著者
佐伯 胖
出版者
The Academic Association for Organizational Science
雑誌
組織科学 (ISSN:02869713)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.48, no.2, pp.38-49, 2014

「学習」をめぐって,行動主義心理学,認知心理学,認知科学,さらに状況的認知論がどのように扱ってきたかの歴史を振り返り,行動から認知,さらに社会との関連へと関心が移ってきた経緯を展望した.しかし,人が他者と共同的活動に参加するには,本当に人と人が「かかわりあう」ことが必要だが,その点が従来なおざりになっていることを指摘し,新たに「二人称的かかわり」を見直すことを提言する.
著者
山川 義徳 金井 良太
出版者
The Academic Association for Organizational Science
雑誌
組織科学 (ISSN:02869713)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.47, no.4, pp.6-15, 2014-06-20 (Released:2014-10-03)
参考文献数
33
被引用文献数
1

近年,脳科学を通じた人(の心)の理解には著しい発展が見られている.その中では,心の状態を数値化する脳計測技術とその状態を解釈するための脳解析技術,さらに意味づけし制御するための脳活用技術が存在している.そこで,本論文では,それぞれの技術についての解説及びそのマネジメントについての提言を行うとともに,ビジネスパーソンや経営者に対してこれらの技術をどのように適用できるかという点について論考する.

3 0 0 0 OA Groupthink trap

著者
Ryota MATSUI
出版者
The Academic Association for Organizational Science
雑誌
Transactions of the Academic Association for Organizational Science (ISSN:21868530)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.6, no.2, pp.14-19, 2017 (Released:2017-12-23)
参考文献数
13

On March 11, 2011, the Great East Japan Earthquake triggered an extremely severe nuclear accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, owned and operated by Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO). Before the accident, several experts and researchers had repeatedly pointed out a high possibility that tsunami would reach beyond the level assumed by TEPCO, as well as a possibility that such level of tsunami might cause severe accidents. However, TEPCO and the regulatory body (NISA) overlooked these warnings and did not take any preventive measure against tsunami. Consequently, Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant was incapable of withstanding the tsunami that hit on the day. Due to these facts, the accident is regarded as a man-made disaster. Even today, more than 6 years after the accident, it has not been revealed why they underestimated the risk of tsunami and couldn't prevent the accident. This article suggests that this question can be partially answered by applying “groupthink” model which was developed by Irving Janis. This study analyzes the descriptions of two official reports on the Fukushima accident by Japanese government and National Diet. As the result, all antecedent conditions, six symptoms of groupthink and six symptoms of defective decision making are found in the accident reports. This study also suggests that an additional antecedent condition "existences of obvious and obscure risks" and a symptom of groupthink "procrastination of problem solving" could be included in the groupthink model.
著者
松井 剛
出版者
The Academic Association for Organizational Science
雑誌
組織科学 (ISSN:02869713)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.46, no.3, pp.87-99, 2013

本論文は,「癒し」という流行語が社会に波及する中で生じた意味創造プロセスを,20年分の雑誌記事タイトル8033件のテキスト分析を通じて明らかにする.特に注目をするのは,マーケティングを通じて新しい言葉が普及する一方で,こうした言葉の流行に乗る形でマーケティング努力の模倣が生じるという相互作用である.またブームが生じた理由を説くメディアの「理屈づけ」が,こうした相互作用を強化する可能性も指摘される.
著者
長瀬 勝彦
出版者
The Academic Association for Organizational Science
雑誌
組織学会大会論文集 (ISSN:21868530)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.7, no.2, pp.179-184, 2018 (Released:2018-12-27)
参考文献数
11

