著者
菅 文彦 古川 拓也 舟橋 弘晃 間野 義之
出版者
Japan Society of Sports Industry
雑誌
スポーツ産業学研究 (ISSN:13430688)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.28, no.4, pp.4_321-4_335, 2018 (Released:2018-10-12)
参考文献数
30

Although a causal relationship has been suggested between Team Identification and Place Attachment, it may be necessary to verify the existence of the parameters between them. In this research, "The rise of Team Identification is accompanied by the rise in the evaluation of the social environment of the community, and leads to the rise of Place Attachment," was aimed at the hypothesis to be verified.    As a result of the two-way analysis of variance based on data from three longitudinal surveys, we determined that Team Identification ascending group significantly increased both Place Attachment and the bonds of the community as compared to the non-ascending group, and it was suggested that the evaluation of the social environment of the community rose in the ascending group. It can be said that the hypothesis was supported, considering the fact that "regional attachment influence structure" was confirmed in Imabari-City, the area of survey on this study.
著者
神田 れいみ 佐野 毅彦
出版者
日本スポーツ産業学会
雑誌
スポーツ産業学研究 (ISSN:13430688)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.31, no.3, pp.3_307-3_316, 2021 (Released:2021-07-24)
参考文献数
23

Background: Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the Japanese professional basketball's B. League postponed its regular season in late February 2020, which was then resumed in mid-March, before being suspended again only after one weekend. Eventually, the remaining regular season games (173 games in Division 1 and 117 games in Division 2) and all playoff games were cancelled. Purpose: This study mainly aimed to examine the professional basketball players' state of mental health after such unprecedented circumstances as the suspension and cancelation of league games in the middle of the season due to the pandemic of a communicable disease. Method: An electronic survey included members of the Japan Basketball Players Association in September 2020, which was 6 months after the season cancelation. The Japanese version of the K6 was used to assess players' mental health, and a K6 score ≥5 was defined as psychological distress. Results: There was a total of 108 eligible respondents. The ratio of K6≥5 (R5+) was 52% during the suspension period and 21% at 6 months after the cancelation. The R5+ was significantly higher in smaller teams than in bigger teams (odds ratio: 4.48, 95% confidence interval: 1.51-13.25). No relationship was found between R5+ and age, playing time, or the cumulative number of hometown infections. Conclusions: It was suggested that COVID-19 put half of the players at risk of psychological distress, namely, 30% acute and 20% chronic, and that the vulnerability of teams' business fundamentals affected players' mental health. Establishment of permanent counseling services for players' mental health care was recommended.
著者
田島 良輝 西村 貴之 櫻井 貴志 岡野 紘二 神野 賢治 佐々木 達也
出版者
Japan Society of Sports Industry
雑誌
スポーツ産業学研究 (ISSN:13430688)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.28, no.1, pp.1_53-1_62, 2018 (Released:2018-02-09)
参考文献数
17

An interview survey was conducted to ascertain the kind of management talent sought by a professional sports club. In order to conduct the survey, one club was selected from each of the J1, J2, and J3 groups in the 2014 season. Semi-structured interviews were conducted based on: 1. skills and qualifications required for work, 2. organization and work content of the club, 3. growth process of the club management, and 4. human resource development policy of the club.    The results show a division in the abilities required to run a professional sports club, ranging from requiring highly versatile abilities such as worker fundamentals, drive, and job compatibility to specific abilities tailored to the business of a professional sports club.     The foundation of a professional sports club’ s business is entertainment. Therefore, skills in communication to entertain people and in gaming business management are required. In addition, as sponsorship of local companies is a key focus for management, the ability to demonstrate communication that generates empathy and responsive management is essential.     Clubs that are recognized as public assets of a community tend to build business models that utilize volunteers. Strategic communication to promote spontaneity was identified as an important strength to effectively manage this business model.
著者
上野 耕平
出版者
Japan Society of Sports Industry
雑誌
スポーツ産業学研究 (ISSN:13430688)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.31, no.2, pp.2_141-2_150, 2021-04-01 (Released:2021-04-26)
参考文献数
14

