著者
新垣 紀子
出版者
日本認知科学会
雑誌
認知科学 (ISSN:13417924)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.5, no.4, pp.4_108-4_121, 1998-12-01 (Released:2008-10-03)
参考文献数
30

People often lose their way when they are trying to find a particular place. In Japan we call such a person “houkou onchi”. This is a common Japanese expression which means to have no sense of direction. Whether people are “houkou onchi” or not seems to be related to the quality of their cognitive maps, their ability to navigate and the navigation processes they employ. This research aims to reveal what “houkou onchi” is. To investigate this, I have focused on the difference between the navigation processes of people who are good and poor at navigating.The subjects undertook a series of tasks which involved watching video films of routes (taken from a moving car). I have analyzed their learning processes and their navigation simulation performance to understand how they interact with the environment they are moving through, while they are acquiring and using information. I have observed a number of features of houkou onchi. Such people do not interact well with the environment during route learning and navigation. They do not always focus on the relevant information required for navigation when they learn the route. Moreover, they cannot form useful cognitive maps after they have learnt the route, and they cannot effectively use such cognitive maps to navigate in space they have already visited. I have observed various kinds of interaction with the environment, and I will discuss the importance of this interaction to navigation.
著者
磯村 陸子 大谷裕子 新垣 紀子 野島 久雄 無藤 隆
出版者
一般社団法人情報処理学会
雑誌
情報処理学会研究報告ヒューマンコンピュータインタラクション(HCI) (ISSN:09196072)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.2000, no.39, pp.37-44, 2000-05-12
参考文献数
8

インターネットを日常的に利用している43名の既婚女性を対象に、インターネット利用に関する一週間の日誌調査を実施した。調査では、インターネット上の活動だけでなく日常生活の人間関係やコミュニケーション全体を対象とし、またネット利用に関する事実だけでなく、ネットコミュニケーションを通じて彼女たちが何を感じているのかについても検討した。その結果、既婚女性というユーザー層の属性や生活背景を反映したネット利用の形態として、ネットの内と外とが断絶した利用の形態ではなく、家庭との両立や日常生活との連続性を保った形での利用を行っているという連続性仮説が支持された。また、このような利用実態に関わるネット利用と心理的要因との関連も見出された。Authors conducted a research on daily Internet use by married women, Forty-three married women using Internet were asked to keep diaries on their Internet use for one week. The diaries were also designed to include information on face-to-face and telephone communication other than on-line communication such as electronic mails. Detailed analysis of the diaries suggests that the Internet use by the subjects is characterized as follows: 1) continuity or commonality between on-line and off-line communication, 2) priority of family life over the Internet use. No significant relationships were found between degree of the Internet use and negative psychological variables among these users,
著者
都築 幸恵 新垣 紀子
出版者
日本認知科学会
雑誌
認知科学 (ISSN:13417924)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.19, no.1, pp.39-55, 2012 (Released:2013-12-27)
参考文献数
19
被引用文献数
1

The purpose of these two studies was to examine critical thinking among college students using reading materials on “yutori” (reduced intensity) education. In the first study, 90 participants were presented with excerpts from two newspaper articles (reading material A) and an actual example from the PISA reading literacy test (reading material B). Participants were asked to write a concluding paragraph after reading both materials. It was found that only 10% of the participants could apply critical thinking while examining the materials and could point out inconsistencies between reading materials A and B. Participants who applied critical thinking scored significantly higher on Hirayama and Kusumi’s (2004) scale for “critical thinking attitude” and for “emphasis on evidence.” In the second study, another group of participants were presented with the same materials, but this time they were asked to think aloud as they worked on writing the concluding paragraph. Using protocol analyses, it was reled that critical thinkers formed a conclusion after they had searched for and evaluated the information in the presented materials. Non-critical thinkers, in contrast, mentioned their personal beliefs before thoroughly searching for and evaluating the information and formed a con-clusion that was consistent with their pre-existing beliefs. Implications of this finding for college education are discussed.
著者
新垣 紀子 野島 久雄
出版者
日本認知科学会
雑誌
認知科学 (ISSN:13417924)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.11, no.3, pp.239-251, 2004 (Released:2007-04-13)
参考文献数
16

