著者
Akira Iwase Arika Takebayashi Yuki Aoi David S Favero Shunsuke Watanabe Mitsunori Seo Hiroyuki Kasahara Keiko Sugimoto
出版者
Japanese Society for Plant Biotechnology
雑誌
Plant Biotechnology (ISSN:13424580)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.39, no.1, pp.51-58, 2022-03-25 (Released:2022-03-25)
参考文献数
38
被引用文献数
4

4-Phenylbutyric acid (4PBA) is utilized as a drug to treat urea cycle disorders and is also being studied as a potential anticancer drug that acts via its histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor activity. During a search to find small molecules that affect plant regeneration in Arabidopsis, we found that 4PBA treatment promotes this process by mimicking the effect of exogenous auxin. Specifically, plant tissue culture experiments revealed that a medium containing 4PBA enhances callus formation and subsequent shoot regeneration. Analyses with auxin-responsive or cytokinin-responsive marker lines demonstrated that 4PBA specifically enhances AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR (ARF)-dependent auxin responses. Our western blot analyses showed that 4PBA treatment does not enhance histone acetylation in Arabidopsis, in contrast to butyric acid and trichostatin A, other chemicals often used as HDAC inhibitors, suggesting this mechanism of action does not explain the observed effect of 4PBA on regeneration. Finally, mass spectroscopic analysis and genetic approaches uncovered that 4PBA in Arabidopsis plants is converted to phenylacetic acid (PAA), a known natural auxin, in a manner independent of peroxisomal IBR3-related β-oxidation. This study demonstrates that 4PBA application promotes regeneration in explants via its auxin activity and has potential applications to not only plant tissue culture engineering but also research on the plant β-oxidation pathway.
著者
Akifumi Sugiyama
出版者
Japanese Society for Plant Biotechnology
雑誌
Plant Biotechnology (ISSN:13424580)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.23.0227a, (Released:2023-06-14)
参考文献数
74
被引用文献数
1

Plant specialized metabolites (PSMs) are considerably diverse compounds with multifaceted roles in the adaptation of plants to various abiotic and biotic stresses. PSMs are frequently secreted into the rhizosphere, a small region around the roots, where they facilitate interactions between plants and soil microorganisms. PSMs shape the host-specific rhizosphere microbial communities that potentially influence plant growth and tolerance to adverse conditions. Plant mutants defective in PSM biosynthesis contribute to reveal the roles of each PSM in plant–microbiota interactions in the rhizosphere. Recently, various approaches have been used to directly supply PSMs to soil by in vitro methods or through addition in pots with plants. This review focuses on the feasibility of the direct PSM application methods to reveal rhizospheric plant–microbiota interactions and discusses the possibility of applying the knowledge gained to future engineering of rhizospheric traits.

11 0 0 0 OA Creative Ecology

著者
Akira Miyawaki
出版者
Japanese Society for Plant Biotechnology
雑誌
Plant Biotechnology (ISSN:13424580)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.16, no.1, pp.15-25, 1999 (Released:2010-04-30)
参考文献数
20
被引用文献数
28 33

Ecological devastation is becoming a serious problem locally to globally, inproportion as people seek affluent living circumstances. Environmental devastation originated mainly from nature exploitation and construction of cities and industrial institutions with non-biological materials. Humans have ignored the rules of nature, biodiversity and coexistence.One of the best measures we can take anywhere, in order to restore ecosystems indigenous to each region and to maintain global environments, including disaster prevention and CO2 absorption, is to restore native, multi-stratal forests following an ecological method.I would like to refer to the experimental reforestation projects based on ecological studies and their results at about 550 locations throughout Japan and in Southeast Asia, South America, and China. We have proved that it is possible to restore quasi-natural multi-stratal forest ecosystems in 20 to 30 years if we take the ecological method.
著者
Rina Fujihara Naoyuki Uchida Toshiaki Tameshige Nozomi Kawamoto Yugo Hotokezaka Takumi Higaki Rüdiger Simon Keiko U Torii Masao Tasaka Mitsuhiro Aida
出版者
Japanese Society for Plant Biotechnology
雑誌
Plant Biotechnology (ISSN:13424580)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.38, no.3, pp.317-322, 2021-09-25 (Released:2021-09-25)
参考文献数
27
被引用文献数
4

