著者
小山 虎
出版者
The Philosophy of Science Society, Japan
雑誌
科学哲学 (ISSN:02893428)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.51, no.2, pp.29-45, 2018-12-30 (Released:2019-11-27)
参考文献数
41

What is the exact relationship between analytic philosophy and philosophy of science? In this paper, I will address this question from the perspective of research traditions, with the help of recent historical studies on analytic philosophy. The two groups are particularly focused: the Polish philosophers and the logical empiricists in Berlin. Neither of them is unknown to us. However, by taking seriously their connection to the development of analytic philosophy and philosophy of science as research traditions, I believe, the understanding of our own tradition may be improved.
著者
高橋 英之 伊豆原 潤星 改田 明子 山口 直孝 境 くりま 小山 虎 小川 浩平 石黒 浩
出版者
日本知能情報ファジィ学会
雑誌
知能と情報 (ISSN:13477986)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.31, no.5, pp.852-858, 2019-10-15 (Released:2019-10-15)
参考文献数
17

コミュニケーションを円滑に行う上で,相手に対する事前知識や信念を互い有し,それを振舞いや発言にトップダウンに利用することは重要である.その一方で,多くの人間とロボットのコミュニケーションにおいては,ロボットに関する事前知識や信念を人間側が持っていないことが多い.本論文では,事前知識や信念が人間とロボットのコミュニケーションに及ぼす影響を調べるために,著名な文豪である夏目漱石のアンドロイドを用いて,被験者が“夏目漱石”や“ロボット”,“人工知能”に対して有している事前知識や信念がどのように“漱石アンドロイドとのコミュニケーション”に対する印象に影響を与えるのかを調べた.その結果,“夏目漱石”に対する事前知識は緩く漱石アンドロイドとのコミュニケーションにおけるリアリティと関連する一方,それ以上に“人工知能”に対する畏怖の念が強く漱石アンドロイドのリアリティと関連していることが分かった.
著者
小山 虎
出版者
The Philosophy of Science Society, Japan
雑誌
科学哲学 (ISSN:02893428)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.43, no.1, pp.1_79-1_90, 2010 (Released:2010-09-26)
参考文献数
9

Modal realism is an ontological claim according to which there exist many possible worlds just like our actual world. Since it is so hard to believe, modal realism has only a few advocates. However, it is well known that alternative theories have serious problems. It is one of the central issues of metaphysics to find a persuasive way to reject modal realism.    In this paper, I will suggest that it could be accomplished with help of metaontology-one of the topics of metaphysics which has recently discussed intensely. I will show how we could argue against modal realism from the metaontological point of view.
著者
西村 正秀 岩月 拓 神崎 宣次 小山 虎 渡辺 一弘
出版者
Japanese Association for the Contemporary and Applied Philosophy (JACAP)
雑誌
Contemporary and Applied Philosophy (ISSN:18834329)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.1, pp.1001-1041, 2009-11-12

This essay surveys some issues in the applied philosophy in the English speaking world. In September 2008, Japanese Association for the Contemporary and Applied Philosophy (JACAP) was established. An issue of this association is how to characterize applied philosophy. In the existing journals such as Journal of Applied Philosophy (JAP) and International Journal of Applied Philosophy (IJAP), the term "applied philosophy" has been used as another name of applied ethics. JACAP, however, wants to mean something more general than mere applied ethics by this term. The aim of this essay is to provide a preliminary work for this new "applied philosophy," by surveying what issues the existing "applied philosophy" in the English speaking world has handled so far. This essay consists of two parts. The first part picks up four topics of applied ethics that have recently appeared as special issues in JAP. To be concrete, these topics are "workfare," "disenfranchising felons," "moralism" and "the ethics of war." This survey gives us a sense of what issues are currently discussed in the existing journal of applied philosophy. The second part surveys a couple of issues that can be seen as different from those of mere applied ethics. The surveyed issues are "the philosophy of economics," "philosophical counseling," "deception in social science research," and "social epistemology and information science." They are taken not only from JAP but also from other resources such as Social Epistemology. Some of these issues—for instance, philosophical counseling and social epistemology and information science—are suggestive in that they show several ways for developing applied philosophy that is not restricted within the field of moral and political philosophy