著者
白砂 大 本田 秀仁 松香 敏彦 植田 一博
出版者
日本認知科学会
雑誌
認知科学 (ISSN:13417924)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.29, no.3, pp.404-414, 2022-09-01 (Released:2022-09-15)
参考文献数
74

In cognitive science, ir/rationality about human intelligence has been discussed for a long time. In this paper, we focused on simple heuristics that humans use and reviewed the historical background of the rationality of heuristics in order to understand several perspectives on rationality. Historically, the rationality of heuristics has been discussed mainly based on satisficing (Simon’s bounded rationality), deviations from logical principals (Tversky and Kahneman’s heuristic and bias program), matching between heuristics and environmental structures (Gigerenzer’s ecological rationality), and optimal allocations of cognitive resources (Lieder and Griffiths’s resource rationality). Finally, we discuss possible directions for future research on the rationality of heuristics.
著者
本田 秀仁 松香 敏彦 植田 一博
出版者
日本認知心理学会
雑誌
日本認知心理学会発表論文集 日本認知心理学会第13回大会
巻号頁・発行日
pp.20, 2015 (Released:2015-10-21)

日本語には、漢字・カタカナという異なる表記法が存在しており、見た目・使用法、それぞれ大きく異なる。本研究では、表記が思考に与える影響について検討を行った。具体的には、3都市名を漢字(例:岡山・広島・長崎)またはカタカナ(例:オカヤマ・ヒロシマ・ナガサキ)で呈示して、同じグループであると思う2都市の選択、ならびに選択理由の回答が求められる都市カテゴライズ課題を実施し、表記の違いがカテゴリー化に与える影響ついて検討を行った。結果として、漢字で都市名を呈示した場合は地理的近接性に基づいたカテゴリー化(岡山・広島を“中国地方だから”という理由で選択する)が行われやすく、一方でカタカナ呈示時は文脈的類似性(ヒロシマ・ナガサキを“原爆が投下されたから”という理由で選択する)に基づいたカテゴリー化が行われやすかった。以上、表記の違いによって異なる思考プロセスが生み出されることが明らかになった。
著者
本田 秀仁 岩谷 舟真 大瀧 友里奈 植田 一博
出版者
日本認知科学会
雑誌
認知科学 (ISSN:13417924)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.29, no.3, pp.390-403, 2022-09-01 (Released:2022-09-15)
参考文献数
70

In this article, we discuss two types of intervention for making judgments and decisions more rationally; nudge and boost. In particular, we discuss characteristics, theoretical background, and problems in the nudge and boost. We argue the importance of multiple perspectives, such as individual, group, and psychological conflict, for making judgments and decisions more rationally.
著者
松香 敏彦 本田 秀仁 吉川 詩乃
出版者
日本認知科学会
雑誌
認知科学 (ISSN:13417924)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.17, no.1, pp.95-109, 2010 (Released:2010-10-22)
参考文献数
41
被引用文献数
2

Prototype theory of categorization and category learning assumes that a category is simply represented by its central tendency. The theory accounts for many psychological phenomena associated with categories, yet it is shown to be incapable of accounting for some important aspects of categories and concepts. For example, Prototype theory, due to its simplistic representation, cannot describe how people make inference about variabilities and correlations among feature dimensions within categories. In addition, it cannot learn categories that are not linearly separable. The present research extends Prototype theory of category learning in order to improve its explanatory capability while maintaining the simplistic representation mechanism. Our theory assumes that a category is not only represented by its central tendency but also by an abstracted within-category structure. In order to evaluate its descriptive validity, we developed a computational model built on the basis of the theory. In our model, called STRAP for STRucture Abstracing Prototype, a central tendency is represented by a mean vector (i.e., centroids) and an abstracted within-category structure by a covariance matrix. Three simulation studies were conducted and the results showed that STRAP successfully accounted for empirical phenomena that have not been replicated by existing prototype models: it acquired knowledge that is necessary for making inferences about variabilities and correlations among feature dimension within categories; it learned to categorize linearly non-separable categories; it reproduced A2 advantage, which is a tendency that people categorize a less “prototypical” stimulus A2 more accurately than more “prototypical” stimulus, invalidating some criticisms against Prototype theory. More important, STRAP and thus our theory accounts for these psychological phenomena with distinctive cognitive information processes, as compared with those of other successful models, providing new insights into how categories are represented in our mind.
著者
井上 紗奈 本田 秀仁 森 数馬 山本(前田) 万里 椎名 武夫 曲山 幸生 永井 成美 和田 有史
出版者
日本認知科学会
雑誌
認知科学 (ISSN:13417924)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.25, no.1, pp.7-25, 2018-03-01 (Released:2018-09-01)
参考文献数
41
被引用文献数
1

