著者
國原 美佐子
出版者
東京女子大学
雑誌
東京女子大学紀要論集 (ISSN:04934350)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.44, no.2, pp.27-53, 1994-03-16

The purpose of this paper is to consider the establishment of the tosenbugyo 唐船奉行 to regulate foreign relations, and the reason why Ino-Yamato no kami-Sadatsura 飯尾大和守貞連 was appointed as the first tosenbugyo. In the fourth year of Eikyo 永享 (1432), the diplomatic relations, which featured the tally trade (勘合貿易) between Japan and the Ming dynasty and were discontinued after the death of the third Muromachi shogun Ashikaga Yoshimitsu 足利義満, were then restored by the sixth shogun Ashikaga Yoshinori 足利義教. After Yoshinori's time, the totosen 渡唐船 (the fleet of the ships from Japan to Ming China) consisted of the ships belonging to three different kinds of owners: the Muromachi shogun, temples, and the shugo daimyo. According to Mansai Jugo Nikki 満済准后日記, the system of the tosenbugyo was established in 1434 (永享6年) to mediate all the business about the tally trade between the ship managers, the gozan-monks 五山僧, and the Muromachi shogun as monarch of Japan. The first main (tanto) tosenbugyo was Ino Sadatsura, who was the bugyonin (one of the shogun's executive officers) in the Muromachi period. The Ino family, especially the Yamato branch, the Kaga branch, and the Hizen branch, were influential among bugyonin called gozen satashu 御前沙汰衆 (direct judges), and were promoted by the Ashikaga shoguns. The main tosenbugyo and the sub tosenbugyo (aibugyo) were appointed from the three branch of the lno family for generations. The tosenbugyo's regular work can be devided as follows: (1) to defend the trading ships around Japan, (2) to procure export goods, (3) to mediate among the Muromachi shogun, the ship managers and the Gozan-monks (4) to manage the tallies. In addition, Ino Sadatsura also conducted negotiations with the diplomats of the Li dynasty as a representative of the Muromachi shogunate. It had been impossible for a government official to deal with the diplomatic issues during the Yoshimitsu's reign. The diplomacy of the Muromachi period particularly valued the trade and it affected domestic politics. Tosenbugyo did not play such an active part in Muromachi diplomacy as the Gozan-monks did, but it is significant that the Muromachi shogunate was the first organization to appoint the executive officers of the samurai class to high positions in its diplomatic organization.
著者
国原 美佐子
出版者
東京女子大学
雑誌
東京女子大学紀要論集 (ISSN:04934350)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.48, no.2, pp.1-37, 1998-03

Dieser Aufsatz handelt von den Badegewohnheiten im Daigoji-Tempel im 15. Jahrhundert. Das Tagebuch Mansai Jugo Nikki (満済准后日記) vom Autor Mansai, der ein hervorragender Priester in der Muromachizeit und auch ein berumter Vorsteher des Daigoji-Tempel war, besagt folgendes: 1. Kami-Daigo (上醍醐) und Simo-Daigo (下醍醐) haben jeweils einige Bader. 2. Vor jedem buddistischen Ritual baden Monche. 3. Am 4. Januar und zweimal pro Monat (am 14. und am 28.) baden alle Monche und Laien des Simo-Daigos im gemeinschaftlichen Bad (惣寺風呂). Dabei baden sie ihrem Stand nach auf den Ruf der Glocken hin. 4. An den Todestagen der Vorganger nehmen die Monche als Erinnerung das Bad im Bodaiji-Tempel (菩提寺) oder im gemeinschaftlichen Bad. 5. Mansai als die Gaste wird ab und zu von anderen Monchen mit Speisen und Baden unterhalten.
著者
有賀 美和子
出版者
東京女子大学
雑誌
東京女子大学紀要論集 (ISSN:04934350)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.46, no.1, pp.185-203, 1995-09-20
著者
黒崎 政男(1954-)
雑誌
東京女子大学紀要論集 (ISSN:04934350)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.61, no.1, pp.27-53, 0000

