著者
木原 英逸
出版者
日本科学哲学会
雑誌
科学哲学 (ISSN:02893428)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.43, no.2, pp.2_47-2_65, 2010 (Released:2011-04-01)
参考文献数
13
被引用文献数
1 1

In the early 2000s a research movement called SHAKAI GIJUTU (‘social technology’ in English) emerged, and the topic of ‘science communication’ subsequently captured the interest of Japan's STS community. After 2005, some universities made also college courses designed to educate communicators and interpreters for science and technology, focusing on the communication specialist. This paper will examine from the above standpoint the relations between the full-scale neoliberal reform in Japan that started in the mid 1990s and the development of ‘science communication’ that coincided with neoliberal reforms.     The theory and practice of ‘science communication’ have focused on ‘interactive communication’ (the contextual model) as an ideal situation for over ten years. However, the understanding of communication and also power are narrow and could be amplified in two ways. First, rather than understand communication and power as relations between actors, the focus could shift to ‘institutions’, the arena where inter-actor communication is made and inter-actor power is exercised. If science communication aims at the public interest, it should be made in the course of changing how broad power and also broad inter-actor communication work, that is, changing or criticizing the shape of ‘institutions’ as media for communication and power. Second, in most cases, the shape of ‘institutions’ that ‘science communication’ has pursued, i.e. ‘interactive communication’ and ‘interactive power relation’, overlaps with the ideology and the social system that the neoliberal social reform has pursued. The neoliberal reform accompanied by the complementary New Civil Society requires ‘interactive communication’ and ‘interactive power relation’ as the ideological institution and the social institution to make commercialization and public-private partnerships work well. Therefore, even if the pursuit of interactive communication looks like the deepening of democracy, the true picture is the market-oriented change of democracy, and consequently it would not realize the public interest achieved by political community. Science communication should be extended into the shape of power and communication that is able to realize the public interest of social rights and social fairness that the neoliberal thought and policy fail in.
著者
稲岡 大志
出版者
日本科学哲学会
雑誌
科学哲学 (ISSN:02893428)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.47, no.1, pp.67-82, 2014-07-30 (Released:2015-07-24)
参考文献数
21

In this paper, we would present an overview of the recent studies on the role of diagram in mathematics. Traditionally, mathematicians and philosophers had thought that diagram should not be used in mathematical proofs, because relying on diagram would cause to various types of fallacies. But recently, some logicians and philosophers try to show that diagram has a legitimate place in proving mathematical theorems. We would review such trends of studies and provide some perspective from viewpoint of philosophy of mathematics.
著者
岡本 賢吾
出版者
日本科学哲学会
雑誌
科学哲学 (ISSN:02893428)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.40, no.2, pp.23-39, 2007-12-25 (Released:2009-05-29)
参考文献数
15

Two remarkable results attained by Domain Theory, which serves as mathematical foundations for denotational semantics of programming languages, are explained and considered from philosophical viewpoints: 1) the analysis of recursion by the fix-point semantics and 2) the introduction of the notion of continuity and of compact elements. In particular, the author finds them conceptually illuminating in that firstly, they succeed in making explicit those unnoticed semantic elements lying behind the syntax of the languages which play essential roles in the construction and execution of recursive programs, and that secondly, they show the way to reconstruct various ordinary classical mathematical structures by virtue of complementing approximation processes to their infinite noncompact elements.
著者
石田 正人
出版者
日本科学哲学会
雑誌
科学哲学 (ISSN:02893428)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.45, no.1, pp.47-63, 2012-07-30 (Released:2013-06-05)
参考文献数
25

A commonly shared image of convergence is that of arrays of light aiming at a focus―a projected vanishing-point to which all empirical inquiry strives to converge or the Kantian regulative ideal that reason aims at beyond the boundaries of all possible experience. Such an intuitive image of convergence is not completely foreign to Peirce's view, but a predominantly optical model of convergence fails to capture the generality and flexibility of the idea that Peirce wished to advocate. This paper formulates Peirce's convergence theory of truth based upon his mathematical insights and examines a number of criticisms leveled against the theory including that of Quine. I argue that Peirce's understanding of convergence is far more sophisticated than what critics have often assumed and that simultaneous convergence to multiple elements is not excluded from his picture.
著者
源河 亨
出版者
日本科学哲学会
雑誌
科学哲学 (ISSN:02893428)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.49, no.1, pp.37-48, 2016-07-31 (Released:2016-11-10)
参考文献数
26

In our daily lives, we assign some value to various things. For example, we say, ‘this picture is dynamic', ‘his clothes are unfashionable' and ‘she is brave'. In these cases, we experience the value of these things. In this study, I examine the nature of such value experiences. I argue that some value experiences are cognitively penetrated perceptual experiences and that what penetrates into them is emotion. In other words, owing to the evaluative component of emotion, which affects perceptual systems, perceptual experiences can represent things as having some value to us. Furthermore, I propose that this cognitive penetration model of value experience supports the particularistic view of evaluative judgement.

