著者
小山 虎
出版者
日本科学哲学会
雑誌
科学哲学 (ISSN:02893428)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.51, no.2, pp.29-45, 2018

<p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;What is the exact relationship between analytic philosophy and philosophy of science? In this paper, I will address this question from the perspective of research traditions, with the help of recent historical studies on analytic philosophy. The two groups are particularly focused: the Polish philosophers and the logical empiricists in Berlin. Neither of them is unknown to us. However, by taking seriously their connection to the development of analytic philosophy and philosophy of science as research traditions, I believe, the understanding of our own tradition may be improved.</p>
著者
長谷川 真理子
出版者
日本科学哲学会
雑誌
科学哲学 (ISSN:02893428)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.34, no.2, pp.11-23, 2001-11-10 (Released:2009-05-29)
参考文献数
10

Evolutionary psychology is a psychology informed by evolutionary biology of Homo sapiens. Evolutionary psychology postulates that the human brain, thus human psychological mechanisms have been shaped by natural selection in the specific ecological niche in order to cope with various problems that our ancestors met. Those mechanisms must be the sets of adaptive information-processing, and decision-making algorithms. In order to find out those algorithms, we should have a detailed knowledge about the course of Homo sapiens evolution and its ecological niche as well as a detailed knowledge about the workings of modern human minds. Some examples of previous researches and the future prospects of this decipline are summarised.
著者
石田 正人
出版者
日本科学哲学会
雑誌
科学哲学 (ISSN:02893428)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.45, no.1, pp.47-63, 2012-07-30 (Released:2013-06-05)
参考文献数
25

A commonly shared image of convergence is that of arrays of light aiming at a focus―a projected vanishing-point to which all empirical inquiry strives to converge or the Kantian regulative ideal that reason aims at beyond the boundaries of all possible experience. Such an intuitive image of convergence is not completely foreign to Peirce's view, but a predominantly optical model of convergence fails to capture the generality and flexibility of the idea that Peirce wished to advocate. This paper formulates Peirce's convergence theory of truth based upon his mathematical insights and examines a number of criticisms leveled against the theory including that of Quine. I argue that Peirce's understanding of convergence is far more sophisticated than what critics have often assumed and that simultaneous convergence to multiple elements is not excluded from his picture.
著者
岡本 賢吾
出版者
日本科学哲学会
雑誌
科学哲学 (ISSN:02893428)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.40, no.2, pp.23-39, 2007-12-25 (Released:2009-05-29)
参考文献数
15

Two remarkable results attained by Domain Theory, which serves as mathematical foundations for denotational semantics of programming languages, are explained and considered from philosophical viewpoints: 1) the analysis of recursion by the fix-point semantics and 2) the introduction of the notion of continuity and of compact elements. In particular, the author finds them conceptually illuminating in that firstly, they succeed in making explicit those unnoticed semantic elements lying behind the syntax of the languages which play essential roles in the construction and execution of recursive programs, and that secondly, they show the way to reconstruct various ordinary classical mathematical structures by virtue of complementing approximation processes to their infinite noncompact elements.

7 0 0 0 OA 討論

著者
並木 美喜雄
出版者
日本科学哲学会
雑誌
科学哲学 (ISSN:02893428)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.28, pp.79-85, 1995-11-15 (Released:2009-05-29)
著者
大塚 淳
出版者
日本科学哲学会
雑誌
科学哲学 (ISSN:02893428)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.40, no.1, pp.29-41, 2007-07-30 (Released:2009-05-29)
参考文献数
30
被引用文献数
1

Much of the controversy of function revolves around two concepts, namely selected effect (SE) function and causal role (CR) function. Each of these proposals and its reciprocal critiques are examined, and it is shown that each concept embodies two different research strategies in biology, one the search for adaptation (SE function) and the other the reduction of biological phenomena (CR function). But this conceptual difference does not entail a separation in scientific practice. The proper attribution of SE function to a trait requires careful analysis of CR function in its developmental origin -- this is the idea of developmental modularity. It turns out that the ideal condition for developmental CR function analysis (i.e. near decomposability) also facilitates the mosaic evolution of -- and thus the attribution of SE function to -- organismal characters.
著者
野矢 茂樹
出版者
日本科学哲学会
雑誌
科学哲学 (ISSN:02893428)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.37, no.2, pp.47-58, 2004-12-25 (Released:2009-05-29)

Fatalism or logical determinism says that the future is determined on a very logical ground. In this paper, examining the fatalist argument critically, I am going to show how we can avoid the fatalist thesis. Aristotle discussed this problem and came to the conclusion that some statements about the future are neither true nor false. Following his suggestion, I farther claim that the future does not exist. That is the reason why any proper name included in a statement about the future has no referent. Therefore, as Aristotle said, statements about the future have no truth value. In the latter half of this paper, I will consider some problems with my claim what does a statement about the future mean and how is the past related to the present?
著者
水本 正晴
出版者
日本科学哲学会
雑誌
科学哲学 (ISSN:02893428)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.37, no.1, pp.43-59, 2004-07-25 (Released:2009-05-29)
参考文献数
31
被引用文献数
1 1