A Japanese translation of Aristotle's De Anima that thematises what kokoro is has recently been discovered. It was done through the cooperation of Jesuit missionaries and Japanese in 1595 during the Kirishitan period (Kirishitan means early Christians in Japan in the 16th to 17th century). The manuscript fascinates us, not only because it tells us that the core of Western thought was already translated three hundred years before the Meiji era in which Japan truly encountered the West, but also because it includes an additional chapter on the permanence of anima rational humanica, which is not found in the Latin original.This suggests that it was absolutely necessary [for Christians] to preach the singularity and permanence of human kokoro (Quod anima intellectiva sit immortalis et aeterna), in order to disseminate Christianity in Japan where no fundamental distinction was made between human and animal kokoro (cf. F. Xavier, letter 29/1/1552). We can here confirm the basic difference between the Western anima and the Oriental kokoro.心とはいったい何か、を主題的に論じたアリストテレスの〈De Anima〉のキリシタン時代の日本語翻訳(1595)が最近発見された。江戸時代以前に西洋の核心となる思想が日本語翻訳されていたということ自体きわめて興味深いのだが、さらに面白いのは、日本語版には、オリジナルのラテン語版底本には存在しない「人間の理性的魂(anima rational)は永遠不滅である」という書き加えの章があることである。人間と動物との 〈心〉 の間に根本的差異をみとめない日本でキリスト教をひろめるには、 人間の 〈心〉 の特異性、 不滅性を教え込むことがどうしても必要だったのである。 ここに西洋と東洋のanimaと〈心〉の差異の基本的図式を確認することができる。
著者
本合 陽
出版者
東京女子大学
雑誌
東京女子大学紀要論集 (ISSN:04934350)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.58, no.1, pp.115-138, 2007-09

This paper argues that asexuality of the protagonists is the crucial element that drives Howard Overing Sturgis's novels, Tim (1891) and Belchamber (1904). The heroes and heroines in the late nineteenth century cannot deviate from the role models that "compulsory heterosexuality" imposes upon them. Sturgis's protagonists do not seemingly belong to the figure. However, they must develop their character under the pressure of the compulsory heterosexuality. Their asexuality does not provide them with other choices, which causes their tragedy. Tim, the protagonist of Tim, is a boy who loves only nature and has just expected that "the tender gracious figure" would come to him. He does not know what he is and has no erotic desire for anybody. However, two triangular relationships drive him to the awareness of gender and sexuality. The relationship with his father and his friend Carol makes him realize that he is not like other boys. The relationship with Carol and his girlfriend Violet reminds him of marriage, which in turn makes him realize that his love for Carol is similar to Jonathan's love for David in the First Book of Samuel: Tim's love for Carol is homoerotic. In other words, the compulsory heterosexuality drives asexual Tim to become a hero who dies when he confesses his homoerotic desire. Sainty, the protagonist of Belchamber, is a boy who loves embroidery. In his triangular relationship with his mother and his younger brother, whom the role of the hero of the story and the heir to Belchamber befits, Sainty becomes aware that he is "effeminate" and "not manly." Accordingly, he starts to take on the role of a mother. However, another triangular relationship with his vicious cousin and a pretty girl forces him to think about marriage with the girl. Also in Belchamber, compulsory heterosexuality dominates the life of the protagonist. Sainty's asexuality deprives him of other choices of living for him. Sturgis's works do not seem to have been properly assessed. According to the discussion on the process that the main characters are forced towards "the heroes," protagonists' asexuality makes the true value of the works invisible.
著者
今井 久代
出版者
東京女子大学
雑誌
東京女子大学紀要論集 (ISSN:04934350)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.70, no.1, pp.37-64, 2019-09-30