The purpose of this study was to clarify the impact of a rash guard on the likability of a swimming class from the perspective of the psychological difficulty of wearing a swimsuit. In study 1, 127 college students (20.35years old; 54 males, 73 females) completed a retrospective survey on the psychological difficulty of wearing a swimsuit in junior high school. The results revealed that psychological difficulty can be divided into four concerns: body shape, other people′s gaze, sunburn, and body hair. In study 2, 315 students (13.39years old; 165 males, 150 females) belonging to a junior high school that allowed them to wear a rash guard in swimming class and 290 students (13.93years old; 138 males, 152 females) belonging to a junior high school that did not allow them to wear a rash guard in swimming class completed a survey on the likability of the swimming class, requests for wearing a rash guard in future classes, and the psychological difficulty of wearing a swimsuit. The results revealed that wearing a rash guard impacted the likability of a swimming class by reducing students′ anxiety about sunburn.
著者
青柳 健隆 鈴木 郁弥 荒井 弘和 岡 浩一朗
出版者
日本スポーツ産業学会
雑誌
スポーツ産業学研究 (ISSN:13430688)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.28, no.3, pp.265-273, 2018 (Released:2018-08-02)
参考文献数
17
被引用文献数
1

School-based extracurricular sports activity (SBECSA) has widely spread in Japan as a means for youth to play sports or exercise. Especially in junior high school and high school, SBECSA is actively conducted with a high participation rate of students. There have also been reports that elementary schools in some Japanese municipalities also have SBECSA. However, there has been little information about which municipalities conducted SBECSA in elementary schools. Therefore, the present study aimed to clarify the existence of SBECSA in elementary schools in each municipality, and to create a municipal map of implementation status. A complete enumeration questionnaire survey was conducted with all 1741 municipalities’ educational boards. Question items were in regard to the existence of elementary schools’ SBECSA in their municipalities. Answerers were requested to choose one response from the items; “almost all elementary schools have SBECSA”, “some elementary schools have SBECSA”, “there were SBECSA (about 10 years ago), but now there is no SBECSA”, “there weren’ t any SBECSA before 10 years ago”, “we don’ t know”, and “we don’ t answer” . To increase the response rate, a second survey was conducted with Sports Associations or similar sports related organizations in each municipality. Additionally, a third survey was conducted with educational boards again at the same time as the feedback of results was given. As results, 88.0% of all municipalities’ implementation status was identified (response rate = 92.5%). And 23.0% of all municipalities were shown to have SBECSA in elementary schools, although 64.9% did not have it. More than half of the municipalities in Aomori prefecture, Chiba prefecture, Aichi prefecture, and Kumamoto prefecture have SBECSA in elementary school. Based on the results of the present study, it is suggested that further development of the youth sport environment should be discussed. In addition, means to decrease the burdens on teachers who coach and manage SBECSA must be considered.
著者
桑田 真澄 川名 光太郎 間仁田 康祐 平田 竹男
出版者
Japan Society of Sports Industry
雑誌
スポーツ産業学研究 (ISSN:13430688)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.20, no.1, pp.91-95, 2010 (Released:2010-06-07)

The purpose of this study was to reveal how professional baseball players were trained while they were amateur baseball players, and to examine ways to improve the problems faced by amateur baseball players. A survey of 300 professional baseball players was conducted.    There were a lot of problems revealed in amateur baseball: “overwork and injury because of irrational, inefficient, and too long training” , “manner of the instructors” , “balance among baseball, studying, and playing” , and “violence to the players” . These results suggested that most professional baseball players wanted it to be done in a different way from their own experience, and that they had a strong awareness of the problems of traditional training.
著者
澤井 和彦
出版者
日本スポーツ産業学会
雑誌
スポーツ産業学研究 (ISSN:13430688)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.21, no.2, pp.263-273, 2011 (Released:2011-11-23)
参考文献数
49