Swampan poses a problem for physicalists who adopt the teleological approach to functionalism. In this paper I reformulate the intuitive idea behind the physicalists' worry about it as "Swampman argument", and consider possible rejoinders, including Maeda (1999)'s claim that swampman is not even imaginable. This paper was originally intended as a comment on Maeda's reply to Mizumoto (2000), which criticized his (1999).
著者
佐藤 暁
出版者
日本科学哲学会
雑誌
科学哲学 (ISSN:02893428)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.45, no.1, pp.1-16, 2012-07-30 (Released:2013-06-05)
参考文献数
6

Dummett argued that practical ability is knowledge if and only if having an ability is described as knowing some propositions. He asserts that the ability to speak a language is knowledge itself, because we cannot attempt to speak a language unless we can speak the language. However, it is not clear why such an ability is knowledge itself. In this study, we reinforce his argument by defining knowledge of how to do things as knowledge based on learning experience. We cannot speak a language without learning experience. Moreover, if one gains an ability through learning experience, this means that he at least knows some propositions.
著者
照井 一成
出版者
日本科学哲学会
雑誌
科学哲学 (ISSN:02893428)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.36, no.2, pp.49-64, 2003-12-30 (Released:2009-05-29)
参考文献数
13

It is observed by Grishin that inconsistency of naive set theory can be avoided by restricting the logical law of contraction, as it is contraction that enables us to derive logical inconsistency from set-theoretic paradoxes such as Russell's paradox.In this paper, we examine Grishin's contraction-free naive set theory to better understand Russell's paradox and the naive comprehension principle from a purely formal standpoint. We study both static-propositional and dynamic-procedural aspects of naive comprehension and argue that it could lead to an ideal formalization of (part of) mathematics, where both propositional knowledge (theorems) and procedural knowledge (algorithms) reside in harmony.
著者
鈴木 貴之
出版者
日本科学哲学会
雑誌
科学哲学 (ISSN:02893428)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.35, no.2, pp.83-94, 2002-11-10 (Released:2009-05-29)
参考文献数
18
被引用文献数
3 1

We have the ability to predict and understand behavior of ourselves and others by attributing various mental states. How can this ability, so-called the theory of mind, be explained? At present, we have two explanations, theory-theory and simulation-theory, and cannot decide which is better. However, if we appreciate that the underlying problem is how to describe the psychological mechanism which generates the phenomena describable as the use of theoretical knowledge, we can see that there remains an important alternative explanation which explains the ability as a kind of pattern recognition.
著者
石原 哉
出版者
日本科学哲学会
雑誌
科学哲学 (ISSN:02893428)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.40, no.2, pp.1-12, 2007-12-25 (Released:2009-05-29)
参考文献数
24

We survey Brouwer's intuitionistic mathematics and Markov's constructive recursive mathematics by examining axioms assumed in each school and mathematical theorems derived from the axioms. It is known that Bishop's constructive mathematics is a core of the varieties of mathematics in the sense that it can be extended not only to intuitionistic mathematics and constructive recursive mathematics, but also classical mathematics. We compare a new trend of constructive mathematics, called a minimalist foundation, with Bishop's constructive mathematics.
著者
佐藤 雅彦
出版者
日本科学哲学会
雑誌
科学哲学 (ISSN:02893428)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.38, no.2, pp.21-33, 2005-12-25 (Released:2009-05-29)
参考文献数
18

We study Frege's influence on computer science mainly from the viewpoint of the formal aspect of Frege's Begriffsschrift. We argue that his analysis of a function as an unsaturated entity is related to the notion of higher-order abstract syntax in computer science, and his way of explaining Begriffsschrift should shed light on the future design of a common meta language for various mathematical systems. We also point out the influence of Frege on Martin-Löf's type theories, which led to the revival of the notion of judgment which was once almost forgotten in mathematical logic.
著者
三浦 俊彦
出版者
日本科学哲学会
雑誌
科学哲学 (ISSN:02893428)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.35, no.2, pp.69-81, 2002-11-10 (Released:2009-12-07)
参考文献数
18

The question "How can I be a?" ("a" being a proper name) has been recently referred to as "The Harder Problem of Consciousness", which would remain mysterious even after "The Hard Problem" about how subjective experiences arise is solved. Since both the indexical "I" and an exemplifying name "a" are ambiguous in their references, a formal analysis is required. Then, it turns out that any disambiguated version of "Harder Problem" is logically reduced to "The Hard Problem" or its special case "How can there be a?". There is no "Harder Problem" with its additional philosophical value. This is simply a matter of logic, independent of any ontology on whether metaphysical self exists or not.
著者
山口 裕之
出版者
日本科学哲学会
雑誌
科学哲学 (ISSN:02893428)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.34, no.2, pp.89-100, 2001-11-10 (Released:2009-05-29)

These days, "biological determinism" is getting popular, corresponding to the pubulic interest in biology. Such determinism is a false opinion, which is ethically destructive. But, not only popular determinists, but "real" biologists also try to explain human characters by genes, which are segmented by the researchers' arbitrariness or social bias. On this point, there's no difference between popular determinists and real biologists. Human mind should not be understood as determined by genes, but as an "emergence" from life system which consists in the interaction between genes and proteins. From this point of view, we can make scientific researches on the human freedom.