"The Tale of Genji" has "Itooshi" with 386 examples including derivatives. However, this word is difficult to grasp because of the differences between (1) two conflicting senses and (2) the synonym "Kokorogurushi." In this paper, it was noted that "Itooshi", like "Kokorogurushi", is "the emotion of A who is in contact with B who is in a difficult state". "Itooshi" is an emotion with "guilt" that makes A realize that he is not the same as B. I argued that the sympathy with "guilt" is the difference between "Itooshi" and "Kokorogurushi".『源氏物語』には「いとほし」が、派生語も含めて386例存在する。しかしこの語は、 ①対立的な二つの語義、②類義語「心苦し」との違いにより、語義がつかみにくい。 本稿では、「 いとほし」が、「心苦し」と同様に、「 つらい状態にあるBに接している Aの心情」であることに注目した。「 いとほし」は、AにBと一心同体ではないことを 意識させる、「罪悪感」を伴う感情である。「負い目」を伴う共感であることが、「 いとほし」と「心苦し」の違いであると論じた。
著者
矢澤 澄子 矢沢 澄子 ヤザワ スミコ
出版者
東京女子大学
雑誌
東京女子大学紀要論集 (ISSN:04934350)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.59, no.1, pp.85-116, 2008-09

Japanese society has been facing elder care crisis since the 1980's epitomized by a so-called "nursing hell" which has resulted from a care service shortage for the increasing number of elderly people. The national elder care insurance system commenced in 2000 as a response to the above situation. It was a paradigm change to the social care of elderly people, from a limited adminis-trative service by the government, to a social care insurance system with individual choice and mutual help by contract with the government.This article examines the basic idea of a care model for the elder care insurance system (a care model for 'decent life' for elderly people) and attempts to discover influences from the ideas and practice of group homes for elderly people with dementia developed in local areas since the 1980's prior to the institutionalization of the elder care insurance system. The article also analyses the gap between the idea of a care model for the elder care insurance system and the reality of care workers facing difficulties in workplaces, based on empirical research of care workers in group homes. The research was based on a questionnaire designed by our research group in 2006, and sent by mail to 1382 workers all over Japan.In conclusion, the paper proposes the necessity of re-examining and improving the design and contents of the elder care insurance system, in order to realize its original ideas and purpose as the national social care system, by strengthening public responsibility and financial support at the national as well as local level. It is the only way to maintain a high quality of elder care service in the system and respond to the sincere desires of care workers who work diligently for long hours and receive low salaries.少子高齢化と「介護の危機」(ケアの危機)が進行するなか、日本では2000年を起点としていわゆる社会福祉基礎構造改革により、高齢者介護サービスは、措置制度から介護保険制度(自由契約制度)へとパラダイム転換を行った。本論文は、日本の社会的介護(ソーシャル・ケア)の要を担う介護保険制度の理念、目標像がどのように明確化され制度化されてきたのかについて、特に制度の理念・目標像の構築に大きな影響を与えてきた、認知症高齢者グループホーム実践(認知症対応型共同生活介護)の展開過程との関連に注目して考察する。また制度の運用と改変の過程で顕在化してきた理念・目標像と運用・実践の間の矛盾や、2005年の制度改正以降とくに深刻化している理念・目標像と利用者の選択権や現場ケアワーカーの労働実態との間に広がる乖離の中身についても全国調査に基づき検証する。論文では日本の介護保険制度の形成・改変過程を見据え、制度の理念・目標像、介護保険政策の展開、介護現場の実態の3者を相互に関連づけながら、制度の成熟と「望ましいケア実践」にむけて何が問われているかを明らかにする。いま多くの認知症高齢者グループホームでは、介護保険制度の運用と改正の負の影響を受け、ケアワーカーたちが利用者と制度の狭間で苦悩し、他の介護施設と同様にホーム運営(経営)の瀬戸際で解決すべき複雑な困難に直面している。介護保険の「お年寄りをどんどん切り捨てる」「机の上だけて決められている制度」と「介護実践の場」の現状との間にある大きな乖離は早急に埋める必要がある。そのために国・地方自治体は、現場の声にしっかり耳を傾け、制度の改善・改革にむけてどのように有効な政策的対応をとりうるのかに真剣に立ち向かうことが求められている。
著者
林 文子
出版者
東京女子大学
雑誌
東京女子大学紀要論集 (ISSN:04934350)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.58, no.2, pp.123-149, 2008-03