This paper presents a comparative institutional analysis of the endogenous and self-enforcing system of “Japanese company sports” and examines the characteristics of the design and problems of its transitions. The remarkable feature of the institutional design of Japanese company sports in the sports domain is the “institutional complementarity” with Japanese-style employment practices in the company domain, mediated by the company athletes who play games simultaneously as athletes in sport domain and as employees in the company domain. Such institutional interdependencies between two different domains also provide managerial resources to the National Sports Federation or top-league organization and greatly affect its institutional design. Thus, we can understand the company sports as an endogenous and self-enforcing equilibrium outcome of the game in both domains.    Because of this institutional complementarity, Japanese company sports can’ t be easily changed, according to what is known in Comparative Institutional Analysis as the “inertia” . For example, it is difficult to dismiss an employee who is a company athlete under the Japanese-style employment practice. However, in recent years, because of the slow economic growth and decreasing corporate profits, combined with the decreasing merits of Japanese-style employment practices, the benefit of company sports in the context of labor management has decreased significantly. By considering these factors, a transition to an alternative system of professional or community sport is planned. However, one issue involved with this transition is that although company sports bring great benefits, the transition involves risk for the athletes, as they must rebuild their careers in some way. The second issue is that for company sports, which are at the center of company costs, independent management as well as intellectual and personal management resources are not combined. The third issue is the adjustment of complementarity with the existing systems during transition.
著者
荒井 弘和 杉本 龍勇 増田 昌幸 釜野 祥太朗 徳安 彰
出版者
日本スポーツ産業学会
雑誌
スポーツ産業学研究 (ISSN:13430688)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.31, no.2, pp.2_165-2_172, 2021-04-01 (Released:2021-04-26)
参考文献数
12

Although it is said that university graduates who belonged to an athletic club are mentally superior, there has been no quantitative data to support this issue. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare the mental components of graduates who belonged to an athletic club while in university (“TAIIKUKAIKEI”) with those of non-athletic club graduates by means of a cross-sectional study. Participants of this study were 5,776 young workers within 10 years of graduation from a certain university in Tokyo. Half of the subjects had belonged to an athletic club in university and the other half had not. Participants were asked about demographic data and current subjective happiness, psychological stress, and work engagement. They were invited to participate in the survey through a mailed document containing the URL for the survey website, which could be accessed via a PC or a smartphone. The number of valid responses to the questionnaire was 521 (response rate of 9.0%). Excluding those who had left the club during their university years and those who were unemployed, the number of participants was 477 (246 athletic club graduates and 231 non-athletic club graduates). Results of the analysis of covariance, with gender, age, marital status, and current annual income as covariates, confirmed the hypothesis that athletic club graduates had higher current subjective happiness and work engagement and lower current psychological stress than non-athletic club graduates. Therefore, in the analyses of working graduates, the mental components of athletic club graduates were found to be relatively more favorable after graduation than those of non-athletic club graduates, although the sizes of the effects were small. However, it is worthwhile to note that empirical data revealed that the subjective happiness, psychological stress, and work engagement of athletic club graduates are favorable. In the future, it is expected that a longitudinal follow-up study of the same individuals will be conducted, and more qualitative characteristics of athletic club graduates will be investigated.
著者
長澤 和輝 畔蒜 洋平 児玉 ゆう子 平田 竹男
出版者
日本スポーツ産業学会
雑誌
スポーツ産業学研究 (ISSN:13430688)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.31, no.3, pp.3_351-3_359, 2021 (Released:2021-07-24)
参考文献数
6