The shoot organ boundaries have important roles in plant growth and morphogenesis. It has been reported that a gene encoding a cysteine-rich secreted peptide of the EPIDERMAL PATTERNING FACTOR-LIKE (EPFL) family, EPFL2, is expressed in the boundary domain between the two cotyledon primordia of Arabidopsis thaliana embryo. However, its developmental functions remain unknown. This study aimed to analyze the role of EPFL2 during embryogenesis. We found that cotyledon growth was reduced in its loss-of-function mutants, and this phenotype was associated with the reduction of auxin response peaks at the tips of the primordia. The reduced cotyledon size of the mutant embryo recovered in germinating seedlings, indicating the presence of a factor that acted redundantly with EPFL2 to promote cotyledon growth in late embryogenesis. Our analysis suggests that the boundary domain between the cotyledon primordia acts as a signaling center that organizes auxin response peaks and promotes cotyledon growth.
著者
Ryo Nakabayashi Noriko Takeda-Kamiya Yutaka Yamada Tetsuya Mori Mai Uzaki Takashi Nirasawa Kiminori Toyooka Kazuki Saito
出版者
Japanese Society for Plant Biotechnology
雑誌
Plant Biotechnology (ISSN:13424580)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.38, no.3, pp.305-310, 2021-09-25 (Released:2021-09-25)
参考文献数
27
被引用文献数
6

Plants release specialized (secondary) metabolites from their roots to communicate with other organisms, including soil microorganisms. The spatial behavior of such metabolites around these roots can help us understand roles for the communication; however, currently, they are unclear because soil-based studies are complex. Here, we established a multimodal metabolomics approach using imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to spatially assign metabolites under laboratory conditions using agar. In a case study using Catharanthus roseus, we showed that 58 nitrogen (N)-containing metabolites are released from the roots into the agar. For the metabolite assignment, we used 15N-labeled and non-labeled LC-MS/MS data, previously reported. Four metabolite ions were identified using authentic standard compounds as derived from monoterpene indole alkaloids (MIAs) such as ajmalicine, catharanthine, serpentine, and yohimbine. An alkaloid network analysis using dot products and spinglass methods characterized five clusters to which the 58 ions belong. The analysis clustered ions from the indolic skeleton-type MIAs to a cluster, suggesting that other communities may represent distinct metabolite groups. For future chemical assignments of the serpentine community, key fragmentation patterns were characterized using the 15N-labeled and non-labeled MS/MS spectra.
著者
Ryozo Imai Haruyasu Hamada Yuelin Liu Qianyan Linghu Yuya Kumagai Yozo Nagira Ryuji Miki Naoaki Taoka
出版者
Japanese Society for Plant Biotechnology
雑誌
Plant Biotechnology (ISSN:13424580)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.37, no.2, pp.171-176, 2020-06-25 (Released:2020-06-25)
参考文献数
27
被引用文献数
27

Transformation is a key step in modern breeding technology that involves genome editing. The requirement for in vitro tissue culture and regeneration hampers application of this technology to commercially important varieties of many crop species. To overcome this problem, we developed a simple and reproducible in planta transformation method in wheat (Tritticum aestivum L.). Our in planta particle bombardment (iPB) method utilizes the shoot apical meristem (SAM) as a target tissue. The SAM contains a subepidermal cell layer termed L2, from which germ cells later develop during floral organogenesis. The iPB method can also be used for genome editing through transient CRISPR/Cas9 expression or direct delivery of the CRISPR/Cas9 ribonucleoprotein. In this review, we describe the iPB technology and provide an overview of its current and future applications in plant transformation and genome editing.
著者
Seung-won Choi Kie Kumaishi Reiko Motohashi Harumi Enoki Wiluk Chacuttayapong Tadashi Takamizo Hiroaki Saika Masaki Endo Tetsuya Yamada Aya Hirose Nobuya Koizuka Seisuke Kimura Yaichi Kawakatsu Hiroyuki Koga Emi Ito Ken Shirasu Yasunori Ichihashi
出版者
Japanese Society for Plant Biotechnology
雑誌
Plant Biotechnology (ISSN:13424580)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.39, no.3, pp.323-327, 2022-09-25 (Released:2022-09-25)
参考文献数
28

