著者
後藤 崇志 石橋 優也 梶村 昇吾 岡 隆之介 楠見 孝
出版者
The Japanese Psychological Association
雑誌
心理学研究 (ISSN:00215236)
巻号頁・発行日
2015

We developed a free will and determinism scale in Japanese (FAD-J) to assess lay beliefs in free will, scientific determinism, fatalistic determinism, and unpredictability. In Study 1, we translated a free will and determinism scale (FAD-Plus) into Japanese and verified its reliability and validity. In Study 2, we examined the relationship between the FAD-J and eight other scales. Results suggested that lay beliefs in free will and determinism were related to self-regulation, critical thinking, other-oriented empathy, self-esteem, and regret and maximization in decision makings. We discuss the usefulness of the FAD-J for studying the psychological functions of lay beliefs in free will and determinism.
著者
和田 実
出版者
The Japanese Psychological Association
雑誌
心理学研究 (ISSN:00215236)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.81, no.4, pp.356-363, 2010

This study investigated heterosexual undergraduates' behavior with a same-sex close friend and their attitudes toward homosexuality after this friend disclosed his/her sexual orientation. The study also examined whether the heterosexual friend was regarded as a romantic love object or not. Participants were 77 male and 139 female undergraduates. Males decreased their behaviors with their close friend and adopted more positive attitudes toward gay men after they knew their friend's sexual orientation. Females decreased their behavior with their close friend more after learning that they were a romantic love object of their friend, compared to when tehy were not. Also females adopted more positive attitudes toward lesbians only after knowing they were not a romantic love object. These gender differences are discussed.
著者
東 洋 柏木 恵子
出版者
The Japanese Psychological Association
雑誌
Japanese Psychological Research (ISSN:00215368)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.29, no.1, pp.17-26, 1987-02-25 (Released:2009-02-24)
参考文献数
4

The purpose of this study was to examine the concept of intelligence among Japanese. Male and female college students, and mothers of female students were asked to think of an intelligent person, and to rate each of 67 descriptors according to whether it fits that person or not. It was found out that some of the descriptors were highly general regardless of the background of the person to be described, and that some were specific to the sex and other backgrounds of the person. As compared to the results of studies in the U.S., descriptors related to the receptive social competence tended to be associated with high intelligence, especially when the person to be described was a woman. The factor structure found in Japanese subjects which showed the predominant factor of social competence differed from that for Americans reported by Sternberg. Sex stereotyping in the concept of intelligence was also observed: Descriptors for a female target, compared those of a male target, were distributed more heavily in the domain of social competence and the reading and writing. Sex-role differentiation in concept was more pronounced in the responses of male students as compared to those of female subjects.
著者
仲嶺 真
出版者
The Japanese Psychological Association
雑誌
心理学研究 (ISSN:00215236)
巻号頁・発行日
2014

The purpose of this study was to examine how women reacted to the approach of an unknown man in town. 105 female Japanese undergraduates participated in the pilot survey. This survey identified six types of judgments made by women when they were approached by an unknown man in town. To investigate the relation between these six types of judgments and the reaction of women to an unknown man, 290 female Japanese undergraduates participated in the main study. The results showed that judgments concerning risks and situation, as well as personality, intentions, and appearance of an unknown man were related to the reactions of women. The importance of judgments about personality of an unknown man and about risk in initiating relationships with males not belonging to the females' social network are discussed.
著者
石丸 径一郎
出版者
The Japanese Psychological Association
雑誌
心理学研究 (ISSN:00215236)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.75, no.3, pp.191-198, 2004
被引用文献数
2 or 0

Self-esteem of sexual orientation minority members is not necessarily low, contrary to what might be theoretically expected. An explanation has been offered that self-protective strategies were in use. Instead, it is argued in this paper that sense of social inclusion plays an important role, and two questionnaire studies examined the possibility. In Study 1, 214 members of sexual orientation minority completed a set of questionnaires. Results showed that sense of acceptance by others had a positive relationship with self-esteem, but use of self-protective strategies did not. In Study 2, 218 who were not minority members completed the same set of questionnaires. It was shown in the comparison that the relationship between self-esteem and sense of social inclusion was stronger for minority members than non-members. Sense of social inclusion thus appeared to help members of sexual orientation minority keep self-esteem high.
著者
小浜 駿
出版者
The Japanese Psychological Association
雑誌
心理学研究 (ISSN:00215236)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.81, no.4, pp.339-347, 2010