The purpose of this study was to investigate the reasons why Japanese football players can play in the Bundesliga for multiple years. In this survey, we had interviews with five Japanese football players who played in the Bundesliga for over five seasons. The contents of the interviews were analyzed by SCAT (Steps for Coding and Theorization) method and extracted the same factors. As a result, it was found that they focused on building a relationship of trust with their coaches. They had the flexibility to change their playing style and position to match the coach's desired football style. In order to continue to be selected as a member of a match in the Bundesliga, not only high level football skills but also ability to adapt to the intentions of the coach are required. From the above results, it was suggested that in order to continue playing in overseas leagues, aspects other than soccer skills, such as tactics and understanding of the coach's ideas, are also important.
著者
束原 文郎
出版者
Japan Society of Sports Industry
雑誌
スポーツ産業学研究 (ISSN:13430688)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.21, no.2, pp.149-168, 2011
被引用文献数
2

This study defines the students who have continuously belonged to a sports club built systematically in the school constitution as "<I>TAIIKUKAIKEI</I>" students, and clarifies when and how this idea came into being and the common understanding that "<I>TAIIKUKAIKEI</I>" students could be regarded as more favorable human resources than the other students in job hunting in Japan. The document sources are mainly gathered from articles in the business magazine '<I>JITSUGYOU NO NIHON</I>' , that was circulated widely from the end of the Meiji era to the beginning of the Showa era.<BR>    The results are summarized as follows. At the beginning of the Taisho era, the idea or consciousness of "<I>TAIIKUKAIKEI</I>" had not existed yet, but there was a belief that it was necessary to have a robust body in order to survive the competition of society. In the middle of the Taisho era, behind the growing enthusiasm for sports, people became conscious that lots of executives of big companies had been "<I>TAIIKUKAIKEI</I>" and it had the media values of : (1) advertisement and (2) prevention of being left in remote colonial places, and so it was observed that "<I>TAIIKUKAIKEI</I> employment" was coming into being. By the end of the Taisho era, reflecting the excessive emphasis on academic attainments in recruiting, "<I>TAIIKUKAIKEI</I> employment" came to be established.<BR>    Afterwards, at the beginning of the Showa era, the process of distinguishing between "Professional" and "Amateur" became clearer and the latter became dominant over the former in "<I>TAIIKUKAIKEI</I> employment" , and sportsmanship became a more important element in composing a useful body. In the days when the labor movement was growing radically in response to the depression, ideological problems such as alerting to Marxists, leftists, and communists were supposed to be social issues. In this context, the students with physical and mental problem-this study named them "<I>KYOYOKEI</I>" in contrast to "<I>TAIIKUKAIKEI</I>" -received negative images and seemed to have been shunned by companies. At the same time, because the "<I>TAIIKUKAIKEI</I>" had not changed anything, they were understood to have a moderate ideology and to be more important from the viewpoint of employment.
著者
桑田 真澄 川名 光太郎 間仁田 康祐 平田 竹男
出版者
Japan Society of Sports Industry
雑誌
スポーツ産業学研究 (ISSN:13430688)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.20, no.1, pp.91-95, 2010

The purpose of this study was to reveal how professional baseball players were trained while they were amateur baseball players, and to examine ways to improve the problems faced by amateur baseball players. A survey of 300 professional baseball players was conducted.<BR>    There were a lot of problems revealed in amateur baseball: "overwork and injury because of irrational, inefficient, and too long training" , "manner of the instructors" , "balance among baseball, studying, and playing" , and "violence to the players" . These results suggested that most professional baseball players wanted it to be done in a different way from their own experience, and that they had a strong awareness of the problems of traditional training.
著者
Hiroto SHOJI Yoshiyuki MANO Yoshio NAKAMURA
出版者
Japan Society of Sports Industry
雑誌
Journal of Japan Society of Sports Industry (ISSN:13430688)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.21, no.2, pp.207-215, 2011 (Released:2011-11-23)
参考文献数
14
被引用文献数
1