This note presents a selection and organization of words related to food culture from The Japanese-Portuguese Dictionary. The Japanese-Portuguese Dictionary, the translation of VOCABVLARIO DA LINGOA DE IA PAM corn a declaracao em Portugues, was published in 1603 by the Society of Jesus for use by their missionnaries in the propagation of the Christian faith. These words are fragmented, ambiguous, and somewhat limited. Not all words in The Japanese-Portuguese Dictionary were well known by everybody at that time, but most of words were practical and widely used, and thus helpful for the propagation of the Christian faith. Food is a mainstay of life, and plays a key role in forming our identities. What to eat and how to eat is not only a matter of individual taste, but also a part of culture that reflects time and geography. The observations of strangers from strange lands (Europe) gave structure and clarity to the everyday things taken for granted by people living in the visited country (Japan). For example, unexpected food for Europeans included unknown grasses, unusually fish, uncommon seaweed, salted fish guts, and above all fermented things, such as fermented soybeans. Based on actual experience, this selection is not in merely an enumeration of foods, but a reconstruction of food scenery at the end of the 16th Century in Japan. Some excerpts from The Japanese-Portuguese Dictionary are as follows. Japanese at that time thought that food can be either power or poison. Thus, "Dokudachi (literally Poison cut-off)" indicates when a sick person fasts reduces food intake. A meal includes Ii (rice), Shiru (soup), and Sai (vegetables or fish or meat). Shiru, the soup was essential for every meal. Rice was graded by difficulty of polishing. Damage resistant red rice spread through the country, and came to be boiled in iron pots. The multi-faceted abilities to harvest, hunt, and produce were expanding, as can be seen from the specific names for rice gruels, rice cakes, noodles, beans, underground vegetables, mushrooms, seaweed, shellfish, river fish, sea fish, game, wildfowl, fruits, and nuts. From root to seed, from meat to guts, they ate all parts, and invented ideas to preserve food such as drying and salting. One of the characteristic trends at that time was the entry of salt, vinegar, and soybeans to the dinner table. Soybeans were processed in many ways, such as tofu (bean curd), moyasi (sprouts), natto (fermented soybeans), miso (soybean paste), sudate (soy sauce). They frequently used the word "Anbai" to measure the taste. This meant that salt became a large component of food.
著者
有賀 美和子
出版者
東京女子大学
雑誌
東京女子大学紀要論集 (ISSN:04934350)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.44, no.1, pp.123-142, 1993-09-20

Feminist criticisms in social sciences have challenged the traditional disciplines in two ways. On one hand, some works focus on the absence of women or the "malestream" orientation in the disciplines, and then go on to ask how they should change in order to include women on an equal basis with men. On the other hand, some focus more immediately on how the gendered structure of the societies has shaped their ideas and arguments, and consider how these ideas and arguments are affected by the adoption of a feminist perspective. In this paper, giving heed to the second project, I shall focus on a major political philosopher, John Rawls, in thinking about social justice. John Rawls's A Theory of Justice has provided an impetus to much of contemporary political and moral theory. I focus here on the effects of assumptions about gender on central aspects of the theory, and consider how his assumptions about the division of labor between the sexes, with women taking care of the sphere of human nuturance, have a fundamental effect upon his accounts of moral subjects and the development of moral thinking. This is exemplified in his tendencies to separate reason from feeling and to require that moral subjects be abstracted from the contingencies of actual human life, in his deliberations. The way Rawls presents his theory of justice reflects the Kantian heritage. That is, it reflects Kant's stress on autonomy and rationality as the defining characteristics of moral subjects, his rigid separation of reason from feeling, and refusal to allow feeling any place in the formulation of moral principles. This Kantian heritage leaves Rawls's theory open to two feminist criticisms: that it involves egoistic assumptions about human nature and that it is of little relevance to actual people thinking about justice. Therefore, his theory is often viewed as excessively rationalistic, inividualistic, and abstracted from real human beings. However, at its center, Rawls's theory much includes the implications of responsibility, care, and concern for others. I shall attempt to develop an approach to social justice, which centers on a reinterpretation of his central concept, the "original position." At the same time, in a sense, this paper is a critique of Rawls. In line with a long tradition of political and moral philosophers including Rousseau, Hegel, and Tocqueville, he regards the family as a school of morality, a primary socializer of just citizens. But along with others in the tradition, he also neglects the issue of the justice or injustice of the gendered family itself. This tension within the theory can be resolved by opening up the question of justice within the family.
著者
森 一郎
出版者
東京女子大学
雑誌
東京女子大学紀要論集 (ISSN:04934350)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.47, no.1, pp.1-23, 1996-09

