva sit immortalis et aeterna), in order to disseminate Christianity in Japan where no fundamental distinction was made between human and animal kokoro (cf. F. Xavier, letter 29/1/1552). We can here confirm the basic difference between the Western anima and the Oriental kokoro.心とはいったい何か、を主題的に論じたアリストテレスの〈De Anima〉のキリシタン時代の日本語翻訳(1595)が最近発見された。江戸時代以前に西洋の核心となる思想が日本語翻訳されていたということ自体きわめて興味深いのだが、さらに面白いのは、日本語版には、オリジナルのラテン語版底本には存在しない「人間の理性的魂(anima rational)は永遠不滅である」という書き加えの章があることである。人間と動物との 〈心〉 の間に根本的差異をみとめない日本でキリスト教をひろめるには、 人間の 〈心〉 の特異性、 不滅性を教え込むことがどうしても必要だったのである。 ここに西洋と東洋のanimaと〈心〉の差異の基本的図式を確認することができる。
著者
本合 陽
出版者
東京女子大学
雑誌
東京女子大学紀要論集 (ISSN:04934350)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.58, no.1, pp.115-138, 2007-09

This paper argues that asexuality of the protagonists is the crucial element that drives Howard Overing Sturgis's novels, Tim (1891) and Belchamber (1904). The heroes and heroines in the late nineteenth century cannot deviate from the role models that "compulsory heterosexuality" imposes upon them. Sturgis's protagonists do not seemingly belong to the figure. However, they must develop their character under the pressure of the compulsory heterosexuality. Their asexuality does not provide them with other choices, which causes their tragedy. Tim, the protagonist of Tim, is a boy who loves only nature and has just expected that "the tender gracious figure" would come to him. He does not know what he is and has no erotic desire for anybody. However, two triangular relationships drive him to the awareness of gender and sexuality. The relationship with his father and his friend Carol makes him realize that he is not like other boys. The relationship with Carol and his girlfriend Violet reminds him of marriage, which in turn makes him realize that his love for Carol is similar to Jonathan's love for David in the First Book of Samuel: Tim's love for Carol is homoerotic. In other words, the compulsory heterosexuality drives asexual Tim to become a hero who dies when he confesses his homoerotic desire. Sainty, the protagonist of Belchamber, is a boy who loves embroidery. In his triangular relationship with his mother and his younger brother, whom the role of the hero of the story and the heir to Belchamber befits, Sainty becomes aware that he is "effeminate" and "not manly." Accordingly, he starts to take on the role of a mother. However, another triangular relationship with his vicious cousin and a pretty girl forces him to think about marriage with the girl. Also in Belchamber, compulsory heterosexuality dominates the life of the protagonist. Sainty's asexuality deprives him of other choices of living for him. Sturgis's works do not seem to have been properly assessed. According to the discussion on the process that the main characters are forced towards "the heroes," protagonists' asexuality makes the true value of the works invisible.
著者
矢澤 澄子 矢沢 澄子 ヤザワ スミコ
出版者
東京女子大学
雑誌
東京女子大学紀要論集 (ISSN:04934350)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.59, no.1, pp.85-116, 2008-09