This study investigated change of cognitions and feelings before, during, and after the process of procrastination. A questionnaire was administered to 358 undergraduate students asking them to recall and rate their experience of procrastinating. The results revealed that negative feelings which take place during procrastination interfere with task performance. Planning before procrastination is associated with positive feelings after procrastination, and these positive feelings assist task performance. Optimistic thinking is positively related to both positive and negative feelings; the former take place during procrastination, and the latter take place after procrastination.
著者
縄田 健悟
出版者
The Japanese Psychological Association
雑誌
心理学研究 (ISSN:00215236)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.85, no.2, pp.148-156, 2014

Despite the widespread popular belief in Japan about a relationship between personality and ABO blood type, this association has not been empirically substantiated. This study provides more robust evidence that there is no relationship between blood type and personality, through a secondary analysis of large-scale survey data. Recent data (after 2000) were collected using large-scale random sampling from over 10,000 people in total from both Japan and the US. Effect sizes were calculated. Japanese datasets from 2004 (<i>N</i> = 2,878–2,938), and 2,005 (<i>N</i> = 3,618–3,692) as well as one dataset from the US in 2004 (<i>N</i> = 3,037–3,092) were used. In all the datasets, 65 of 68 items yielded non-significant differences between blood groups. Effect sizes (<i>η</i><sup>2</sup>) were less than .003. This means that blood type explained less than 0.3% of the total variance in personality. These results show the non-relevance of blood type for personality.
著者
鈴川 由美 豊田 秀樹
出版者
The Japanese Psychological Association
雑誌
心理学研究 (ISSN:00215236)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.83, no.1, pp.51-63, 2012
被引用文献数
1 or 0

This study analyzed the statistical power of research studies published in the "Japanese Journal of Psychology" in 2008 and 2009. Sample effect sizes and sample statistical powers were calculated for each statistical test and analyzed with respect to the analytical methods and the fields of the studies. The results show that in the fields like perception, cognition or learning, the effect sizes were relatively large, although the sample sizes were small. At the same time, because of the small sample sizes, some meaningful effects could not be detected. In the other fields, because of the large sample sizes, meaningless effects could be detected. This implies that researchers who could not get large enough effect sizes would use larger samples to obtain significant results.
著者
井川 純一 中西 大輔 志和 資朗
出版者
The Japanese Psychological Association
雑誌
心理学研究 (ISSN:00215236)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.84, no.4, pp.386-395, 2013

This study investigates characteristics of burnout, as related to job descriptions in mental hospitals and presuppositions of the concept of burnout (burnout is caused as a result of having enthusiasm for a job). The results of a questionnaire survey (burnout tendency, Japanese Burnout Scale, enthusiasm for a job in the past, modified Enthusiasm scale) with 781 workers at mental hospitals showed that burnout characteristics varied according to job descriptions. Specifically, psychiatric social workers, medical assistants, and nurses fell into the high-burnout category, whereas doctors, occupational therapists, and pharmacists fell into the low-burnout category. In addition, in order to compare enthusiasm for a job in the past with current burnout tendencies, factor scores for the respective scales were classified into a low group or a high group and were cross tabulated. The numbers in the cells of the groups indicating the opposite of the definition of burnout (low enthusiasm-high burnout tendency, high enthusiasm-low burnout tendency) were larger. This indicates that having enthusiasm for a job is not a direct factor for burnout, which is different from the presupposition about burnout.
著者
平野 美沙 湯川 進太郎
出版者
The Japanese Psychological Association
雑誌
心理学研究 (ISSN:00215236)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.84, no.2, pp.93-102, 2013
被引用文献数
0 or 1

This study explores the impact of mindfulness meditation on anger. A meditation group (<i>N</i> = 37) attended 5-10 minutes of mindfulness meditation daily for a week. They were assessed with self-report scales measuring three aspects of anger (rumination, arousal, and lengthiness) before, just after, and four weeks after their one-week participation. Their scores were compared to a control group (<i>N</i> = 27), which was assessed at the same intervals as the meditation group. The meditation group was also asked to evaluate their current mood using the Affect Grid before and after each meditation. The results indicated that participants in the meditation group who continued meditation voluntarily after the week of their participation had decreased anger rumination scores just after and four weeks after their participation. Additionally, the pleasant score on the Affect Grid increased after meditation for almost all the participation days. These findings suggest the efficacy of mindfulness meditation on improving the tendency to ruminate about anger episodes in the medium term to long term, and also on improving mood in the short term.
著者
佐藤 德
出版者
The Japanese Psychological Association
雑誌
心理学研究 (ISSN:00215236)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.85, no.4, pp.345-353, 2014
被引用文献数
0 or 1