The significance of Heidegger's philosophy might be evaluated in terms of the "ontological turn" he gave to the phenomenological movement. In this essay, I attempt to show that this conversion as performed by Heidegger, is a repetition of another "great event" in philosophical history-Marx's reversal of dialectical thinking. In his famous essay "The Question Concerning Technique," Heidegger inquires in the essence of modern technique. According to his etymology, the word "technique" (tekhne), like the word "production" (poiesis), originally meant a mode of revealing (aletheuein). From such a aletheological point of view, Heidegger interprets the specific mode of modern technique as "Herausfordern" (challenging), by means of which anything on earth can become "Bestand" (stock). The claimant of this requisition is no longer an individual man, but some impersonal system of accumulation. Heidegger names this system the "Gestell" (gatheringsetting). When examined closely, the term "Herausfordern" is found to be equivalent to the key Marxian concept "Ausbeuten" (exploitation). Moreover, "Gestell" proves to be just another name for the monstrous master of the modern age, Capitalism. It is not accidental that we also encounter a question concerning technique in Marx's Capital. The subject of this book is "the capitalistic mode of production," so that Marx examines essentially the same modern technique, to which capitalism owes the development of its productive force. Guided by Marx's critique of the "economy of time," we can attain insight into the problems of the "technology of time." That is why Capital is still one of the most important philosophical approaches to the essence of technology.
著者
高橋 修(1971-)
雑誌
東京女子大学紀要論集 (ISSN:04934350)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.68, no.1, pp.99-124, 0000

表題の崇源院は江戸幕府二代将軍徳川秀忠の正室であった江(1573~1626)のことで、崇源院とは彼女の死後の贈名である。彼女は寛永3年(1626)に江戸城内で死去し、その遺骸は火葬に付され、増上寺に埋葬された。昭和33~35年(1958~60)に増上寺内で実施された発掘調査により、崇源院の墓石が地下から発掘された。この調査以後、彼女の墓石は行方不明となっていたが、最近の調査により山梨県甲州市にある古刹 恵林寺境内にあることが判明した。墓石の周囲には文字が刻まれており、従来はその解読が不十分であった。そこで今回の再発見を契機として、墓石碑文の解読とその現代語訳を試み、また、何故、彼女の墓石が地下に埋められたのか、その歴史的背景を明らかにすることを本稿の目的として設定した。Suugenin(崇源院1573~1626) was the shougun Tokugawa Hidetada's (徳川秀忠) wife. In 1626 she died at Edo Castle. She was cremated and buried in Zojoji(増上寺).The tomb of Suugenin was excavated by an excavation survey at Zojoji in 1958~1960. Later, her grave became missing. It turned out that it was in Erinji(恵林寺).Her tomb is engraved with letters, but they were not legible in traditional research. Therefore, this paper aims to clarify the following two points: first of all, I will decipher the inscription and make a modern translation, secondly, I will discuss why the tomb was buried underground.
著者
有馬 明恵 下島 裕美 竹下 美穂
出版者
東京女子大学論集編集委員会
雑誌
東京女子大学紀要論集 (ISSN:04934350)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.67, no.2, pp.209-230, 2017-03-15