Japanese society has been facing elder care crisis since the 1980's epitomized by a so-called "nursing hell" which has resulted from a care service shortage for the increasing number of elderly people. The national elder care insurance system commenced in 2000 as a response to the above situation. It was a paradigm change to the social care of elderly people, from a limited adminis-trative service by the government, to a social care insurance system with individual choice and mutual help by contract with the government.This article examines the basic idea of a care model for the elder care insurance system (a care model for 'decent life' for elderly people) and attempts to discover influences from the ideas and practice of group homes for elderly people with dementia developed in local areas since the 1980's prior to the institutionalization of the elder care insurance system. The article also analyses the gap between the idea of a care model for the elder care insurance system and the reality of care workers facing difficulties in workplaces, based on empirical research of care workers in group homes. The research was based on a questionnaire designed by our research group in 2006, and sent by mail to 1382 workers all over Japan.In conclusion, the paper proposes the necessity of re-examining and improving the design and contents of the elder care insurance system, in order to realize its original ideas and purpose as the national social care system, by strengthening public responsibility and financial support at the national as well as local level. It is the only way to maintain a high quality of elder care service in the system and respond to the sincere desires of care workers who work diligently for long hours and receive low salaries.少子高齢化と「介護の危機」(ケアの危機)が進行するなか、日本では2000年を起点としていわゆる社会福祉基礎構造改革により、高齢者介護サービスは、措置制度から介護保険制度(自由契約制度)へとパラダイム転換を行った。本論文は、日本の社会的介護(ソーシャル・ケア)の要を担う介護保険制度の理念、目標像がどのように明確化され制度化されてきたのかについて、特に制度の理念・目標像の構築に大きな影響を与えてきた、認知症高齢者グループホーム実践(認知症対応型共同生活介護)の展開過程との関連に注目して考察する。また制度の運用と改変の過程で顕在化してきた理念・目標像と運用・実践の間の矛盾や、2005年の制度改正以降とくに深刻化している理念・目標像と利用者の選択権や現場ケアワーカーの労働実態との間に広がる乖離の中身についても全国調査に基づき検証する。論文では日本の介護保険制度の形成・改変過程を見据え、制度の理念・目標像、介護保険政策の展開、介護現場の実態の3者を相互に関連づけながら、制度の成熟と「望ましいケア実践」にむけて何が問われているかを明らかにする。いま多くの認知症高齢者グループホームでは、介護保険制度の運用と改正の負の影響を受け、ケアワーカーたちが利用者と制度の狭間で苦悩し、他の介護施設と同様にホーム運営(経営)の瀬戸際で解決すべき複雑な困難に直面している。介護保険の「お年寄りをどんどん切り捨てる」「机の上だけて決められている制度」と「介護実践の場」の現状との間にある大きな乖離は早急に埋める必要がある。そのために国・地方自治体は、現場の声にしっかり耳を傾け、制度の改善・改革にむけてどのように有効な政策的対応をとりうるのかに真剣に立ち向かうことが求められている。
著者
林 文子
出版者
東京女子大学
雑誌
東京女子大学紀要論集 (ISSN:04934350)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.58, no.2, pp.123-149, 2008-03

This note presents a selection and organization of words related to food culture from The Japanese-Portuguese Dictionary. The Japanese-Portuguese Dictionary, the translation of VOCABVLARIO DA LINGOA DE IA PAM corn a declaracao em Portugues, was published in 1603 by the Society of Jesus for use by their missionnaries in the propagation of the Christian faith. These words are fragmented, ambiguous, and somewhat limited. Not all words in The Japanese-Portuguese Dictionary were well known by everybody at that time, but most of words were practical and widely used, and thus helpful for the propagation of the Christian faith. Food is a mainstay of life, and plays a key role in forming our identities. What to eat and how to eat is not only a matter of individual taste, but also a part of culture that reflects time and geography. The observations of strangers from strange lands (Europe) gave structure and clarity to the everyday things taken for granted by people living in the visited country (Japan). For example, unexpected food for Europeans included unknown grasses, unusually fish, uncommon seaweed, salted fish guts, and above all fermented things, such as fermented soybeans. Based on actual experience, this selection is not in merely an enumeration of foods, but a reconstruction of food scenery at the end of the 16th Century in Japan. Some excerpts from The Japanese-Portuguese Dictionary are as follows. Japanese at that time thought that food can be either power or poison. Thus, "Dokudachi (literally Poison cut-off)" indicates when a sick person fasts reduces food intake. A meal includes Ii (rice), Shiru (soup), and Sai (vegetables or fish or meat). Shiru, the soup was essential for every meal. Rice was graded by difficulty of polishing. Damage resistant red rice spread through the country, and came to be boiled in iron pots. The multi-faceted abilities to harvest, hunt, and produce were expanding, as can be seen from the specific names for rice gruels, rice cakes, noodles, beans, underground vegetables, mushrooms, seaweed, shellfish, river fish, sea fish, game, wildfowl, fruits, and nuts. From root to seed, from meat to guts, they ate all parts, and invented ideas to preserve food such as drying and salting. One of the characteristic trends at that time was the entry of salt, vinegar, and soybeans to the dinner table. Soybeans were processed in many ways, such as tofu (bean curd), moyasi (sprouts), natto (fermented soybeans), miso (soybean paste), sudate (soy sauce). They frequently used the word "Anbai" to measure the taste. This meant that salt became a large component of food.
著者
有賀 美和子
出版者
東京女子大学
雑誌
東京女子大学紀要論集 (ISSN:04934350)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.44, no.1, pp.123-142, 1993-09-20