Previous findings on the relationship between psychological traits and procrastination are inconsistent. Same applies to the relationship between procrastination and performance. Some researchers have reported negative influences of procrastination on performance, some researchers have reported positive influences, and the others have reported no influences. It is partly due to the fact that prior research has explored only each of the two relationships. Additionally, the relationship between psychological traits and performance remains hidden from view. In order to overcome these limitations, this study investigates the relationships among psychological traits, procrastination, and performance. Steel(2011) presented a scale of procrastination and scales of three psychological traits (expectation, value, and impulsivity). I translated them into Japanese language and made some modest amendments in order to improve the suitability for Japanese students. Respondents were 160 sophomores (82 females, 78 males) of a university in Tokyo. Students answered the questionnaires and described their GPAs, which were used as the indicators of their academic performance. Structural equation modelling (SEM) revealed that impulsivity acted on procrastination and that procrastination acted on performance. Expectation and value did not have significant influences on procrastination. None of the psychological traits had significant direct influences on performance. The model fit statistics indicated CFI=.864, GFI=.806, and RMSEA=.058.
著者
清水 たくみ
出版者
The Academic Association for Organizational Science
雑誌
組織学会大会論文集 (ISSN:21868530)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.7, no.2, pp.7-12, 2018 (Released:2018-12-27)
参考文献数
14

Online communities (OCs) as a new form of organizing are emerging with recent technologies such as digital platforms and social media. Although OCs are recognized as generative spaces for knowledge collaboration and innovation, we still know little about how OCs are created and sustained over time. To address this issue, this paper conducts a longitudinal field study of a healthcare online community hosted by a Canadian medical association. Building on the field observational data (before and after the launch of OC) and the digital trace data of the OC platform, this study explores how the OC evolves with the imbrication of design and emergence over the course of community development. This study contributes to novel understandings of OC development and provides practical implications on how to manage and sustain online communities.
著者
清宮 徹
出版者
The Academic Association for Organizational Science
雑誌
組織学会大会論文集 (ISSN:21868530)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.4, no.2, pp.43-54, 2016-02-29 (Released:2016-03-14)
参考文献数
25

When we focus on organizing, rather than organization, it is crucial to pay attention to the role of discourse and consider how social reality is shaped through discursive interactions in organizational settings. This paper explores effective discourse approaches to study the dynamic aspects of organizing. From the perspective of organizational communication, in particular from a communication constitutes organization, a focal point of studies has been on discursive interactions and their process in a variety of contexts. This paper illustrates basic understandings of organizational discourse studies that commonly emphasize conceptualizations of articulation, recontextualization, interdiscursivity, and polyphony, which sheds light on the dynamic development of social reality. The relationship between text and context must be understood in the analysis of intertextual relations. Studies of organizational discourse do not mean analysis about words and languages, but rather analysis of contexts with intertextual relationships. In doing so, a complex and often taken-for-grated contexts are interpreted in the dynamic process of organizing. A variety of discourse analyses are used as complementary approaches. These are beneficial for investigating the dynamics of historical, cultural, and everyday contexts. Eventually, the organizational discourse approaches challenge the study of complex social reality and attempt to expand beyond the limited areas of traditional management studies and traditional domains of research legitimatized by managerialism. While strong concerns have been expressed regarding a notion of organizing, it is crucial to change the conventional view of control in management to a more dynamic aspect of communicating and democratizing in organizations.
著者
見吉 英彦
出版者
The Academic Association for Organizational Science
雑誌
組織学会大会論文集 (ISSN:21868530)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.6, no.1, pp.81-86, 2017 (Released:2017-08-18)
参考文献数
13

Recently, in research of entrepreneurship, much attention has been paid to the new approach, which trying to formulate an excellent entrepreneur's decision-making principle. As one of them, there is the concept of "effectuation" that Saras Sarasvathy advocated. In this paper, first, it explain the "effectuation" and sorting out an issue of competitive strategic theory and consider the possibility of "effectuation" in this field. As the result, this paper pointed out that it is important point that how to balance or fuse “Correspond to Knight's the third uncertainty” and "special solutions embedded in specific contexts"
著者
中祖 晴香 大滝 令嗣 野口 麗奈
出版者
The Academic Association for Organizational Science
雑誌
組織学会大会論文集 (ISSN:21868530)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.7, no.2, pp.191-196, 2018 (Released:2018-12-27)
参考文献数
9