Agrobacterium-mediated transformation is a key innovation for plant breeding, and routinely used in basic researches and applied biology. However, the transformation efficiency is often the limiting factor of this technique. In this study, we discovered that oxicam-type nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, including tenoxicam (TNX), increase the efficiency of Agrobacterium-mediated transient transformation. TNX treatment increased the transformation efficiency of Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Arabidopsis thaliana mature leaves by agroinfiltration. The increase of efficiency by TNX treatment was not observed in dde2/ein2/pad4/sid2 quadruple mutant, indicating that TNX inhibits the immune system mediated by jasmonic acid, ethylene, and salicylic acid against to Agrobacterium. We also found that TNX-treatment is applicable for the transient expression and subcellular localization analysis of fluorescent-tagged proteins in Arabidopsis leaf cells. In addition, we found that TNX increases the efficiency of Agrobacterium-mediated transient transformation of Jatropha. Given that treatment with oxicam compounds is a simple and cost effective method, our findings will provide a new option to overcome limitations associated with Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of various plant species.
著者
Shingo Sakamoto Taiji Nomura Yasuo Kato Shinjiro Ogita Nobutaka Mitsuda
出版者
Japanese Society for Plant Biotechnology
雑誌
Plant Biotechnology (ISSN:13424580)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.39, no.3, pp.229-240, 2022-09-25 (Released:2022-09-25)
参考文献数
44

The secondary cell wall, which is mainly composed of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin, constitutes woody tissues and gives physical strength and hydrophobic properties for resistance against environmental stresses. We cloned and functionally analyzed the homologous transcription factor (TF) genes of SECONDARY WALL NAC (SWN) proteins from Hachiku bamboo (Phyllostachys nigra; PnSWNs). An RT-PCR analysis showed that PnSWNs are expressed in young tissues in bamboo. Their transcriptional activation activities were higher than that of the Arabidopsis NAC SECONDARY WALL THICKENING PROMOTING FACTOR 3 (NST3) TF, which was equivalent to SWN TFs in monocot. PnSWNs preferred to activate the genes related to secondary cell wall formation but not the genes related to programmed cell death. When PnSWNs were expressed in Arabidopsis, they highly induced secondary cell wall formation, like previously-shown rice SWN1. Dissection analysis revealed that this high activity largely depends on C-terminal domain. These results demonstrate that the cloned bamboo SWNs function as regulators of secondary cell wall formation with strong activation ability derived from C-terminal domain, and could be served as new genetic tools for secondary cell wall manipulation.
著者
Tomoyuki Furuya Ryuichi Nishihama Kimitsune Ishizaki Takayuki Kohchi Hiroo Fukuda Yuki Kondo
出版者
Japanese Society for Plant Biotechnology
雑誌
Plant Biotechnology (ISSN:13424580)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.21.1219a, (Released:2022-02-18)
参考文献数
43
被引用文献数
5

Plants precisely coordinate the balance between cell proliferation and differentiation to ensure the continuous development. In Arabidopsis thaliana, members of glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) family, which are highly conserved serine/threonine protein kinases among eukaryotes, play important roles in regulating cell proliferation and differentiation during various developmental processes. However, functional roles of GSK3s in the plant lineages except angiosperms remain to be elucidated. Here, we utilized a model liverwort, Marchantia polymorpha, for studies of GSK3, because it has a single GSK3-like kinase, MpGSK. When M. polymorpha was treated with a chemical compound, bikinin, which is known as a specific inhibitor for GSK3-like kinases, growth and morphologies were altered with an expansion of the meristematic region. Similarly, Mpgsk loss-of-function mutants accumulated undifferentiated cell mass with no differentiated tissues. By contrast, overexpression of MpGSK reduced the size of the meristem region. These results suggest that MpGSK plays important roles as a regulator for the balance between cell differentiation and proliferation in M. polymorpha.
著者
Ryo Nakabayashi Noriko Takeda-Kamiya Yutaka Yamada Tetsuya Mori Mai Uzaki Takashi Nirasawa Kiminori Toyooka Kazuki Saito
出版者
Japanese Society for Plant Biotechnology
雑誌
Plant Biotechnology (ISSN:13424580)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.21.0504a, (Released:2021-06-24)
参考文献数
27
被引用文献数
6