6 0 0 0 OA 書評

著者
鈴木 生郎 等
出版者
日本科学哲学会
雑誌
科学哲学 (ISSN:02893428)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.46, no.2, pp.49-75, 2013-12-20 (Released:2014-06-28)

6 0 0 0 OA 書評

出版者
日本科学哲学会
雑誌
科学哲学 (ISSN:02893428)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.44, no.2, pp.2_135-2_148, 2011 (Released:2012-06-06)
著者
山口 裕之
出版者
日本科学哲学会
雑誌
科学哲学 (ISSN:02893428)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.34, no.2, pp.89-100, 2001-11-10 (Released:2009-05-29)

These days, "biological determinism" is getting popular, corresponding to the pubulic interest in biology. Such determinism is a false opinion, which is ethically destructive. But, not only popular determinists, but "real" biologists also try to explain human characters by genes, which are segmented by the researchers' arbitrariness or social bias. On this point, there's no difference between popular determinists and real biologists. Human mind should not be understood as determined by genes, but as an "emergence" from life system which consists in the interaction between genes and proteins. From this point of view, we can make scientific researches on the human freedom.
著者
大塚 淳
出版者
日本科学哲学会
雑誌
科学哲学 (ISSN:02893428)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.40, no.1, pp.29-41, 2007-07-30 (Released:2009-05-29)
参考文献数
30

Much of the controversy of function revolves around two concepts, namely selected effect (SE) function and causal role (CR) function. Each of these proposals and its reciprocal critiques are examined, and it is shown that each concept embodies two different research strategies in biology, one the search for adaptation (SE function) and the other the reduction of biological phenomena (CR function). But this conceptual difference does not entail a separation in scientific practice. The proper attribution of SE function to a trait requires careful analysis of CR function in its developmental origin -- this is the idea of developmental modularity. It turns out that the ideal condition for developmental CR function analysis (i.e. near decomposability) also facilitates the mosaic evolution of -- and thus the attribution of SE function to -- organismal characters.
著者
佐藤 雅彦
出版者
日本科学哲学会
雑誌
科学哲学 (ISSN:02893428)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.38, no.2, pp.21-33, 2005-12-25 (Released:2009-05-29)
参考文献数
18

We study Frege's influence on computer science mainly from the viewpoint of the formal aspect of Frege's Begriffsschrift. We argue that his analysis of a function as an unsaturated entity is related to the notion of higher-order abstract syntax in computer science, and his way of explaining Begriffsschrift should shed light on the future design of a common meta language for various mathematical systems. We also point out the influence of Frege on Martin-Löf's type theories, which led to the revival of the notion of judgment which was once almost forgotten in mathematical logic.
著者
西堤 優
出版者
日本科学哲学会
雑誌
科学哲学 (ISSN:02893428)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.43, no.1, pp.1_31-1_44, 2010 (Released:2010-09-26)
参考文献数
9

The Somatic Marker Hypothesis (SMH) proposed by A. R. Damasio has brought forward a new framework for understanding our decision-making based on the latest findings of neuroscience, and holds that emotion is an essential factor in any decision-making. However, the “Iowa Gambling Task” (IGT), which is the evidence to confirm the hypothesis, has unclear points about how to interpret its results. The present paper makes clear the interpretative problem of the IGT results, suggests some additional tasks to solve the problem, and then, clarifies the contents of SMH.
著者
古田 徹也
出版者
日本科学哲学会
雑誌
科学哲学 (ISSN:02893428)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.47, no.1, pp.53-66, 2014-07-30 (Released:2015-07-24)
参考文献数
5

This review concerns Professor Hitoshi Nagai's recent book, Wittgenstein no Goshin (Wittgenstein's Misdiagnosis). In this book, Professor Nagai makes his understanding of the latter part of Wittgenstein's “Blue Book”. He argues that Wittgenstein set up an epoch-making solipsism, which Professor Nagai calls “Wittgenstein's solipsism” or “linguistic solipsism”, but he adds that Wittgenstein himself misunderstood the meaning and significance of this solipsism. In this review, I consider the validity of Professor Nagai's arguments.

5 0 0 0 OA 書評

著者
戸田山 和久他
出版者
日本科学哲学会
雑誌
科学哲学 (ISSN:02893428)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.30, pp.139-149, 1997-11-10 (Released:2009-05-29)
著者
坂上 雅道 山本 愛実
出版者
日本科学哲学会
雑誌
科学哲学 (ISSN:02893428)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.42, no.2, pp.2_29-2_40, 2009 (Released:2010-02-15)
参考文献数
20

To survive in changeable circumstances, we have to make appropriate decisions on our behavior. Recent studies have suggested that we have two brain processes to calculate reward values of objects. One is the process coding a specific reward value of a stimulus or event dependent on direct experience. The other enables us to predict reward based on the internal model of given circumstances, including societies, which doesn't necessarily require direct experience. The nigro-striatal network works for the model-free decision and the prefrontal network contributes to the model-based decision. These two networks are cooperative in one occasion and are competitive in another.
著者
石原 哉
出版者
日本科学哲学会
雑誌
科学哲学 (ISSN:02893428)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.40, no.2, pp.1-12, 2007-12-25 (Released:2009-05-29)
参考文献数
24

We survey Brouwer's intuitionistic mathematics and Markov's constructive recursive mathematics by examining axioms assumed in each school and mathematical theorems derived from the axioms. It is known that Bishop's constructive mathematics is a core of the varieties of mathematics in the sense that it can be extended not only to intuitionistic mathematics and constructive recursive mathematics, but also classical mathematics. We compare a new trend of constructive mathematics, called a minimalist foundation, with Bishop's constructive mathematics.
著者
藤田 晋吾
出版者
日本科学哲学会
雑誌
科学哲学 (ISSN:02893428)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.14, pp.21-34, 1981-11-10 (Released:2009-05-29)