Feminist criticisms in social sciences have challenged the traditional disciplines in two ways. On one hand, some works focus on the absence of women or the "malestream" orientation in the disciplines, and then go on to ask how they should change in order to include women on an equal basis with men. On the other hand, some focus more immediately on how the gendered structure of the societies has shaped their ideas and arguments, and consider how these ideas and arguments are affected by the adoption of a feminist perspective. In this paper, giving heed to the second project, I shall focus on a major political philosopher, John Rawls, in thinking about social justice. John Rawls's A Theory of Justice has provided an impetus to much of contemporary political and moral theory. I focus here on the effects of assumptions about gender on central aspects of the theory, and consider how his assumptions about the division of labor between the sexes, with women taking care of the sphere of human nuturance, have a fundamental effect upon his accounts of moral subjects and the development of moral thinking. This is exemplified in his tendencies to separate reason from feeling and to require that moral subjects be abstracted from the contingencies of actual human life, in his deliberations. The way Rawls presents his theory of justice reflects the Kantian heritage. That is, it reflects Kant's stress on autonomy and rationality as the defining characteristics of moral subjects, his rigid separation of reason from feeling, and refusal to allow feeling any place in the formulation of moral principles. This Kantian heritage leaves Rawls's theory open to two feminist criticisms: that it involves egoistic assumptions about human nature and that it is of little relevance to actual people thinking about justice. Therefore, his theory is often viewed as excessively rationalistic, inividualistic, and abstracted from real human beings. However, at its center, Rawls's theory much includes the implications of responsibility, care, and concern for others. I shall attempt to develop an approach to social justice, which centers on a reinterpretation of his central concept, the "original position." At the same time, in a sense, this paper is a critique of Rawls. In line with a long tradition of political and moral philosophers including Rousseau, Hegel, and Tocqueville, he regards the family as a school of morality, a primary socializer of just citizens. But along with others in the tradition, he also neglects the issue of the justice or injustice of the gendered family itself. This tension within the theory can be resolved by opening up the question of justice within the family.
著者
森 一郎
出版者
東京女子大学
雑誌
東京女子大学紀要論集 (ISSN:04934350)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.47, no.1, pp.1-23, 1996-09-20

The significance of Heidegger's philosophy might be evaluated in terms of the "ontological turn" he gave to the phenomenological movement. In this essay, I attempt to show that this conversion as performed by Heidegger, is a repetition of another "great event" in philosophical history-Marx's reversal of dialectical thinking. In his famous essay "The Question Concerning Technique," Heidegger inquires in the essence of modern technique. According to his etymology, the word "technique" (tekhne), like the word "production" (poiesis), originally meant a mode of revealing (aletheuein). From such a aletheological point of view, Heidegger interprets the specific mode of modern technique as "Herausfordern" (challenging), by means of which anything on earth can become "Bestand" (stock). The claimant of this requisition is no longer an individual man, but some impersonal system of accumulation. Heidegger names this system the "Gestell" (gatheringsetting). When examined closely, the term "Herausfordern" is found to be equivalent to the key Marxian concept "Ausbeuten" (exploitation). Moreover, "Gestell" proves to be just another name for the monstrous master of the modern age, Capitalism. It is not accidental that we also encounter a question concerning technique in Marx's Capital. The subject of this book is "the capitalistic mode of production," so that Marx examines essentially the same modern technique, to which capitalism owes the development of its productive force. Guided by Marx's critique of the "economy of time," we can attain insight into the problems of the "technology of time." That is why Capital is still one of the most important philosophical approaches to the essence of technology.
著者
高橋 修(1971-)
雑誌
東京女子大学紀要論集 (ISSN:04934350)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.68, no.1, pp.99-124, 0000