Plants release specialized (secondary) metabolites from their roots to communicate with other organisms, including soil microorganisms. The spatial behavior of such metabolites around these roots can help us understand roles for the communication; however, currently, they are unclear because soil-based studies are complex. Here, we established a multimodal metabolomics approach using imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to spatially assign metabolites under laboratory conditions using agar. In a case study using Catharanthus roseus, we showed that 58 nitrogen (N)-containing metabolites are released from the roots into the agar. For the metabolite assignment, we used 15N-labeled and non-labeled LC-MS/MS data, previously reported. Four metabolite ions were identified using authentic standard compounds as derived from monoterpene indole alkaloids (MIAs) such as ajmalicine, catharanthine, serpentine, and yohimbine. An alkaloid network analysis using dot products and spinglass methods characterized five clusters to which the 58 ions belong. The analysis clustered ions from the indolic skeleton-type MIAs to a cluster, suggesting that other communities may represent distinct metabolite groups. For future chemical assignments of the serpentine community, key fragmentation patterns were characterized using the 15N-labeled and non-labeled MS/MS spectra.
著者
Ken-ichiro Taoka Zenpei Shimatani Koji Yamaguchi Mana Ogawa Hiromi Saitoh Yoichi Ikeda Hiroko Akashi Rie Terada Tsutomu Kawasaki Hiroyuki Tsuji
出版者
Japanese Society for Plant Biotechnology
雑誌
Plant Biotechnology (ISSN:13424580)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.20.1209a, (Released:2021-03-11)
参考文献数
44
被引用文献数
7

Luciferases have been widely utilized as sensitive reporters to monitor gene expression and protein-protein interactions. Compared to firefly luciferase (Fluc), a recently developed luciferase, Nanoluciferase (NanoLuc or Nluc), has several superior properties such as a smaller size and stronger luminescence activity. We compared the reporter properties of Nluc and Fluc in rice (Oryza sativa). In both plant-based two-hybrid and split luc complementation (SLC) assays, Nluc activity was detected with higher sensitivity and specificity than that with Fluc. To apply Nluc to research involving the photoperiodic regulation of flowering, we made a knock-in rice plant in which the Nluc coding region was inserted in-frame with the OsMADS15 gene, a target of the rice florigen Hd3a. Strong Nluc activity in response to Hd3a, and in response to change in day length, was detected in rice protoplasts and in a single shoot apical meristem, respectively. Our results indicate that Nluc assay systems will be powerful tools to monitor gene expression and protein-protein interaction in plant research.
著者
Masatoshi Funabashi
出版者
Japanese Society for Plant Biotechnology
雑誌
Plant Biotechnology (ISSN:13424580)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.33, no.4, pp.213-234, 2016-09-30 (Released:2016-11-18)
参考文献数
225
被引用文献数
7 11

A novel farming method, namely synecological farming (synecoculture in short), based on theory and observation of synecology has been proposed as total optimization of productivity, product quality, environmental load and adaptation capacity to climate change. Synecoculture is designed on a variety of environmental responses within ecological optimum in high-density mixed polyculture where various edible species were intentionally introduced. The whole methodology can be considered as anthropogenic augmentation of ecosystem functioning that promotes dynamic biodiversity–productivity relationship prevalent in natural ecosystems.In this review we summarize the theoretical foundation to provide a systematic definition of synecoculture and clarify the relationship with existing farming methods. We also collate previously reported analyses of organic and mineral components in farm products, and outline their physiological characteristics and functions in response to culture environments.
著者
Chihiro Furumizu Shinichiro Sawa
出版者
Japanese Society for Plant Biotechnology
雑誌
Plant Biotechnology (ISSN:13424580)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.22.1206a, (Released:2023-02-10)
参考文献数
6

Molecular markers have been widely used in plant breeding to improve the accuracy and efficiency of trait selection. In particular, molecular markers are powerful in facilitating the introgression of resistance genes by circumventing costly and time-consuming infection assays. To achieve their practical use, it is important to ensure the tight linkage between the markers and the traits. Here we report a new cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS) marker, Mi1713, for the root-knot nematode resistance gene, Mi-1.2, in cultivated tomato. The Mi1713 marker is designed in the conserved region of Mi-1.2 and its homologs in tomato and other nightshade species. Combined with a single-step procedure for preparing PCR templates, the Mi1713 marker enables rapid and reliable screening for the presence of Mi-1.2. The approach described in this study is applicable in designing CAPS markers for various genes or alleles of interest in tomato and other crops.
著者
Miki Suenaga-Hiromori Daisuke Mogi Yohei Kikuchi Jiali Tong Naotsugu Kurisu Yuichi Aoki Hiroyuki Amano Masahiro Furutani Takefumi Shimoyama Toshiyuki Waki Toru Nakayama Seiji Takahashi
出版者
Japanese Society for Plant Biotechnology
雑誌
Plant Biotechnology (ISSN:13424580)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.39, no.4, pp.391-404, 2022-12-25 (Released:2022-12-25)
参考文献数
33