It is important to clarify the impact of competition among J-League clubs on the distance decay parameters of season ticket purchase rate for J-clubs marketing.    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the distance decay parameters of J-league season ticket purchase rate and the other competing clubs when two clubs are located close together, using the distance decay model.    All of the respondents were J-League season ticket holders of four clubs: theYokohama F·Marinos, Shonan Bellmare, Gamba Osaka and Cerezo Osaka. Postal code were collected in 2008 January. Season ticket purchase rate and the distance between each stadium and center of cities were calculated using geographic information system. Through the distance decay model, we estimated the distance decay parameters.    The results of the present study suggested that the season ticket purchase rates of the higher performance clubs are widely distributed (distance decay slope is gentle) , while the season ticket purchase rates of the lower performance clubs are precipitously distributed (distance decay slope is steep) . In conclusion, it is possible that the distance decay parameters of J-League season ticket purchase rates are affected by the existence of other competing when two clubs are located close together.
著者
野田 光太郎 秦 美香子 菅 文彦 間野 義之
出版者
Japan Society of Sports Industry
雑誌
スポーツ産業学研究 (ISSN:13430688)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.27, no.2, pp.2_121-2_133, 2017 (Released:2017-04-15)
参考文献数
30
被引用文献数
1

This article presents the results of research designed to explore the coach dispatch programme which was conducted by the committee of the Japan Gymnastics Association to promote men′s rhythmic gymnastics outside Japan. Although men′s rhythmic gymnastics has been developed for over fifty years in Japan, the existence of this sport has been endangered since around 2001, when global success came to be considered essential for every competitive sport. To bring this sport to more athletes and a wider audience, the committee sent top gymnasts to some countries from 2001 to 2006. However, the details of the programme and the reasons why the programme was terminated in 2006 were not publicly recorded. Thus, this article investigates what the representatives accomplished and what problems and future tasks the coaches recognised to identify the structure of the problems that have occurred in the process of the global diffusion of the sport.    Interview data were analysed according to the principles of the SCAT (Steps for Coding and Theorization) Qualitative Data Analysis Method. Results show that the defects were inherent in their organisation and the programme itself, which were recognised by most of the coaches dispatched, such as lack of close consideration before the programme was set out, and the fact that the coaches were supposed to carry out their mission on a fairly low budget and in an unfamiliar culture, mostly without any support from the committee in Japan. Research indicates that the coach dispatch programme was aborted as a result of a combination of those factors. Additionally, this paper argues that further tasks of the programme suggested by the informants are significantly affected by their understandings of the characteristics of this sport and their philosophy of it.
著者
井上 俊也
出版者
日本スポーツ産業学会
雑誌
スポーツ産業学研究 (ISSN:13430688)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.8, no.2, pp.93-100, 1998-09-30 (Released:2010-07-27)
参考文献数
18

After World War II, the GHQ (General Headquarters) reformed economic policies in Japan. The most important policy was the ban on pure holding companies. Holding companies have been banned by the Antimonopoly Law since the end of World War II to prevent a resurgence of conglomerates, such as the prewar and wartime "zaibatsu", which wielded huge financial power. But in the 1990's, thanks to the movements of deregulation under the recession and the global competition, many persons have come to support the existence of the holding company system in Japan. After a long period of the ban, under the revised Anti-monopoly Law, Japanese corporations have been allowed to set up holding companies since December 1997. This removal of the ban on the holding company system will activate the Japanese economy including the professional football clubs established in the 1990's. Their establishment synchronized with the start of the J. League (Japan Professional Football League). Most of the Japanese professional football clubs derive from companies'football clubs and the subsidiaries of big companies which are the operating parent companies. The big companies sponsor their football clubs in order to participate in the professional league. But being subsidiaries of operating companies, the Japanese football clubs can not realize the ideal of the J. League because of their status. The management of the football club is neither based on the community nor on the profession. The synergy with the operating parent company is not enough. If the holding company system is approved in Japan, Japanese professional football clubs will be able to take advantage of the flexible equity and the empowerment leadership of the management and solve the present problems.
著者
千葉 直樹 永谷 稔
出版者
日本スポーツ産業学会
雑誌
スポーツ産業学研究 (ISSN:13430688)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.25, no.2, pp.2_327-2_336, 2015 (Released:2015-11-12)
参考文献数
10