表題の崇源院は江戸幕府二代将軍徳川秀忠の正室であった江(1573~1626)のことで、崇源院とは彼女の死後の贈名である。彼女は寛永3年(1626)に江戸城内で死去し、その遺骸は火葬に付され、増上寺に埋葬された。昭和33~35年(1958~60)に増上寺内で実施された発掘調査により、崇源院の墓石が地下から発掘された。この調査以後、彼女の墓石は行方不明となっていたが、最近の調査により山梨県甲州市にある古刹 恵林寺境内にあることが判明した。墓石の周囲には文字が刻まれており、従来はその解読が不十分であった。そこで今回の再発見を契機として、墓石碑文の解読とその現代語訳を試み、また、何故、彼女の墓石が地下に埋められたのか、その歴史的背景を明らかにすることを本稿の目的として設定した。Suugenin(崇源院1573~1626) was the shougun Tokugawa Hidetada's (徳川秀忠) wife. In 1626 she died at Edo Castle. She was cremated and buried in Zojoji(増上寺).The tomb of Suugenin was excavated by an excavation survey at Zojoji in 1958~1960. Later, her grave became missing. It turned out that it was in Erinji(恵林寺).Her tomb is engraved with letters, but they were not legible in traditional research. Therefore, this paper aims to clarify the following two points: first of all, I will decipher the inscription and make a modern translation, secondly, I will discuss why the tomb was buried underground.
著者
内藤 真帆
出版者
東京女子大学
雑誌
東京女子大学紀要論集 (ISSN:04934350)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.65, no.2, pp.181-200, 2015-03

ヴァヌアツ共和国のツツバ語は、話者数およそ500人の消滅の危機に瀕した言語である。この言語には舌先と上唇とで調音する舌唇音という希少音が存在するが、現在この音は唇音へと音変化しつつある。その要因としては第二次世界大戦下の人口減少と国語ビスラマ語の影響が考えられる。またツツバ語の句構造も変化しつつあり、この要因としては近代化による他言語話者との接触の影響が考えられる。本論文では2001年から今日までの現地調査のデータをもとに、若年齢層と高年齢層の①音声と②句構造を比較する。そして世代間の差異を明らかにするとともに、ツツバ語が変化しつつある要因を、戦争・近代化・国語・教育言語の影響といった観点から、時系列に沿って考察する。The Tutuba language spoken by approximately 500 people in the Republic of Vanuatu is an endangered language. This language has speech sounds which are known as apicolabials. In the Tutuba language, a sound shift from apicolabials to labials is now occurring. In addition, the structure of noun phrases is also now changing, especially among the young.This paper will discuss the factors behind these changes from the viewpoint of the influences of World War Ⅱ, modernization, national language, and educational languages by analyzing research data collected from 2001 to 2014.
著者
光延 真哉
出版者
東京女子大学
雑誌
東京女子大学紀要論集 (ISSN:04934350)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.68, no.2, pp.33-58, 2018-03
著者
森 一郎
出版者
東京女子大学
雑誌
東京女子大学紀要論集 (ISSN:04934350)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.45, no.2, pp.19-40, 1995-03-08

Since Heidegger made his unique interpretation of Nietzsche public, the image of Nietzsche as "the last metaphysician in the Occident" has spread widely. Indeed, this was Heidegger's great contribution. However, Nietzsche has many puzzling masks and is much greater than Heidegger explained. Indeed, Heidegger was, as one of the post-Nietzsche generation, deeply influenced by Nietzsche. The purpose of this study is to elucidate the remarkable motives inherited from Nietzsche which appear in Heidegger's main work, Being and Time. Above all, Nietzsche's radical 'anti-humanism,' concentrated in his idea of the "superman," is the hidden background of Heidegger's existential analytics of "Dasein." We can recognize this clearly in the fact that both philosophers call into question the specifically modern concept of 'death' as the worst anti-human evil.
著者
森 一郎(1962-)
出版者
東京女子大学論集編集委員会
雑誌
東京女子大学紀要論集 (ISSN:04934350)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.64, no.2, pp.1-25, 0000