Previous studies demonstrated that participants in left-to-right writing cultures showed a strong preference to associate the past with left space and the future with right space. The present studies investigated whether these spatial associations involved body-part-centered or extracorporal space. In Experiment 1, participants categorized words as referring to the past or the future by pressing button on the left with the left hand or a button on the right with the right hand. In Experiments 2 and 3, participants crossed their hands and were instructed to categorize words by pressing the left or right buttons (Experiment 2) or by moving their left or right hand (Experiment 3). Irrespective of the relative spatial positions of the response buttons, past words were more quickly categorized with the left hand and future words with the right hand. In addition, reaction times were slower in Experiment 2 than in Experiment 1, whereas there was no significant difference between Experiments 1 and 3. These results suggest that temporal concepts such as past and future are more strongly associated with embodied space than visual space.
著者
亀田 達也
出版者
The Japanese Psychological Association
雑誌
心理学研究 (ISSN:00215236)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.57, no.1, pp.27-34, 1986

To examine effect of prior stereotypical expectancy on social judgment from a Bayesian perspective, undergraduate subjects (<i>N</i>=204) were asked to infer a target person's attitude toward an atomic power problem. Half of them were told in advance that he was a member of Liberal Democratic Party (pro-expectancy condition), and the other half were told that he was a member of Japanese Socialist Party (con-expectancy condition). Then subjects were given a series of his previous relevant utterances, which had either high or low diagnostic values for the inference of his attitude. (a) "Labeling effect" occurred. That is, despite being given identical utterances, subjects given L. D. P. label estimated the target's attitude to be more favorable toward the atomic power than subjects given J. S. P. label. (b) This effect emerged mainly when subjects were given low diagnostic utterances. (c) Subjects given high diagnostic utterances inadequately underused the base-rate information (prior expectancy) compared with the Bayesian normative value. (d) Utterances congruent with prior expectancy were better recalled than utterances incongruent with prior expectancy.
著者
磯部 綾美 久冨 哲兵 松井 豊 宇井 美代子 高橋 尚也 大庭 剛司 竹村 和久
出版者
The Japanese Psychological Association
雑誌
心理学研究 (ISSN:00215236)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.79, no.5, pp.453-458, 2008
被引用文献数
0 or 3

This study developed a Japanese version of the "Regret and Maximization Scale" in decision making, which was originally constructed by Schwartz, Ward, Monterosso, Lyubomirsky, White, and Lehman (2002). This scale measures assess the tendency to experience regret, and individual differences in the desire to maximize or to satisfy. In Study 1, the original version of the "Regret and Maximization Scale" was translated into Japanese and administered to 307 Japanese university students responded the scale. Factor analysis did not replicate the finding of Schwartz et al. (2002). In Study 2, we developed new items, and constructed a "Japanese Version of the Regret and Maximization Scale", based on the interpretation of the factor analysis in Study 1. This new version of the scale was administered to 163 Japanese university students. The result of factor analysis and reliability analysis indicated that this "Japanese Version of the Regret and Maximization Scale" had a considerably high Cronbach's alpha and conceptual validity.
著者
二瀬 由理 行場 次朗
出版者
The Japanese Psychological Association
雑誌
心理学研究 (ISSN:00215236)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.67, no.3, pp.227-231, 1996
被引用文献数
1 or 0

It is a well-known observation that when a <i>Kanji</i> character is viewed steadily and continuously, the viewer often becomes unable to recognize the <i>Kanji</i> as a whole pattern and it becomes difficult to judge whether or not the <i>Kanji</i> is orthographically correct. Such a phenomenon is called the "Gestaltzerfall" of <i>Kanji</i> characters. In the present study, two experiments were carried out to examine delays in the recognition of test <i>Kanji</i> following 25 s of prolonged viewing of adaptation <i>Kanji</i>, which were comprised of either the same or different parts and structures. When the size of the adaptation <i>Kanji</i> was equal to that of the test <i>Kanji</i>, there were significant delays of more than 50 ms, both when the stimuli were of the same pattern, and when they had the same structure but different components. However, when their sizes were different, delays were found only when the test and the adaptation <i>Kanji</i> were of the same pattern. These results suggest that a <i>Kanji</i> pattern may be internally represented as a whole, independent of its size, while the processing of <i>Kanji</i> structure may be dependent upon its size. Prolonged viewing may produce an adaptation effect specific to such representations.
著者
高野 陽太郎 纓坂 英子
出版者
The Japanese Psychological Association
雑誌
心理学研究 (ISSN:00215236)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.68, no.4, pp.312-327, 1997
被引用文献数
2 or 0