The purpose of this study was to examine the changes in characteristics of spectators of professional basketball teams, and the relationship between frequency of attendance and participant motives in Sapporo. The name of the professional basketball team and its company changed from “Rera Kamuy Hokkaido” to “Levanga Hokkaido” in 2011. Questionnaire surveys conducted in 2010 and 2012 were analyzed. Findings indicated that between the two research periods there was no change in spectators′ characteristics according to sex and age groups. Previous studies had indicated that 70% of spectators were women and half of these female spectators were between the ages of 20-40. About 80% of spectators surveyed participated in both research periods. The 2012 results indicated that the percent of spectators who had belonged to basketball club in their junior and high school days was higher compared to that in 2010.
著者
小林 至
出版者
日本スポーツ産業学会
雑誌
スポーツ産業学研究 (ISSN:13430688)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.28, no.3, pp.241-256, 2018 (Released:2018-08-02)
参考文献数
12

The designation of undrafted player started its history in the Nippon Professional Baseball (“NPB”) when the NPB introduced its entry draft for the Japanese amateur players in 1965. The NPB clubs used undrafted players to gain competitive edges while the draft system was to bring competitive balance on the field. Many top amateur players who were supposed to remain amateur signed with the NPB teams as undrafted players, to many people’ s surprise. The NPB clubs often put undrafted players outside of the roster as practice players.    1990 was the year when historical changes were made to the entry draft system in the NPB. The NPB expanded the number of draft picks and the roster while it banned the teams from signing amateur players as free agents. Carrying practice players was outlawed at the same time.    The demand for another development system had been growing among NPB clubs with the number of industrial league teams diminishing and players losing opportunities to play. That is how the developmental player system was born in 2005. 2005 was also the year the first independent league in Japan was born, in Shikoku Island. As of 2018, 17 teams, in three leagues, are active. There has been a steady increase in the number of independent league players who were picked in the developmental draft.    As the birth of the developmental player system and the independent league happened to be in the same year, both took their roots in the diminishing of the number of industrial league teams and in the players’ losing opportunities to play.    Another significance of this study lies in the fact that a list of all Japanese players who signed with the NPB teams since the first draft is databased in a spreadsheet.
著者
澤井 和彦
出版者
日本スポーツ産業学会
雑誌
スポーツ産業学研究 (ISSN:13430688)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.24, no.2, pp.2_169-2_184, 2014 (Released:2014-11-21)
参考文献数
45

This study uses property rights theory to comparatively analyze the institutional design of the spectator sports business by examining both a company basketball club and a professional basketball club of Japan’ s top basketball league, whose hometowns were adjacent to each other. Then we try to clarify the possibilities and problems of the institutional transition from a company club to a professional club. To evaluate the “property” (attributes of goods and services) in the spectator sports businesses, we administered a questionnaire survey to spectators attending home games of each club, in which we asked fans if their motivation consisted of “team attachment,” “player attachment,” “sports attachment,” and/or “community pride.” Employees and stakeholders of both clubs were interviewed to identify the assignment of property rights to utilize the value corresponding to the fans’ motivation.    Our results showed that company club fans showed significantly higher “player attachment,” while professional club fans showed significantly higher “community pride.” Moreover, despite the fans’ higher player attachment, the company clubs failed to efficiently utilize “player value” (an attribute of spectator sports that motivated fans via player attachment) because the required property rights actually belong to the parent company, which employs players as full-time employees of the main business, rather than as players. However, the economic advantage that company athletes gained from simultaneously performing a double role (top athlete and full-time employee) provided the company clubs more opportunities to recruit players than the professional clubs, whose budgets for player salaries were limited. In contrast, professional clubs had control over most of the property rights required to utilize the element “value for community resource,” (an attribute of spectator sports that motivated fans via community pride) although these rights were dispersed to stakeholders who had little incentive to engage in the community activities from a medium- and long-term perspective in the company clubs. More fans attended home games of the professional clubs than company clubs, and the utilization of the value for community resources was one factor behind this difference. Therefore, assigning property rights of the value for community resources and also the lack of human resources of business management in company club can be considered the key aspects of institutional design required by spectator sports businesses and the answer to the problem of successful institutional transition from a company club to a professional club.
著者
西尾 建 倉田 知己
出版者
日本スポーツ産業学会
雑誌
スポーツ産業学研究 (ISSN:13430688)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.32, no.2, pp.2_159-2_169, 2022-04-01 (Released:2022-04-17)
参考文献数
18