Pieces of information and cues left by other people's actions often help us in our daily problem solving activities. In this paper, we examined the roles and functions of HARIGAMI, or stickers, from the viewpoint of social navigation. We collected 1075 pieces of HARIGAMI from 1998 to 2004. We categorized them into cognitive and social categories, and described the situations in which these HARIGAMI were used.The results indicate that HARIGAMI conveys such information as (1) traces of other people's activities, (2) most frequent uses of functions of the system on which HARIGAMI are added, and (3) environmental and system changes as time passes. By analyzing which cognitive level HARIGAMI worked on, we propose possible considerations on the refinement of the system design.HARIGAMI also works as a medium of indirect communication between users of the system on which the HARIGAMI is attached. From analysis of HARIGAMI, we need a new communication channel between users of information distributed via HARIGAMI as it can be useful to prospective users of the system.
著者
新垣 紀子 北端 美紀 松岡 裕人 高田 敏弘 折戸 朗子 加藤 ゆうこ 都築 幸恵 大和田 龍夫
出版者
日本認知科学会
雑誌
認知科学 (ISSN:13417924)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.21, no.1, pp.15-28, 2014-03-01 (Released:2015-02-02)
参考文献数
26

How should we save our personal memories? Many people keep diaries and take pictures for that purpose. In this study, we kept things of personal significance in a time capsule for 9 years and examined whether personal memories could be saved in a time capsule and how they might possibly change over time. We held a workshop in 2003 when participants put something that they had possessed which had personal significance at that time of their life. They were interviewed to explain what kinds of significance these possessions had for them, and these interview sessions were recorded. Nine years after the initial workshop, the participants came together again. Before the time capsule was opened, they were asked to recall what they had put in the time capsule and to describe in what ways their possession in the time capsule had been significant to them. By comparing the contents of the participants’ responses between 2003 and 2012, it was found that a great deal of the contents have been changed from 2003 to 2012. Implications were discussed as regards to the significance of objects themselves and the narratives that go with the objects in preserving personal memories.
著者
野島 久雄 新垣 紀子
出版者
日本認知科学会
雑誌
認知科学 = Cognitive studies : bulletin of the Japanese Cognitive Science Society (ISSN:13417924)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.8, no.3, pp.275-286, 2001-09-01
参考文献数
60
被引用文献数
2

Donald A. Norman has been a prominent figure in the history of Cognitive Science in the latter half of the twentieth century. In this paper, we discussed how he influenced and formed major research trends in Cognitive Science and the related area by reviewing his works so far, and tried to considered the possible future development in his works and Cognitive Science research.

1 0 0 0 OA 野島久雄賞

著者
原田 悦子 今井 倫太 内海 彰 新垣 紀子 安村 通晃
出版者
日本認知科学会
雑誌
認知科学 (ISSN:13417924)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.20, no.4, pp.385-386, 2013-12-01 (Released:2014-12-24)
参考文献数
3
著者
新垣 紀子
出版者
日本認知科学会
雑誌
認知科学
巻号頁・発行日
vol.5, no.4, pp.4_108-4_121, 1998

People often lose their way when they are trying to find a particular place. In Japan we call such a person &ldquo;houkou onchi&rdquo;. This is a common Japanese expression which means to have no sense of direction. Whether people are &ldquo;houkou onchi&rdquo; or not seems to be related to the quality of their cognitive maps, their ability to navigate and the navigation processes they employ. This research aims to reveal what &ldquo;houkou onchi&rdquo; is. To investigate this, I have focused on the difference between the navigation processes of people who are good and poor at navigating.<br>The subjects undertook a series of tasks which involved watching video films of routes (taken from a moving car). I have analyzed their learning processes and their navigation simulation performance to understand how they interact with the environment they are moving through, while they are acquiring and using information. I have observed a number of features of houkou onchi. Such people do not interact well with the environment during route learning and navigation. They do not always focus on the relevant information required for navigation when they learn the route. Moreover, they cannot form useful cognitive maps after they have learnt the route, and they cannot effectively use such cognitive maps to navigate in space they have already visited. I have observed various kinds of interaction with the environment, and I will discuss the importance of this interaction to navigation.
著者
新垣 紀子 野島 久雄
出版者
日本認知科学会
雑誌
認知科学
巻号頁・発行日
vol.11, no.3, pp.239-251, 2004

Pieces of information and cues left by other people's actions often help us in our daily problem solving activities. In this paper, we examined the roles and functions of HARIGAMI, or stickers, from the viewpoint of social navigation. We collected 1075 pieces of HARIGAMI from 1998 to 2004. We categorized them into cognitive and social categories, and described the situations in which these HARIGAMI were used.<br>The results indicate that HARIGAMI conveys such information as (1) traces of other people's activities, (2) most frequent uses of functions of the system on which HARIGAMI are added, and (3) environmental and system changes as time passes. By analyzing which cognitive level HARIGAMI worked on, we propose possible considerations on the refinement of the system design.<br>HARIGAMI also works as a medium of indirect communication between users of the system on which the HARIGAMI is attached. From analysis of HARIGAMI, we need a new communication channel between users of information distributed via HARIGAMI as it can be useful to prospective users of the system.
著者
南 保輔 古川 良治 都築 幸恵 新垣 紀子 中村 國則
出版者
成城大学
雑誌
コミュニケーション紀要 (ISSN:02887843)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.26, pp.87-98, 2015-03