The objective of this paper is to gain implications for measuring and visualizing employee engagement instantaneously by using AI called "A; " (Laboratik Inc.). Currently, employee engagement scores in Japan only attains the half of its universal average score while some study concluded that employee engagement impacted on its corporate performance. Therefore, the aim of this study is to contribute for improving current employee engagement score in Japan by seeking for a possible solution to measure and visualize employee engagement more instantaneously without survey questions in the future, specifically, utilizing technology. The research hypothesis is that there are correlations between changes in sentiment scores with "A;", and the change of employee engagement survey scores before and after coaching sessions. We conducted this research toward 2 groups of 6 employees in each within targeted period. The research result supported our hypothesis. In addition, we found that two teams employee engagement factors that correlated to the sentiments' changes were different. In conclusion, the findings implied the possible utilization of A; to a real-time measure of employee engagement score though it is mandatory to accumulate results with larger samples.
著者
井形 元彦 繁桝 博昭 桂 信太郎
出版者
The Academic Association for Organizational Science
雑誌
組織学会大会論文集 (ISSN:21868530)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.7, no.2, pp.299-304, 2018 (Released:2018-12-27)
参考文献数
5

In this research, we aimed to give new findings to marketing strategies for flowers. Especially purchase of flower plants is decided not with functional value but with sensibility value. Therefore, we quantitatively and structurally analyzed the sensitivity of subjects' preferences using Kansei Engineering method. Furthermore, based on cognitive neuroscience method, fMRI (functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging) was used to evaluate the impression on the way of presenting flowers and the effect on brain activity. Based on the results, this paper explores the possibility of applying the neuromarketing which integrates the fields of marketing, psychology, and neuroscience to the flower business in the future.
著者
渡邊 克巳
出版者
The Academic Association for Organizational Science
雑誌
組織科学 (ISSN:02869713)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.47, no.4, pp.16-22, 2014-06-20 (Released:2014-10-03)
参考文献数
39

組織科学と脳科学は,人間の主観・客観両方の観点からの理解を必要としている点で共通している.本稿では,個人および組織の意思決定は,我々が主観的に感じているほど内的な理由に基づいているわけではなく,多くの部分が意識されない外部・状況・他者の存在によって強い影響を受けていることを示しながら,組織科学と脳科学の融合の方向性を探りたい.
著者
山川 義徳 金井 良太
出版者
The Academic Association for Organizational Science
雑誌
組織科学 (ISSN:02869713)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.47, no.4, pp.6-15, 2014

近年,脳科学を通じた人(の心)の理解には著しい発展が見られている.その中では,心の状態を数値化する脳計測技術とその状態を解釈するための脳解析技術,さらに意味づけし制御するための脳活用技術が存在している.そこで,本論文では,それぞれの技術についての解説及びそのマネジメントについての提言を行うとともに,ビジネスパーソンや経営者に対してこれらの技術をどのように適用できるかという点について論考する.
著者
勝又 壮太郎 西本 章宏
出版者
The Academic Association for Organizational Science
雑誌
組織学会大会論文集 (ISSN:21868530)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.5, no.2, pp.1-9, 2016 (Released:2016-12-14)
参考文献数
13

This study focuses on the process of market generation and diffusion. Especially, we examine the relationship between market attractiveness and legitimation of the product market. We conduct the study following two steps: First, we refer some previous work to analyze the transition of market such as socio-cognitive and institutional theories. Second, we propose a method to measure the legitimacy which change along with the market expansion from published newspaper articles. In general, it is difficult to observe the transition of the market change from behavioral outcome such as sale amount and diffusion rate, this study measures the latent market change from the change of the word. Third, we develop a quantitative model to examine the relationship between observed degree of legitimacy and marketing performances. Our empirical model is based on the bass diffusion model which enable us to estimate market diffusion rate and examine the impact of the legitimation on the diffusion rate and profitability. As a result, we find that market size and profitability increase at the formulation stage of the legitimacy, on the other hand, the market size and profitability decrease at the stabilized stage. Based on the findings, we also discuss the optimal market entry strategies and desirable new product development strategies. For example, we can obtain an implication to entry observing the change of the word.
著者
松井 亮太
出版者
The Academic Association for Organizational Science
雑誌
組織学会大会論文集 (ISSN:21868530)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.6, no.1, pp.50-55, 2017 (Released:2017-08-18)
参考文献数
10