A new functional food-labeling system was implemented in 2015. Food products with new functional information are expected to increase along the increase of health awareness in Japan. However, it is difficult for ordinal consumers to understand each functional component of food. When descriptions on food include scientific information,people often misunderstand or excessively expect about a new function. This research investigated how understanding the information of foods was correlated with individual’s cognitive traits conducting a web-based survey using a fictional news report based on real research to two groups, ordinal consumers group and specific occupations group that supposed to have high recognition degree of new functional food-labeling system. We also used three cognitive indices, the cognitive reflection test, numeracy and graph literacy, to investigate the influence of cognitive traits on reading comprehension and interpretation. The results revealed that graph literacy was correlated with understanding and that the other two indices were correlated with psychological factors of interpretation though there was no group difference.
著者
白砂 大 松香 敏彦 本田 秀仁 植田 一博
出版者
日本認知科学会
雑誌
認知科学 (ISSN:13417924)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.24, no.3, pp.328-343, 2017-09-01 (Released:2018-03-01)
参考文献数
22

Previous studies show that, in a binary choice task, people often choose one object between two objects using a simple heuristic (e.g., recognition, familiarity, or fluency heuristic), and that such a simple strategy is ecologically rational. These studies almost exclusively pay attention to subjective knowledge (i.e., familiarity) about two alternatives. However, we pointed out that familiarity of an object presented in a question sentence might affect people’s inferences. Specifically, we hypothesized that, in a binary choice task, when an object in a question sentence was familiar (unfamiliar) to a decision maker, he or she would choose a more familiar (unfamiliar) object from the two alternatives. We call this heuristic “familiarity-matching.” We examined whether people actually employed familiarity-matching and whether familiarity-matching was an ecologically rational strategy. The results of three experiments generally confirmed usage and ecological rationality of familiarity-matching. Experiment 1 showed that if an object in a question sentence was familiar (unfamiliar) to participants, then they were likely to choose a more familiar (unfamiliar) object from the two alternatives;that is, participants indeed employed familiarity-matching. Experiment 2 showed that when participants felt difficult to make a decision, they were more likely to employ familiarity-matching. Experiment 3 showed that familiarity-matching could be applied in an ecologically rational manner in real-world situations. The results of present study collectively shed light on important cognitive mechanisms involved in inference tasks. We believe that the present findings make a substantial contribution to reveal unsolved human cognitive processes.
著者
藤崎 樹 本田 秀仁 植田 一博
出版者
日本認知心理学会
雑誌
日本認知心理学会発表論文集 日本認知心理学会第15回大会
巻号頁・発行日
pp.46, 2017 (Released:2017-10-16)

近年、集合知を個人内で擬似的に生み出す手法が提案されている。ある問題に対し、同じ人物に複数回異なる推定を促し、値を平均化することで正確な推定を獲得するというのがその手法である。しかし、先行研究で提案された手法は、必ずしも簡便なものとは言いがたい。そこで本研究では、「視点の切り替え」に基づく簡便な手法を代替案として提唱する。二つの実験を通じて以下の三点が明らかになった。まず、本研究の手法は、先行研究の手法以上に正確な推定を生むものであった。次に、より重要な点として、先行研究の手法を与えた群に比べ、本研究の手法を実施した群では、参加者はより素早く推定を行ったことから、認知的に容易なものであることが示唆された。さらに、本研究の手法は、推定に対する自信がもたらす悪影響を軽減するものであることが分かった。以上から、本研究の手法は、効率的かつ効果的に個人内で集合知を生み出す手法であることが示された。
著者
松香 敏彦 本田 秀仁
出版者
人工知能学会
雑誌
人工知能学会全国大会論文集 (ISSN:13479881)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.26, 2012

本研究では、個人が独自に行う学習と他者との交流から学習する2つ学習プロセスを統合したシミュレーションを行った。Small World的構造をもつ社会においては、個人差が有機的に作用し、社会が全体として獲得する知識はPareto-Optimal的であることが示された。