In On Revolution Hannah Arendt interprets Melville's Billy Budd, Sailor as a tragedy of natural goodness beyond virtue, and she then proceeds to describe "The Grand Inquisitor" in Dostoyevski's novel The Brothers Karamazov as another classical story of the political consequences of the French Revolution. According to Arendt, Dostoyevski contrasts the mute compassion of Jesus with the eloquent pity of the Inquisitor. Compassion, to be stricken with the suffering of someone else as though it were contagious, and pity, to be sorry without being touched in the flesh, are not only not the same, they may not even be related. While compassion never appears on the public scene, pity can succeed in entering the market-place. Pity as a boundless sentiment, however, invades and destroys every political sphere where men should act and speak to each other deliberately and dispassionately. Is there not such a "bond" of human community that can be the alternative of compassion? Arendt refers us to the very principle that inspires and guides people's actions: solidarity.ハンナ・アーレントは『革命について』のなかで、メルヴィルの『ビリー・バッド』を、徳を超えた自然的善の悲劇だと解し、次いで、ドストエフスキーの小説『カラマーゾフの兄弟』中の「大審問官」を、フランス革命の政治的帰結に関するもう一つの古典的物語として描くことへと向かう。アーレントによれば、ドストエフスキーは、イエスの無言の同情を、大審問官の雄弁な哀れみと対比させている。同情とは、まるで伝染するかのように他人の苦悩に打たれることであって、哀れみとは、肉体的には動かされないままかわいそうに思うことであり、両者は同じものでないばかりか、互いに無関係ですらある。同情は公的舞台に現われることが決してないが、哀れみのほうは、市場に登場することができる。しかしながら、哀れみは、際限のない感傷として、人々が熟慮のうえで冷静に活動し合い言論を交わすべき政治的領域に侵入し、これを破壊してしまう。同情の対案となりうるような、人間共同体の「絆」はないのだろうか。アーレントは、連帯こそ、活動を鼓舞し導くそのような原理なのだ、と指摘する。
著者
宇野 公一郎(1950-)
雑誌
東京女子大学紀要論集 (ISSN:04934350)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.61, no.2, pp.95-138, 0000

In this article I have translated and annotated "The Way to Decorate the Drum with the Trophy of War (Inzira yo kwambik ingoma)," a section of the esoteric royal ritual Code, the Ubwiru, of Rwanda. In addition, I have compared the customs of nearby kingdoms of the Great Lakes Region of Africa focusing on the royal drums and mutilation of the bodies of the dead. From this comparison I have discussed that although mutilation of the bodies of dead enemy and placing fetishes on royal drums are found in the different parts of the region, the systematization of the rituals to decorate the royal drum by hanging the enemy king's testicles was found only in Rwanda. Furthermore, I have outlined the history of Rwanda's expeditions to expand the territory and surveyed especially on abahinza (the native chiefs). From this I conclude that "The Way to Decorate the Drum with the Trophy of War" strongly reflects the increase of the military expeditions of the Kigeri IV Rwabugiri in the latter half of the 19th century, especially the Rwandanization of the abahinza's territory in the western and northern regions of the kingdom.本稿はルワンダの王朝秘典ubwiruの1つ「太鼓に戦利品を飾る道」に訳・注をつけた。そしてそれを補うために、まず、王権太鼓と死体毀損に注目しながら大湖地方の諸王国の習俗を比較した。その結果、敵の死体の毀損、王権太鼓への呪物の添付といった個々の要素は大湖地方のあちこちに見られるが、敵王の睾丸で飾りを作って王権太鼓に吊す儀式を制度化した国はルワンダ以外にはなかったことが明らかになった。さらに、ルワンダの対外拡張戦争を概観したうえでヒンザ(土着首長)について考察した。その結果、「太鼓に戦利品を飾る道」は19世紀後半のKigeri IV Rwabugiriの軍事行動の増加、とりわけ西部や北部のヒンザの領域のルワンダ化を色濃く反映していると結論した。
著者
守谷 亜紀子
出版者
東京女子大学
雑誌
東京女子大学紀要論集 (ISSN:04934350)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.57, no.2, pp.31-50, 2007-03