The tendency to underestimate the time required to complete a project, even while knowing that the vast majority of similar projects have run late, has been termed the “planning fallacy” (Kahneman & Tversky, 1979). Although many studies have shown that people often underestimate their task-completion time, the mechanism of the planning fallacy has not become clear. In order to verify the mechanism, this article conducted two experimental studies from the perspective of task difficulty. In Study 1, participants predicted the necessary times of two tasks (easy task and difficult task) and worked on them. As a result of Study 1, it was demonstrated that the task difficulty affected the degree of the planning fallacy. Participants underestimated the necessary time of easy task, but on the other hand participants overestimated the necessary time of difficult one; the difference was statistically significant (p < .01). Study 2 was conducted one year after the Study 1. In Study 2, participants recalled the task-completion times of two tasks which they had worked on one year ago. As a result of Study 2, it is shown that the task difficulty also affected the degree of the memory bias. Participants underestimated the task-completion time of easy task which they had worked on one year ago, whereas overestimated the task-completion time of difficult one; the difference was statistically significant (p < .01).
著者
吉永 崇史
出版者
The Academic Association for Organizational Science
雑誌
組織学会大会論文集 (ISSN:21868530)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.6, no.2, pp.47-52, 2017 (Released:2017-12-23)
参考文献数
7

This paper proposes three ideas for the possible roles of an organizational studies researcher (hereafter referred to as an OSR) when practicing the narrative approach described by Yoshinaga and Saito (in press). First, in order to device a method for extracting diverse narratives, it is necessary for an OSR to have a sufficiently trusting relationship with the practitioners. The positive attitudes of the practitioners trying to incorporate an OSR in order to encourage diversity management and of the researchers that are trying to contribute to co-constructing narratives in the field are required. Therefore, the OSR must appeal to the practitioners and demonstrate that the researcher can become someone who will promote diversity management within the organization. Second, by witnessing how the narrative approach is practiced, an OSR can be involved in the field without interfering with the autonomy of the practitioners. In addition, the OSR will be able to present positive meaning for each practitioner's practice. Finally, for an OSR to administrate the organizational practice of a narrative approach, after OSRs have been grouped into teams, they can conduct a process that consists of four steps: 1) a dialogue between the OSRs, 2) a presentation of the dialogue summary to the practitioners, 3) a dialogue with the practitioners and the researchers, and 4) a dialogue between the practitioners. The process needs to be designed as action research.
著者
榎波 龍雄 田路 則子
出版者
The Academic Association for Organizational Science
雑誌
組織学会大会論文集 (ISSN:21868530)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.4, no.1, pp.71-76, 2015-07-31 (Released:2015-07-31)
参考文献数
8

Companies that have success in the product of modular architecture, easily to get stuck in “The Modularity Trap”. What are the factors for next successful innovation for these companies? This paper follows the transition of the product architecture of semiconductor exposure tools which have large scale complexity. Semiconductor exposure tool is the ultimate integrative type of product as typified by the automobile. According to previous discussions represented by Fujimoto (2001), Japanese companies have strong points of making integral architecture product by utilizing much knowledge beyond the boundary of companies and integrated human resources. In fact, a Japanese exposure manufacture, Nikon had attained around 50% market share until the mid-1990s by leveraging overwhelming technological innovation capability. However, Nikon have been caught up by ASML (a Dutch company), which entered the market later. In this paper, we compare ASML succeeding in innovation despite its modular architecture with Nikon not succeeding in innovation despite integral architecture.
著者
伊佐田 文彦
出版者
The Academic Association for Organizational Science
雑誌
組織学会大会論文集 (ISSN:21868530)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.7, no.2, pp.447-452, 2018 (Released:2018-12-27)
参考文献数
17