To assess the validity of the dominant view that the "national character" of the Japanese is more collective than that of the Americans, this paper reviews ten recent empirical studies that compared these two nations regarding individualism/collectivism. Two experimental studies on conformity and five questionnaire studies found no substantial differences. Two experimental studies on cooperation and one questionnaire study found that Japanese college students were more individualistic than American counterparts. The only study that supported the dominant view (Hofstede, 1980) is found to have little validity because its "individualism factor" is virtually unrelated to the common definition of individualism/collectivism. It is shown that the past collective behavior of the Japanese can be interpreted as a universal reaction to the international situations that required cooperation inside Japan and have recently changed drastically. A review of the past literature that produced the dominant view suggests that it was formed through the fundamental attribution error and other judgmental biases.
著者
佐藤 功
出版者
The Japanese Psychological Association
雑誌
心理学研究 (ISSN:00215236)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.41, no.4, pp.173-181, 1970

The present study was conducted, in developing Zajonc's study on "cognitive tuning" phenomena, to investigate in detail the interrelationships between the transmissionreception (T-R) conditions and the cognitive structure of certain information. In this study, therefore, T-R conditions as situational variables were dealt with in relation to the predispositions conditions as subject varialbles, and the content index of the cognitive structure as well as Zajonc's morphological index was used.<br>The main findings are as follows.<br>1. The effects of the T-R and predispositions conditions on the cognitive tuning phenomena differ according to the properties (morphology and content) of the cognitive structure.<br>2. The level of the cognitive organization in morphological properties is directly related to the intensity of the predispositions. No appreciable interaction is found between the T-R and predispositions conditions.<br>3. The level of the cognitive organization in content properties is considerably influenced by the interaction of the predispositions with the T-R conditions: the level of the cognitive organization in content properties markedly increases, when the receiver's role is assigned to the subject having higher familiarity with a certain referent, or having deeper interest in it.<br>4. As to these results above-mentioned, some differences between morphological and content properties in the cognitive structure were discussed: it was suggested that the morphological index may reflect the general activation level of individuals, while the content index may reflect the specific psychological mechanism (such as defensive resistance to communication) of individuals who expect to receive certain information.
著者
林 一清
出版者
The Japanese Psychological Association
雑誌
心理研究 (ISSN:18841066)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.28, no.165, pp.255-259, 1925
著者
鳥居 修晃 望月 登志子
出版者
The Japanese Psychological Association
雑誌
Japanese Psychological Research (ISSN:00215368)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.37, no.3, pp.146-157, 1995-10-25 (Released:2009-02-24)
参考文献数
40

The present experiment was planned to examine whether or not the congenitally blind after surgery were capable of seeing the subjective contour, when Kanizsa's original and a modified version of it were presented for the first time. Three subjects (M. O., To. M. and K. T.) who have continued a series of experiments for visual learning with us participated in the experimental runs. All subjects have already attained the ability to identify the 2D shape and solids. Initially it was expected that the subject's response could be classified as indicating that the subjective contours were seen or that they were not. However, it was found that (1) at least another two classes of responses should be added, and (2) that the commonly reported phenomenon of subjective contours in the normally sighted was rare in the congenitally blind subjects after surgery. A theoretical implication of the results is briefly discussed.
著者
伊藤 裕子 相良 順子
出版者
The Japanese Psychological Association
雑誌
心理学研究 (ISSN:00215236)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.84, no.6, pp.612-617, 2014

This study examined gender differences for two measures of mental health as related to the quality of the marital relationship. Middle-aged respondents (221 female; 210 male) rated their marital satisfaction, affection, and communication. They also rated their psychological well-being and depression. The correlations between marital quality and mental health indicated that for males marital quality was more strongly associated with psychological well-being than with depression. Females showed no such difference, or their marital quality was associated with depression. This implies that for females, depression was a more sensitive measure of their mental health related to their husband-wife relationship. On the other hand, for males subjective well-being which was correlated with self-esteem was a more sensitive measure of their mental health.