著者
木原 英逸
出版者
日本科学哲学会
雑誌
科学哲学 (ISSN:02893428)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.43, no.2, pp.2_47-2_65, 2010 (Released:2011-04-01)
参考文献数
13
被引用文献数
1 1

In the early 2000s a research movement called SHAKAI GIJUTU (‘social technology’ in English) emerged, and the topic of ‘science communication’ subsequently captured the interest of Japan's STS community. After 2005, some universities made also college courses designed to educate communicators and interpreters for science and technology, focusing on the communication specialist. This paper will examine from the above standpoint the relations between the full-scale neoliberal reform in Japan that started in the mid 1990s and the development of ‘science communication’ that coincided with neoliberal reforms.     The theory and practice of ‘science communication’ have focused on ‘interactive communication’ (the contextual model) as an ideal situation for over ten years. However, the understanding of communication and also power are narrow and could be amplified in two ways. First, rather than understand communication and power as relations between actors, the focus could shift to ‘institutions’, the arena where inter-actor communication is made and inter-actor power is exercised. If science communication aims at the public interest, it should be made in the course of changing how broad power and also broad inter-actor communication work, that is, changing or criticizing the shape of ‘institutions’ as media for communication and power. Second, in most cases, the shape of ‘institutions’ that ‘science communication’ has pursued, i.e. ‘interactive communication’ and ‘interactive power relation’, overlaps with the ideology and the social system that the neoliberal social reform has pursued. The neoliberal reform accompanied by the complementary New Civil Society requires ‘interactive communication’ and ‘interactive power relation’ as the ideological institution and the social institution to make commercialization and public-private partnerships work well. Therefore, even if the pursuit of interactive communication looks like the deepening of democracy, the true picture is the market-oriented change of democracy, and consequently it would not realize the public interest achieved by political community. Science communication should be extended into the shape of power and communication that is able to realize the public interest of social rights and social fairness that the neoliberal thought and policy fail in.
著者
青山 拓央
出版者
日本科学哲学会
雑誌
科学哲学 (ISSN:02893428)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.43, no.2, pp.2_81-2_94, 2010 (Released:2011-04-01)
参考文献数
6

Achilles need not catch the tortoise, although Achilles is faster than the tortoise. Zeno's premise does not determine whether Achilles can catch up. In this paper, I clarify this fact through a critical examination of Noya (2005), which criticizes Aoyama (2002) and Uemura (2002). Noya's solution smuggles the unnecessary premise of equal ratio to make Achilles catch up. However, his solution gives a new idea about what speed is. In the last part of this paper, I develop this idea and explain the reason why Achilles usually catches up in the actual world.
著者
稲岡 大志
出版者
日本科学哲学会
雑誌
科学哲学 (ISSN:02893428)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.47, no.1, pp.67-82, 2014-07-30 (Released:2015-07-24)
参考文献数
21

In this paper, we would present an overview of the recent studies on the role of diagram in mathematics. Traditionally, mathematicians and philosophers had thought that diagram should not be used in mathematical proofs, because relying on diagram would cause to various types of fallacies. But recently, some logicians and philosophers try to show that diagram has a legitimate place in proving mathematical theorems. We would review such trends of studies and provide some perspective from viewpoint of philosophy of mathematics.
著者
岡本 賢吾
出版者
日本科学哲学会
雑誌
科学哲学 (ISSN:02893428)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.40, no.2, pp.23-39, 2007-12-25 (Released:2009-05-29)
参考文献数
15

Two remarkable results attained by Domain Theory, which serves as mathematical foundations for denotational semantics of programming languages, are explained and considered from philosophical viewpoints: 1) the analysis of recursion by the fix-point semantics and 2) the introduction of the notion of continuity and of compact elements. In particular, the author finds them conceptually illuminating in that firstly, they succeed in making explicit those unnoticed semantic elements lying behind the syntax of the languages which play essential roles in the construction and execution of recursive programs, and that secondly, they show the way to reconstruct various ordinary classical mathematical structures by virtue of complementing approximation processes to their infinite noncompact elements.
著者
石田 正人
出版者
日本科学哲学会
雑誌
科学哲学 (ISSN:02893428)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.45, no.1, pp.47-63, 2012-07-30 (Released:2013-06-05)
参考文献数
25

A commonly shared image of convergence is that of arrays of light aiming at a focus―a projected vanishing-point to which all empirical inquiry strives to converge or the Kantian regulative ideal that reason aims at beyond the boundaries of all possible experience. Such an intuitive image of convergence is not completely foreign to Peirce's view, but a predominantly optical model of convergence fails to capture the generality and flexibility of the idea that Peirce wished to advocate. This paper formulates Peirce's convergence theory of truth based upon his mathematical insights and examines a number of criticisms leveled against the theory including that of Quine. I argue that Peirce's understanding of convergence is far more sophisticated than what critics have often assumed and that simultaneous convergence to multiple elements is not excluded from his picture.
著者
源河 亨
出版者
日本科学哲学会
雑誌
科学哲学 (ISSN:02893428)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.49, no.1, pp.37-48, 2016-07-31 (Released:2016-11-10)
参考文献数
26

In our daily lives, we assign some value to various things. For example, we say, ‘this picture is dynamic', ‘his clothes are unfashionable' and ‘she is brave'. In these cases, we experience the value of these things. In this study, I examine the nature of such value experiences. I argue that some value experiences are cognitively penetrated perceptual experiences and that what penetrates into them is emotion. In other words, owing to the evaluative component of emotion, which affects perceptual systems, perceptual experiences can represent things as having some value to us. Furthermore, I propose that this cognitive penetration model of value experience supports the particularistic view of evaluative judgement.