Yukio Mishima's Ao no Jidai paints a picture of a young person's life that is ruined. However, the work does not allow the reader to feel the tragedy. Rather, the hero is painted in a humorous way. This is because of the irony in the work. This irony is an important element that influences the world of the story. I analyzed the irony in Ao no Jidai. The irony is a way of making things relative. There are four characteristics of the irony: the indivisibility of two sides, destructiveness, creativity, and escapism and self-defense. In this paper, Ao no Jidai is analyzed on the basis of each characteristic. The analysis shows that the hero is a person alienated from the real world. Moreover, his inner side is described humorously and treated as false. The hero's self-destructive way of life is also ironical. Ao no Jidai is funny and also tragic. It can be said that hero's way of life is tragic, but regarding the human inner side as false is the characteristic irony of this work. The humor in Ao no Jidai is one side of the world of the nothingness which negative irony makes.
著者
長田 舞
雑誌
東京女子大学紀要論集 (ISSN:04934350)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.60, no.1, pp.89-103, 0000

In the nineteenth century, a female drowned body was a significant motif in visual culture. While Found Drowned (1848-50) by G. F. Watt depicts a miserable fallen woman, Ophelia (1851-2) by Sir John Everett Millais represents female purity and madness. These representations of drowned women were closely related to the middle class ideal of women in the Victorian society: 'the angel in the house.' This essay compares these two paintings with an illustration by Arthur Hopkins of the Return of the Native in Belgravia in order to reveal similarities and differences among them. Through such comparison, this essay aims to make clear the implications of Eustacia Vye's drowned body.In the Return of the Native, Eustacia, called a 'witch' by villagers in Egdon Heath, is depicted as a traitor against the Victorian moral code in terms of which some similarities can be found between her and the 'fallen woman' in the Victorian age. However, Eustacia is represented at the same time as a melancholic and pure woman like Millais' "Ophelia." Such ambiguity suggests that her drowned body is quite different from that of the fallen woman and, therefore, allows readers to interpret her death in contradictory ways. Eustacia's drowned body symbolizes not only her unfulfilled escape from the patriarchal society, but also her relentless deviation from the forged ideal of Victorian women.19世紀の視覚芸術において、女性の水死体は重要なモチーフであった。女性の水死体の表象は、中産階級における女性の新しい理想像と密接に結びついていた。そのため、代表的な二作品、G. F. ワットの『溺死』とジョン・エバレット・ミレーの『オフィーリア』には、堕ちた女と純潔な女性という相反する女性の表象が読みとれる。本稿においては、これら二作品と『帰郷』がベルグラヴィス誌連載時に、アーサー・ホップキンスによって描かれたユーステイシア・ヴァイの水死体の挿絵との比較を通して、三作品の共通点と相違点を指摘する。さらに、その比較を通して、ユーステイシアの水死体に含意された意味を読み解く。エグドン・ヒースの住人から「魔女」と呼ばれているように、ユーステイシアは共同体の道徳規範を逸脱した反逆者として描かれている。確かに、ユーステイシアには、ヴィクトリア朝の堕ちた女との共通項があるが、同時にミレーが描いたオフィーリアのような憂鬱な女性という側面もある。ユーステイシアが内包する相反する特性は、彼女の死に多義的な意味を付与するだけでなく、ユーステイシア自身についての解釈をも多様にしている。堕ちた女と純潔な女性の表象が混在するユーステイシアの水死体は、男性によって捏造された女性の理想像から逃れることができなかった彼女の運命を象徴しているだけでなく、そうした女性像からの永遠の逃避を象徴しているのである。
著者
湯浅 成大
雑誌
東京女子大学紀要論集 (ISSN:04934350)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.60, no.2, pp.207-233, 0000