Angelica archangelica L. is a traditional medicinal plant of Nordic origin that produces an unusual amount and variety of terpenoids. The unique terpenoid composition of A. archangelica likely arises from the involvement of terpene synthases (TPSs) with different specificities, none of which has been identified. As the first step in identifying TPSs responsible for terpenoid chemodiversity in A. archangelica, we produced a transcriptome catalogue using the mRNAs extracted from the leaves, tap roots, and dry seeds of the plant; 11 putative TPS genes were identified (AaTPS1–AaTPS11). Phylogenetic analysis predicted that AaTPS1–AaTPS5, AaTPS6–AaTPS10, and AaTPS11 belong to the monoterpene synthase (monoTPS), sesquiterpene synthase (sesquiTPS), and diterpene synthase clusters, respectively. We then performed in vivo enzyme assays of the AaTPSs using recombinant Escherichia coli systems to examine their enzymatic activities and specificities. Nine recombinant enzymes (AaTPS2–AaTPS10) displayed TPS activities with specificities consistent with their phylogenetics; however, AaTPS5 exhibited a strong sesquiTPS activity along with a weak monoTPS activity. We also analyzed terpenoid volatiles in the flowers, immature and mature seeds, leaves, and tap roots of A. archangelica using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry; 14 monoterpenoids and 13 sesquiterpenoids were identified. The mature seeds accumulated the highest levels of monoterpenoids, with β-phellandrene being the most prominent. α-Pinene and β-myrcene were abundant in all organs examined. The in vivo assay results suggest that the AaTPSs functionally identified in this study are at least partly involved in the chemodiversity of terpenoid volatiles in A. archangelica.
著者
Jichen Wang Hideyuki Suzuki Nanako Nakashima Mariko Kitajima Hiromitsu Takayama Kazuki Saito Mami Yamazaki Naoko Yoshimoto
出版者
Japanese Society for Plant Biotechnology
雑誌
Plant Biotechnology (ISSN:13424580)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.39, no.3, pp.281-289, 2022-09-25 (Released:2022-09-25)
参考文献数
26

Marasmin [S-(methylthiomethyl)-L-cysteine-4-oxide] is a pharmaceutically valuable sulfur-containing compound produced by the traditional medicinal plant, Tulbaghia violacea. Here, we report the identification of an S-oxygenase, TvMAS1, that produces marasmin from its corresponding sulfide, S-(methylthiomethyl)-L-cysteine. The amino acid sequence of TvMAS1 showed high sequence similarity to known flavin-containing S-oxygenating monooxygenases in plants. Recombinant TvMAS1 catalyzed regiospecific S-oxygenation at S4 of S-(methylthiomethyl)-L-cysteine to yield marasmin, with an apparent Km value of 0.55 mM. TvMAS1 mRNA accumulated with S-(methylthiomethyl)-L-cysteine and marasmin in various organs of T. violacea. Our findings suggest that TvMAS1 catalyzes the S-oxygenation reaction during the last step of marasmin biosynthesis in T. violacea.
著者
Xiaofei Kang Riho Mikami Yusuke Akita
出版者
Japanese Society for Plant Biotechnology
雑誌
Plant Biotechnology (ISSN:13424580)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.38, no.2, pp.263-268, 2021-06-25 (Released:2021-06-25)
参考文献数
25
被引用文献数
7

Wild cyclamen (Cyclamen purpurascens) is considered as a precious breeding material for the development of new cultivars. Malvidin 3,5-diglucoside is the main anthocyanin in the petals of C. purpurascens, whereas the F1 progeny of the C. persicum × C. purpurascens cultivars cross contains 3,5-diglucoside-type anthocyanins as the main pigment. The anthocyanin 5-O-glucosyltransferase (A5GT) enzyme is responsible for the glycosylation of the A ring of anthocyanin at the 5-O-position, which implies that the expression of A5GT is dominant in the petals of C. purpurascens × C. persicum cultivars. Here, we isolated the complete open reading frame of the A5GT gene from C. purpurascens (Cpur5GT). Results of qRT-PCR revealed that Cpur5GT shows tissue-specific expression, with strong expression in fully opened petals and weak expression in young petals. In vitro enzyme assay showed that when uridine diphosphate glucose was used as the sugar donor, recombinant Cpur5GT could catalyze the glycosylation of 3-glucoside-type anthocyanidins at the 5-O-position, but when uridine diphosphate galactose was served as glycosyl donor, the reaction could not be performed. These results demonstrate that Cpur5GT exhibits valid anthocyanin glucosylation activity and could be used to analyze the mechanism of A5GT-mediated flower coloration in cyclamen in future studies.
著者
Takumi Higaki Hidenobu Mizuno
出版者
Japanese Society for Plant Biotechnology
雑誌
Plant Biotechnology (ISSN:13424580)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.20.0605a, (Released:2020-09-05)
参考文献数
33
被引用文献数
5