This article reveals mothers’ attitudes toward PTA activities through internet survey. Four hundred and fifty mothers who had participated in PTA activities answered a questionnaire. Hierarchical cluster analysis found five types: “mothers engaging in PTA activities for their children,” “mothers criticizing PTA,” “traditional and moderate mothers,” “mothers participating in social activities,” and “rational mothers”. The results showed the following; “mothers participating in social activities” think that parents and teachers should be equal partners and parents should work hard in PTA activities. These mothers however became more negative and suffered stress through engaging in the activities. On the other hand, “mothers criticizing the PTA” and “rational mothers” were reluctant to participate in PTA activities but, through the activities, they became more positive. There is a prevailing norm that tells mothers that they should help teachers as if they were servants and engage in PTA activities with modesty.
著者
佐久間 千尋
出版者
東京女子大学
雑誌
東京女子大学紀要論集 (ISSN:04934350)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.68, no.2, pp.127-138, 2018-03

This paper illuminates the process of how people in Japan became familiar with the works of the Brontës from the late 19th to the early 20th century. It is said that in 1886, about 40 years after the first novel by the Brontës was published in England, they were referred to for the first time in an article in the Japanese magazine The Women's Magazine. How were the Brontës introduced in Japan? How did Japanese critics receive their works? To answer these questions, articles about the Brontës in those days at the Tokyo Woman's Christian University Library were studied. The results were mainly as follows. The reception of the Brontës was initiated with the introduction of Jane Eyre, which was highly evaluated. It was remarkable how it was assessed similarly in England. This contributed to attracting readers' attention to the biographical anecdotes about the sisters. In 1899, Charlotte Brontë was associated with Ichiyo Higuchi, a Japanese woman novelist, in the way they lived rather than their works. Although it was just a brief remark, for instance, both lived in poverty and were supposed to be the breadwinner of their family, it could be said that this prompted more cross-cultural criticisms thereafter. This shows that the Brontës universally attracted people's attention in the literary world. On the whole, there were few references to novels other than Jane Eyre in the studies of this time; "The Dialect of the Brontës" by Itsuki Hosoe was published in 1929 and mostly dealt with pronunciation in Wuthering Heights, which seemed all the more prominent.本稿は、19世紀後半から20世紀前半にかけて、ブロンテ姉妹が日本に受け入れられた過程を明らかにするものである。ブロンテ姉妹が日本に紹介されたのは、1886年『女學雑誌』誌上と言われている。彼女たちの最初の小説が出版されてからおよそ40年の時を経ていた。ブロンテ姉妹はどのように紹介され、また評されていたのか。今回、ブロンテ姉妹の明治時代から大正時代における受容を概観し、その傾向を探った。調査は主に、東京女子大学所蔵の文献に基づいている。結果的に、次の三点が明らかとなった。ブロンテ姉妹の受容は『ジェイン・エア』の紹介から始まり、初期から高評価を得ていた。このことは、イギリスで出版されたときに本作が受けた評価と一致している。そして、読者の注目は次第に彼女たちの伝記的逸話へと波及していく。1899年、シャーロットは樋口一葉と並んで評される。このときは、一葉とブロンテの類似について、その作品においてというよりは苦難の境遇にあるとし、深い分析には及んでいない。しかし、この言及がその後のイギリスと日本の両文壇を関連づける批評の契機となったといっても過言ではない。全体を通して、今回、『ジェイン・エア』以外の作品についての詳細な分析はほとんど見受けられなかったが、1929年に『英語青年』に連載された細江逸記による"The Dialect of the Brontës"は、『嵐が丘』における方言や発音を分析しており、ひときわ目を引くものである。
著者
水谷 静夫
出版者
東京女子大学
雑誌
東京女子大学紀要論集 (ISSN:04934350)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.28, no.2, pp.101-116, 1977-03-20