Barak Obama was elected U.S. President proclaiming that he bring change to America. I discuss whether Obama's victory will really makes America change and, if so, in what sense.First, I analyze whether Obama's victory means a realignment of the American political structure, in other words, a party realignment. My hypothesis is that it is true. The political analyst John B. Judis claims that a new liberal majority is being formed. Composed of professionals, women, and ethnic minorities, the new liberal majority is a driving force of the realignment of the American political structure. Some data support this: the changing voting pattern of wealthier people and younger white generation.Second, I examine how Obama has changed American foreign policy and its implications. Obama's diplomatic style is called "idealistic pragmatism",and was demonstrated in his "Nuclear Free" speech at Prague, his stress on international cooperation, and his commitment to global agendas. It is proof of a departure from former President George W. Bush's unilateral U.S. foreign policy. This is the biggest "change" in Obama's foreign policy. I also argue that President Obama's change in U.S. foreign policy is a kind of strategy for adapting to the "changing world environment",that is, the relative decline of American power, the emergence of BRICs, and, a more unfavorable scenario for America, "a world without the West".Although conservatives in the U.S. are tenacious opponents of Obama's domestic and foreign policy, yet I conclude that President Obama has started making America change in two arenas: realignment of the American political structure and promotion of his "idealistic pragmatism" in foreign policy.オバマ大統領は「チェンジ」をスローガンに掲げてアメリカ大統領に当選した。本論文ではオバマの勝利が本当にアメリカに「チェンジ」をもたらすのか,またもしそうであるならそれはどういう変化をもたらすのかについて論じる。第一に,オバマの勝利はアメリカの政治構造に変動をもたらすのかについて検討する。政治評論家のジョン・B・ジュディスは,オバマの勝利は専門職・女性・マイノリティを核とする新しいリベラル多数派の勝利とみる。それが事実ならば政治構造の再編が起こったということができる。この見方を裏付けるデータとしては,2004年選挙の場合は,年収5万ドルを境に低所得者層の民主党ケリー支持と富裕者層の共和党ブッシュ支持が鮮明に分かれていたが,今回は年収5万ドル以下の層の民主党オバマ支持は堅固である一方,5万ドル以上の層でもオバマと共和党のマケイン支持が拮抗している。つまり所得の多寡と候補者支持のパターンが2004年と2008年では変化しているのである。また,前回選挙ではブッシュが選挙人を獲得したが,今回はオバマが勝利した接戦州のうち,コロラドとヴァージニアでは,大卒大学院卒のオバマ支持が目立っている。このことは,専門職層の民主党支持への変化を示唆するデータといえる。これらのデータから本論文では,オバマの勝利は個人的なものではなく政治構造の変動の始まりであるという仮説を支持する。第二に,オバマ政権の外交政策における変化である。オバマ政権の外交は,国際協調重視や環境問題などのグローバルイッシュー重視からわかるように,ブッシュ政権の外交とは全く異なるものである。彼の外交スタイルは「理想主義的プラグマティズム」と名づけることができる。プラハでの「核のない世界」演説にみられるように,現実的な目標を実現させる過程において,理念や理想に訴えてまわりを説得するアプローチである。もちろんこれらの姿勢はブッシュ政権からの決別を示すためのものであるが,同時にアメリカのパワーの相対的衰退,BRICsといわれる新興諸国の台頭に加え,「欧米抜きの世界」が登場する可能性も見据えた,新しい国際環境への適応戦略とも考えられる。オバマの「チェンジ」は,アメリカ国内の保守派の抵抗もあって,簡単には実現しないかもしれないが,政治構造の変動と新しい外交スタイルの確立という点で端緒を開いたと本論文では結論づける。
著者
奈須 麻里子
雑誌
東京女子大学紀要論集 (ISSN:04934350)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.60, no.2, pp.125-143, 0000

William Shakespeare's Cymbeline is presumed to have been written in about 1610. Like Shakespeare's other three romance plays, Cymbeline has some typical elements of contemporary romances. The main theme of the play is not only the adventure and the death of the main characters, but also the revival of patriarchal society as well as its disruption and the reunion of family and lovers after their parting.In this essay, the discussion focuses on Cymbeline, the king of Britain, and Posthumus Leonatus, husband of Princess Imogen, Cymbeline's only daughter. The emphasis is on the representations of the construction of their male subjectivity in the play in terms of their relationship with the female characters and politics. The women characters fulfill the important functions, influencing the construction of male subjectivity. The most remarkable aspect of the play is that in order to establish their sense of identity the male characters depend on their relationship with women. Through the examination of the representation of Cymbeline and Posthumus's subjectivity, this essay considers the significance of this play in the context of gender and politics.William ShakespeareのCymbelineは1610年頃に執筆されたと推定され、ほぼ同時期に描かれたPericles (1608), The Winter's Tale (1611), The Tempest (1611)と共に、一般にロマンス劇と呼ばれている。ロマンス劇の特徴は、暗くて悲劇的な雰囲気から始まるものの、時間の経過と共に、若い恋人たちの結婚、友人同士の和解、家族の再会やその絆によって喜劇的に解決されることだ。本論文ではブリテンの国王CymbelineとImogenの夫Posthumusに焦点を当て、本作品において男性の主体構築が女性登場人物との関係を通して果たされていることに注目したい。Shakespeare前期の作品において、異性との関係を通して自己を定義しようと試みる傾向は、多く女性登場人物に見られる特徴であった。しかしShakespeare後期の芝居になると、同様の傾向が男性登場人物たちに見られるようなる。本作品における男性の主体構築の表象に関する分析を通じて、本作におけるロマンス的な和解と再生が、むしろ女性登場人物を通じて果たされていることについて考察したい。
著者
本合 陽(1958-)
雑誌
東京女子大学紀要論集 (ISSN:04934350)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.60, no.1, pp.47-76, 0000