The objective of this research is to clarify empirically the influence of the network structure between companies on research and development (R&D) in Internet of Things (IoT) business. In IoT business, R&D beyond the border of a company becomes important. Furthermore, advantageous positioning in the network is thought to enhance the result of R&D, and ultimately contribute to profit. In this research, the relationship between the network structure and the result of R&D was analyzed with a method of social network analysis. Joint-application patents related to IoT business were extracted from the intellectual-property database. As a result, the difference in the network structure of a company was related to the result of R&D and profitability in IoT business.
著者
今永 典秀
出版者
The Academic Association for Organizational Science
雑誌
組織学会大会論文集 (ISSN:21868530)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.7, no.2, pp.332-337, 2018 (Released:2018-12-27)
参考文献数
8

The focus is on a knife industry, one of the traditional local industries in Seki, Gifu Prefecture. I consider the case of Nikken Cutlery Co., Ltd., one of the small and medium enterprises, whose business successor made innovation using crowdfunding. After working for several years as an engineer at a big enterprise, the business successor joined the company for business succession. After exchanging constructive ideas with younger employees there, the successor developed a new product. Then, utilizing crowdfunding, the person sold the new product in new markets. This action is a thinking process to take advantage of "effectuation", starting actions from means already possessed, acting to positively aim at constructing new partnerships that were not originally anticipated and creating the environment, which I found it to be an inspiring approach. In addition, utilization of crowdfunding may contribute to reform of corporate culture and promotion of new business. Utilization of crowdfunding in traditional industries in the local area can be one of the useful ways in which business successors make innovation and reform an organization.
著者
中野 勉
出版者
The Academic Association for Organizational Science
雑誌
組織学会大会論文集 (ISSN:21868530)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.5, no.2, pp.41-48, 2016 (Released:2016-12-14)
参考文献数
20

What is “good” sound to listen to music? How does the market work? This paper investigates market mechanisms of Japan’s high-end audio industry as linked to the global markets, from the point of view of pragmatic valuation as tasting of hardware products. It aims to test its validity and potential with relevance to the network analysis. The industry is a “creative industry” where art, technology and culture intersect to produce “good” quality sound for serious audiophiles who buy luxurious high-end equipments to enjoy listening to the aesthetic music. The serial work by Hennion on taste discusses attachments as a moment of sensations as to become music lovers or alcoholics. By contrast, applying network analysis of relevant social networks and fieldwork interviews of audiophiles in Denmark, France, Germany, Japan, Sweden, UK, and US markets, this research study focused on the hardware, which mediates the art of music and human minds as agents, the point largely ignored by the existing literature. As a result, the study found that the concept of “high fidelity” is the foundational notion of “good” sound as a shared benchmark among the stakeholders. However the complexity of valuation of sound as combination of art, culture and technology generates ambiguity or ambivalence regarding the definition. The fact requires a multi-dimensional approach to the tasting or evaluation with a rich and sophisticated repertoire of pragmatic knowledge from seasoned experience, highly subjective judgements as well as objective metric tests from engineering and technology. This ambivalence of high-fidelity is the engines that drives the market by creating the dynamic market valorization mechanisms where intermediaries coordinate stakeholders to stabilize value of the products through collaboration, confirmation, information sharing, legitimation, and updating or upscaling as agencement. This approach thus can elaborate on the coordination processes as well as the competitive dynamics of social networks in the marketplace beyond the relational structure.
著者
髙橋 省吾
出版者
The Academic Association for Organizational Science
雑誌
組織学会大会論文集 (ISSN:21868530)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.7, no.2, pp.154-159, 2018 (Released:2018-12-27)
参考文献数
11

This research presents ways in which companies engaged in industry-academia open innovation manage risks. Recently, importance of industry-academia open innovation is increasing. Universities, in particular, find it difficult to administrate risks; such as, information leakages, breaches of contract, conflicts of interest, etc. One of the reasons for this is multiple organizational structures of universities, which include bureaucracies, collegiums, enterprises, and corporations. In contrast, corporate governance is comparatively easy to administer because the organizational structure is bureaucratic basically. Therefore, companies that introduce industry-academia open innovation should manage their risks, including the ones mentioned above.