This essay presents three pieces of small SNOBOL programs: to compose haiku-poems by the kamurizuke plan, to simulate a slot machine for \80 tickets, and to puzzle out "Towers of Hanoi" in a general form. Though such programming itself appears to be only hobby, the emphasis is put upon the meaning of string manipulation as a scientific method which the above programs are based on. The first one was a kind of random generation, the second was, of course, the construction of a non-deterministic finite automaton or a regular grammar, and the third was an application of recursive technique as well-known. Besides, a brief mention is made about aims of programming education for undergraduates of the so-called "literature course".
著者
山根 幸夫
出版者
東京女子大学
雑誌
東京女子大學論集 (ISSN:04934350)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.19, no.1, pp.1-15, 1968-09-01

The relation between Japan and China had been very close for a long time in culture. But after Meiji Restoration, as Japan had learned to take in Western civilization, Japanese people began to look down upon China with contempt. Especially after the victory in the Sino-Japanese War, the tendency became remarkable. The author is going to examine the opinions of Japanese scholors who studied China at that time. So the author takes up a historian, Konan Naito and a political scientist, Sakuzo Yoshino, and attempts to compare what each of them regarded the two serious events-the Hsin-hai Revolution and the May Fourth Movement-in Chinese modern history. Naito would not understand at all the new political situation happening in China because of his old view of China only viewing it from the point of national interest. On the other hand Yoshino tried to grasp the tendency of political reform in China just as it was. Specially in regard to the May Fourth Movement he showed a very precise understanding. In Japan of those days, however, the understanding as shown by Naito was easier for Japanese people to accept. Because it was derived from the Japanese national interest. The author concludes that the reason why the general point of view of the Japanese people for China was distorted, was that it was based on the national interest.
著者
内藤 真帆
出版者
東京女子大学
雑誌
東京女子大学紀要論集 (ISSN:04934350)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.65, no.2, pp.181-200, 2015-03

ヴァヌアツ共和国のツツバ語は、話者数およそ500人の消滅の危機に瀕した言語である。この言語には舌先と上唇とで調音する舌唇音という希少音が存在するが、現在この音は唇音へと音変化しつつある。その要因としては第二次世界大戦下の人口減少と国語ビスラマ語の影響が考えられる。またツツバ語の句構造も変化しつつあり、この要因としては近代化による他言語話者との接触の影響が考えられる。本論文では2001年から今日までの現地調査のデータをもとに、若年齢層と高年齢層の①音声と②句構造を比較する。そして世代間の差異を明らかにするとともに、ツツバ語が変化しつつある要因を、戦争・近代化・国語・教育言語の影響といった観点から、時系列に沿って考察する。The Tutuba language spoken by approximately 500 people in the Republic of Vanuatu is an endangered language. This language has speech sounds which are known as apicolabials. In the Tutuba language, a sound shift from apicolabials to labials is now occurring. In addition, the structure of noun phrases is also now changing, especially among the young.This paper will discuss the factors behind these changes from the viewpoint of the influences of World War Ⅱ, modernization, national language, and educational languages by analyzing research data collected from 2001 to 2014.
著者
光延 真哉
出版者
東京女子大学
雑誌
東京女子大学紀要論集 (ISSN:04934350)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.68, no.2, pp.33-58, 2018-03
著者
渡辺 正雄
出版者
東京女子大学
雑誌
東京女子大學論集 (ISSN:04934350)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.11, no.1, pp.33-52, 1960-10-30