6 0 0 0 OA 書評

著者
鈴木 生郎 等
出版者
日本科学哲学会
雑誌
科学哲学 (ISSN:02893428)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.46, no.2, pp.49-75, 2013-12-20 (Released:2014-06-28)

6 0 0 0 OA 書評

出版者
日本科学哲学会
雑誌
科学哲学 (ISSN:02893428)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.44, no.2, pp.2_135-2_148, 2011 (Released:2012-06-06)
著者
西堤 優
出版者
日本科学哲学会
雑誌
科学哲学 (ISSN:02893428)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.43, no.1, pp.1_31-1_44, 2010 (Released:2010-09-26)
参考文献数
9

The Somatic Marker Hypothesis (SMH) proposed by A. R. Damasio has brought forward a new framework for understanding our decision-making based on the latest findings of neuroscience, and holds that emotion is an essential factor in any decision-making. However, the “Iowa Gambling Task” (IGT), which is the evidence to confirm the hypothesis, has unclear points about how to interpret its results. The present paper makes clear the interpretative problem of the IGT results, suggests some additional tasks to solve the problem, and then, clarifies the contents of SMH.
著者
古田 徹也
出版者
日本科学哲学会
雑誌
科学哲学 (ISSN:02893428)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.47, no.1, pp.53-66, 2014-07-30 (Released:2015-07-24)
参考文献数
5

This review concerns Professor Hitoshi Nagai's recent book, Wittgenstein no Goshin (Wittgenstein's Misdiagnosis). In this book, Professor Nagai makes his understanding of the latter part of Wittgenstein's “Blue Book”. He argues that Wittgenstein set up an epoch-making solipsism, which Professor Nagai calls “Wittgenstein's solipsism” or “linguistic solipsism”, but he adds that Wittgenstein himself misunderstood the meaning and significance of this solipsism. In this review, I consider the validity of Professor Nagai's arguments.

5 0 0 0 OA 書評

著者
戸田山 和久他
出版者
日本科学哲学会
雑誌
科学哲学 (ISSN:02893428)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.30, pp.139-149, 1997-11-10 (Released:2009-05-29)
著者
藤田 晋吾
出版者
日本科学哲学会
雑誌
科学哲学 (ISSN:02893428)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.14, pp.21-34, 1981-11-10 (Released:2009-05-29)
著者
三浦 俊彦
出版者
日本科学哲学会
雑誌
科学哲学 (ISSN:02893428)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.35, no.2, pp.69-81, 2002-11-10 (Released:2009-12-07)
参考文献数
18

The question "How can I be a?" ("a" being a proper name) has been recently referred to as "The Harder Problem of Consciousness", which would remain mysterious even after "The Hard Problem" about how subjective experiences arise is solved. Since both the indexical "I" and an exemplifying name "a" are ambiguous in their references, a formal analysis is required. Then, it turns out that any disambiguated version of "Harder Problem" is logically reduced to "The Hard Problem" or its special case "How can there be a?". There is no "Harder Problem" with its additional philosophical value. This is simply a matter of logic, independent of any ontology on whether metaphysical self exists or not.
著者
伊勢田 哲治
出版者
日本科学哲学会
雑誌
科学哲学 (ISSN:02893428)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.28, pp.61-78, 1995-11-15 (Released:2009-05-29)
参考文献数
15

There have been interesting debates between Hilary Putnam and his critics on his argument against metaphysical realism. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the nature of the debates and to defend Putnam's position in several important points. There are two types of criticism, one is to defend the correspondence theory of truth, and the other is to defend metaphysical realism without the correspondence theory of truth. Putnam seems to be able to answer these criticism effectively. Of course this isn't exhaustive survey, but I think this limited survey is enough to indicate the remaining problems.
著者
山口 裕之
出版者
日本科学哲学会
雑誌
科学哲学 (ISSN:02893428)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.34, no.2, pp.89-100, 2001-11-10 (Released:2009-05-29)

These days, "biological determinism" is getting popular, corresponding to the pubulic interest in biology. Such determinism is a false opinion, which is ethically destructive. But, not only popular determinists, but "real" biologists also try to explain human characters by genes, which are segmented by the researchers' arbitrariness or social bias. On this point, there's no difference between popular determinists and real biologists. Human mind should not be understood as determined by genes, but as an "emergence" from life system which consists in the interaction between genes and proteins. From this point of view, we can make scientific researches on the human freedom.
著者
戸田山 和久
出版者
日本科学哲学会
雑誌
科学哲学 (ISSN:02893428)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.32, no.1, pp.29-43, 1999-05-15 (Released:2009-05-29)
参考文献数
14
被引用文献数
1

To naturalize philosophy of science radically and thoroughly, we must re-examine the ontological character (not ontological commitment) of theories and ask how theories are realized in this physical world. Paul M. Churchland dare to answer to this question and claims that a theory is a partition across activation space which is realized by a specific pattern of synaptic weights in a brain. He also tries to justify some Feyerabendian strategies for doing science well in terms of neurocomputational functions of our brains. In this paper, Churchland's project to naturalize philosophy of science is defended against some criticisms. Then, a minor deficiency of his theory is pointed out and a way-out is suggested.