This paper argues The Wings of the Dove is a text that conceals homoerotic desire: Milly Theale's romance includes her love for Kate Croy and Kate, who calls Milly a dove, needs Milly's love. It discusses the same expressions used by different characters, the meanings of romance, the replaceability of points of view, and Milly's illness.First, we argue Milly's romance represents her desire for Kate. The replaceability of characters is implied when the same words or phrases are applied to or used by two characters. In the novel Milly is set up as a princess of a romance. Milly always regards Kate as handsome and Merton Densher's gaze that desires Kate is shared with Milly. Milly's gaze parallels Merton's, so the prince of her romance can be Kate. Next, we discuss Kate's love for Milly. Descriptions about Milly's illness overlap with the discourse about homo-sexuality in the late nineteenth century. Accordingly, Milly's illness becomes a metonymy of Milly herself and may represent her identity. Endorsed by Eve Sedgwick's view that Milly's relation to her illness is "an echo precisely of Lionel Croy's homosexual disgrace," we argue that the relation between Kate and Milly has a homoerotic connotation. We conclude that the text involves an indication of Kate's love for Milly in their mutual gazing.The Bostonians is also a story about a triangular relationship among the two female characters, Olive and Verena, and the key male character, Basil. However, it does not depict love between the two females as reciprocal. We finally point out that The Wings of the Dove contains a plot in which love between the two female characters is, in a sense, reciprocal.『鳩の翼』はホモエロティシズムを潜伏させているテキストである。本論は、ミリー・シールを巡るロマンスがミリーのケイト・クロイへの思いを内包し、ミリーを「鳩」と呼ぶケイトはミリーの愛を必要としていることを、複数の登場人物に用いられる同じ表現や、ロマンスの持つ意味、交換可能な視点、ミリーの病などに注目して論じるものである。同じ語、同じ表現を複数の登場人物に当てはめることにより、ある登場人物と他の登場人物との置換可能性が暗示される。作品はミリーをロマンスの王女に仕上げる方向に向かうプロットを持つ。ミリーの視点はケイトを「ハンサム」とみなし、ケイトを欲望するマートン・デンシャーの視点と重なる。以上を踏まえ、ミリーのロマンスはケイトを対象とし、ケイトに対する欲望で成り立つと論じられる。ミリーの病気の描き方は同性愛を巡る19世紀末の言説と重なり、ミリーの病気はミリーという人物の換喩となり、ミリーのアイデンティティを表すことになる。病気とミリーの関わりは「ライオネル・クロイのホモセクシュアルな恥を正確に反映する」というイヴ・セジウィックの説を援用し、ケイトとミリーの関係における同性愛的なニュアンスを考察する。その上で、視線を媒介とする二人の関係が相互の関係であることを指摘し、ケイトのミリーへの愛を論じている。『ボストニアンズ』もオリーヴとヴェリーナという二人の女性登場人物と中心となる男性登場人物バジルの間の三角関係の物語であった。しかし二人の女性の間の愛情が双方向のものとしては描かれなかった。それに対し、『鳩の翼』には、二人の女性の間の愛情が、ある意味で双方向になるプロットが潜んでいることを最後に指摘する。