In most dicotyledonous plants, leaf pavement cells exhibit complex jigsaw puzzle-like cell morphogenesis during leaf expansion. Although detailed molecular biological information and mathematical modeling of this jigsaw puzzle-like cell morphogenesis are now available, a full understanding of this process remains elusive. Recent reports have highlighted the importance of three-dimensional (3D) structures (i.e., anticlinal and periclinal cell wall) in understanding the mechanical models that describe this morphogenetic process. We believe that it is important to acquire 3D shapes of pavement cells over time, i.e., acquire and analyze four-dimensional (4D) information when studying the relationship between mechanical modeling and simulations and the actual cell shape. In this report, we have developed a framework to capture and analyze 4D morphological information of Arabidopsis thaliana cotyledon pavement cells by using both direct water immersion observations and computational image analyses, including segmentation, surface modeling, virtual reality and morphometry. The 4D cell models allowed us to perform time-lapse 3D morphometrical analysis, providing detailed quantitative information about changes in cell growth rate and shape, with cellular complexity observed to increase during cell growth. The framework should enable analysis of various phenotypes (e.g., mutants) in greater detail, especially in the 3D deformation of the cotyledon surface, and evaluation of theoretical models that describe pavement cell morphogenesis using computational simulations. Additionally, our accurate and high-throughput acquisition of growing cell structures should be suitable for use in generating in silico model cell structures.
著者
Ryota Akiyama Naoyuki Umemoto Masaharu Mizutani
出版者
Japanese Society for Plant Biotechnology
雑誌
Plant Biotechnology (ISSN:13424580)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.40, no.3, pp.185-191, 2023-09-25 (Released:2023-09-25)
参考文献数
38
被引用文献数
2

Steroidal glycoalkaloids (SGAs) are specialized metabolites found in members of Solanum species, and are also known as toxic substances in Solanum food crops such as tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), potato (Solanum tuberosum), and eggplant (Solanum melongena). SGA biosynthesis can be divided into two main parts: formation of steroidal aglycones, which are derived from cholesterol, and glycosylation at the C-3 hydroxy group. This review focuses on recent studies that shed light on the complete process of the aglycone formation in SGA biosynthesis and structural diversification of SGAs by duplicated dioxygenases, as well as the development of non-toxic potatoes through genome editing using these findings.
著者
Masahiro Nishihara Akiko Hirabuchi Fumina Goto Aiko Watanabe Chiharu Yoshida Rie Washiashi Masashi Odashima Keiichirou Nemoto
出版者
Japanese Society for Plant Biotechnology
雑誌
Plant Biotechnology (ISSN:13424580)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.40, no.3, pp.229-236, 2023-09-25 (Released:2023-09-25)
参考文献数
39
被引用文献数
2

Japanese cultivated gentians are highly valued ornamental flowers in Japan, but the flower shape is mostly limited to the single-flower type, unlike other flowers such as roses and carnations. To overcome this limitation, we used the CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing system to increase double-flowered genetic resources in gentians. Our approach targeted an AGAMOUS (AG) floral homeotic gene (AG1), which is responsible for the natural mutation that causes double flowers in gentians. We designed two targets in exon 1 of AG1 for genome editing and found that 9 of 12 herbicide-resistant shoots had biallelic mutations in the target regions of AG1. These nine lines all produced double flowers, with stamens converted into petaloid organs, similar to the natural mutant. We also analyzed the off-target effects of AG2, which is homologous to AG1, and found that such effects occurred in gentian genome editing but with low frequency. Furthermore, we successfully produced transgene-free genome-edited plants (null segregants) by crossing with wild-type pollen. F1 seedlings were subjected to PCR analysis to determine whether foreign DNA sequences, two partial regions of the CaMV35S promoter and Cas9 gene, were present in the genome. As a result, foreign genes were segregated at a 1 : 1 ratio, indicating successful null segregant production. Using PCR analysis, we confirmed that four representative null segregants did not contain transfer DNA. In summary, our study demonstrates that the CRISPR/Cas9 system can efficiently produce double-flowered gentians, and null segregants can also be obtained. These genome-edited plants are valuable genetic resources for future gentian breeding programs.