The Rugby World Cup (RWC) was held in Japan in 2019 and 1.704 million (37,800 per game) domestic and international rugby fans attended the 45 games. In the RWC 2019, hospitality seats, in addition to normal seats, were sold. Hospitality seats provided hospitality service on top of a game ticket, including access to VIP and lounge areas, and dinners at exclusive hotels. Sports hospitality has been popular in professional sports such as NBA, NFL, MLB, and golf in the USA and soccer and tennis in Europe since the 1990’s. However, this concept had not been so popular in Japan before the RWC 2019. This study examined consumer patterns, motivation and satisfaction of hospitality seat buyers at RWC 2019. The data were collected from Japan Rugby Football Union member clubs (N=371). This population were asked questions regarding consumer spending, motivation (20 items), and satisfaction (15 items) in addition to basic demographics. The consumption by hospitality ticket holders at RWC2019 was significantly larger than those of normal seat holders in terms of transportation (2.40 times), accommodation (2.81 times), tourism (1.60 times) and game day souvenirs (2.05 times), as well as tickets (3.62 times). Using factor analysis, five motivation items : 1) World class events, 2) Reputation, 3) Advertisement, 4) Super play, 5) Rugby preference) and three satisfaction items : 1) Rugby watching, 2) Food drink and ticket delivery, 3) Tourism before or after the games were extracted. The analytical results showed some implications. Firstly, the results showed significant difference of consumption between hospitality ticket holders and normal ticket holders. Secondly, difference between motivation in gender, resident location and being a repeater was indicated. Thirdly, advertisement is a very important factor for hospitality ticket promotion.
著者
日比野 幹生 舟橋 弘晃 青柳 健隆 間野 義之
出版者
日本スポーツ産業学会
雑誌
スポーツ産業学研究 (ISSN:13430688)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.26, no.1, pp.1_13-1_28, 2016 (Released:2016-04-26)
参考文献数
33

Although studies conducted to understand why athletes do not use Performance Enhancing Drugs (PEDs) are becoming more common, little is known about the problem from the “elite” athlete’s perspective. This study qualitatively identified the factors that had influenced the decisions not to dope of twelve retired Japanese elite athletes (six males and six females) who won Olympic medals after the Athens Games in 2004. Thematic analysis was used to extract meaning from the semi-structured interview data using MAXQDA11. Personal and socio-environmental factors underpinning their decisions not to dope were identified in the accounts. Personal factors included: (1) personal moral stance; (2) judgment from a wide perspective; (3) intrinsic motivation; (4) task orientation; and (5) resilience. Socio-environmental factors were: (1) education from parents; (2) education from coaches; (3) social pressure; (4) fair play culture in Japan; (5) secure elite sport climate; (6) monetary benefit from winning a medal; (7) access to and knowledge of PEDs. The above-mentioned factors might be useful for developing future anti-doping strategies under a situation where there is a growing social need for actively engaging in promoting elite sports as a national strategy in order to generate success in the Tokyo Olympics in 2020, and in view of the fact that the pressure for athletes to engage in doping may be increased.