The effect of the so-called "Scientific Revolution", especially that of the "New Astronomy", is very much evident in John Milton's later poems, particularly Paradise Lost. Milton not only lived at the time of Boyle, Hooke and Newton, but also shared the intellectual attitude of the Cambridge Platonists and the Protestant scientists, who refused to accept traditional scholastic authority, exalted "Reason" as the godlike principle in man, and highly valued the study of nature as "the Book of God". As the modern scientific consciousness rejected scholasticism, so the Protestant consciousness of Milton dismissed fictions, fables and mythologies. There still remained for him, however, one source from which he could draw images which were not only poetic but also true: the Bible. Shakespeare, seemingly content with the medieval view of nature, was quite indifferent to the new astronomy. Milton, however, was very much aware of it. Frequent references are made in his Paradise Lost to Galileo's telescope and to the new astronomical wonders manifested by it. These are the sun-spots, the satellites of the planet Jupiter, the phases of the planet Venus, the similarity of the surface of the moon to that of the earth, the Milky Way "powdered with stars", and many fixed stars almost infinitely distant from the earth; all of which powerfully evidenced the Copernican theory. There are also mentioned, besides the mobility of the earth and its similarity to the planets, some conspicuously Galilean and Keplerian speculation that there might exist "other Suns with attendant Moons" and other inhabited worlds. Before he lost his sight, Milton must have surveyed the sky through a telescope on some occasion if not necessarily on his youthful visit to "the famous Galileo grown old, a prisoner to the Inquisition". To this actual sense experience of celestial observation, it seems, he mostly owed the sense of a boundless universe which gave Paradise Lost its unique character as "the first modern cosmic poem" wherein a drama is played out against a background of interstellar space. It is also very likely that Milton was acquainted with the scientific writings of Galileo, Kepler and perhaps of Gilbert. The first one third part of the Book VIII of Paradise Lost is devoted to the discussion on astronomical systems. Adam asks the Angel Raphael whether the earth or the sun is the centre of the world. It is manifest in Raphael's answer that Milton was well aware of the absurdity of the Ptolemaic system and of the beautiful simplicity of the Copernican theory. Yet Milton's Raphael does not give any definite conclusion as to the world systems, but urges Adam to be humble and obedient to God above, saying that though the earth may be so small compared with the firmament, it is given the honour of being waited upon by the host of the heavenly bodies only because of its noble inhabitant, man. Elsewhere, Milton also makes use of the geocentric world picture and traditional view of nature as well as the new. Milton's ultimate concern did not consist in matters of science but in the theocentric humanism, although he frequently took similes and metaphors from science. His conviction of man's moral responsibility outweighed everything else. From this point of view, as is suggested in Raphael's answer, unlimited desire for knowledge of secrets of nature and of God might lead man's mind to the dangers of pride and of disobedience to God. Hence, man must be well controlled by "Reason", which was counted, by Milton as well as by he Cambridge Platonists, as the guiding principle bestowed on man. Whether or not man's free will chooses obedience to God according to reason, is the central theme of Milton's Paradise Lost, and this theme is embodied in the choice of Eve and Adam as to whether they should eat the fruit of the forbidden tree. Twenty years after this drama "Of Man's first disobedience" was published, there appeared Newton's Principia. The modern mind then became more occupied by "Newton's apple" than by "Eve's", and scientific rationalism helped to nourish the spirit of satire in the sphere of literature-which spirit, it will be remembered, was also to make attacks on science itself and on the enthusiasms of the Royal Society, as in the case of Jonathan Swift and other satirists.
著者
森 一郎
出版者
東京女子大学
雑誌
東京女子大学紀要論集 (ISSN:04934350)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.45, no.2, pp.19-40, 1995-03-08

Since Heidegger made his unique interpretation of Nietzsche public, the image of Nietzsche as "the last metaphysician in the Occident" has spread widely. Indeed, this was Heidegger's great contribution. However, Nietzsche has many puzzling masks and is much greater than Heidegger explained. Indeed, Heidegger was, as one of the post-Nietzsche generation, deeply influenced by Nietzsche. The purpose of this study is to elucidate the remarkable motives inherited from Nietzsche which appear in Heidegger's main work, Being and Time. Above all, Nietzsche's radical 'anti-humanism,' concentrated in his idea of the "superman," is the hidden background of Heidegger's existential analytics of "Dasein." We can recognize this clearly in the fact that both philosophers call into question the specifically modern concept of 'death' as the worst anti-human evil.