Teaching critical thinking skills is among the top priorities for higher education in Japan and the United States. Ennis (1987) divides critical thinking skills into two types: dispositions and abilities. In Japan, Hirayama and Kusumi (2004) have developed a Japanese measurement called the Critical Thinking Dispositions Inventory (CTDI). This measurement consists of four subscales with 33 items. The responses are made using a five-point Likert scale. In four studies at a small private university in the Japanese metropolitan area, the CTDI was administered to more than 400 undergraduate students. Among the four subscales, the average highest rating was the score for "inquiry-mind" and the lowest score was for "self-confidence for logical thinking." These results hold true for the four studies, while the order of the other two subscales of "objectiveness" and "evidence-based judgment" varied among the four studies. In one study, about 50 students worked on the Wason selection task. Their performance was poor when the content of the task was purely logical and abstract, but the performance was much better when it was an everyday and pragmatic task, as argued by D'Andrade (1995). Those who successfully solved the everyday, real task rated themselves higher on the CTDI and higher on the subscale for "self-confidence for logical thinking." This constitutes a basis for the measurement validity of the CTDI.Teaching critical thinking skills is among the top priorities for higher education in Japan and the United States. Ennis (1987) divides critical thinking skills into two types: dispositions and abilities. In Japan, Hirayama and Kusumi (2004) have developed a Japanese measurement called the Critical Thinking Dispositions Inventory (CTDI). This measurement consists of four subscales with 33 items. The responses are made using a five-point Likert scale. In four studies at a small private university in the Japanese metropolitan area, the CTDI was administered to more than 400 undergraduate students. Among the four subscales, the average highest rating was the score for "inquiry-mind" and the lowest score was for "self-confidence for logical thinking." These results hold true for the four studies, while the order of the other two subscales of "objectiveness" and "evidence-based judgment" varied among the four studies. In one study, about 50 students worked on the Wason selection task. Their performance was poor when the content of the task was purely logical and abstract, but the performance was much better when it was an everyday and pragmatic task, as argued by D'Andrade (1995). Those who successfully solved the everyday, real task rated themselves higher on the CTDI and higher on the subscale for "self-confidence for logical thinking." This constitutes a basis for the measurement validity of the CTDI.
著者
新垣 紀子
出版者
日本認知科学会
雑誌
認知科学 (ISSN:13417924)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.19, no.2, pp.142-143, 2012 (Released:2014-07-22)
参考文献数
17
被引用文献数
4
著者
新垣 紀子 野島 久雄
出版者
一般社団法人電子情報通信学会
雑誌
電子情報通信学会技術研究報告. HIP, ヒューマン情報処理 (ISSN:09135685)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.102, no.44, pp.35-40, 2002-05-03
被引用文献数
1

人のナビゲーションの支援のあり方について、心理学的な観点とビジネス的な観点から概観するとともに、心理学的な観点をどのようにしてシステムの構築に取り入れていったらよいかについての検討を行う。
著者
新垣 紀子 野島 久雄 北端 美紀 小野澤 晃 佐藤浩司
出版者
一般社団法人情報処理学会
雑誌
情報処理学会研究報告ユビキタスコンピューティングシステム(UBI) (ISSN:09196072)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.2003, no.115, pp.183-188, 2003-11-18
被引用文献数
1

日常場面において人とモノがどのようにインタラクションをしているのかを解明するために、ある韓国の家庭の中にあったすべてのモノを収集してデータベース化した国立民俗学博物館の「2002年 ソウルスタイル展」のデータベースと、その家の中での家族メンバーの日常生活を撮影したビデオを対象として分析をおこなった。ビデオでの場面(朝食の支度など)は、さらに細かなレベルとして分節化し、最後は家の中のモノと具体的な関わりを持つレベルまで細分化して記述をおこなった。このような分析をおこなうことによって、身の回りのモノにタグが付くユビキタス環境におけるサービスのあり方についての考察をおこなった。To examine how people interact with everyday objects around them, we used a database created for Seoul Style 2002 exhibition by National Museum of Ethology. The database consisted of complete set of objects in a certain house in Seoul, Korea. We analyzed video of members of the family who lived in the house. We first identified commonplace daily activities, such as mother's making breakfast, and divided them into much smaller components (Basic levels), and finally, to subordinate level, in which people actually interact with physical objects themselves. This level corresponds to keystroke model in GOMS model by Card, Moran, and Newell (1983). By analyzing human activities with relevant objects, we tried to make a model of human actions, and which kind of services are actually feasible in coming ubiquitous environments which are full of ubiquitous tags on all objects around us.