著者
永田 大輔
出版者
社会学研究会
雑誌
ソシオロジ (ISSN:05841380)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.59, no.3, pp.21-37, 2015-02-28 (Released:2019-05-24)
参考文献数
16

This paper discussed the process of creating “otaku originality” within the context of their consumption. Otaku considered their culture original and distinct from that of normal anime consumers in the 1980s. In prior studies, people called otaku were those committed to worthless culture. Though people regarded otaku culture as worthless, we should observe its formation process. Otaku made it a culture of worth for their community, turning it into a high context culture. Becoming a high context culture meant it achieved interactions with people other than anime fans, but how was this happen?This paper focuses on anime fan culture, and discusses the video environment and active television viewing. The VCR diffusion rate increased from 2.2% to 66.8% during the 1980s. Otaku started to watch videos with their friends. They wanted to show their videos to their friends. However, this was considered an unnatural behavior. This paper mainly analyzes community with video consumption among anime fans and discusses their motivations. They wanted to show off the VCRs “Slowmotioning” meant “unique watching”. Originally, anime meant “animation”, but their activity enabled anime fans to enjoy “pictures”. Consumers could attain “creators literacy”. However, this literacy was marketed by the creators. Anime magazines evaluated this marketing. The culture of editing by anime fans formed a frame. They consumed the unique experience of watching anime together as consumers who had a specific literacy. Otakus’ high contextual culture, including their knowledge and literacy, was created by interactions between creators and consumers of anime magazines.
著者
永田 大輔 松永 伸太朗
出版者
日本マス・コミュニケーション学会
雑誌
マス・コミュニケーション研究 (ISSN:13411306)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.95, pp.183-201, 2019-07-31 (Released:2019-10-25)
参考文献数
16

In the 1970s and 1980s, the animation industry in Japan saw the emergenceof distinctive consumers, called “anime fans.” This brought quantitative andqualitative changes in products in the animation market. The aim of this paperis to reveal how animators dealt with this change and how they reformed theirworking culture. The authors have shown that the working culture underpinnedmarket movements in the 1970s and 1980s. Historically, animators preferred working as freelancers on a piece-ratesystem rather than as regular workers on a fixed salary. This was due to theirmeritocratic occupational norm. However, the number of animation programsincreased during the anime-boom period, and animators were forced to cooperatewith a much broader workforce to produce many programs suitable for thediverse demands of fans. This limited animators’ discretion. In this study, theauthors wanted to understand how it was possible for the animation industry tocontinue supplying the workforce necessary to adapt to market changes duringthis time. For this purpose, the authors analyzed texts in animation magazines fromthe perspective of the labor process theory, which explains the relationshipbetween workstyles and the transformation of markets. One of the key conceptsof this approach is workers’ shared norms. The authors also employedethnomethodology, which elicits vivid insights regarding such norms, to analyzeround-table talks and interviews with animators working at animation magazines. While animators understood the quantitative expansion of the animationmarket as limiting their discretion, there was a disparity in how they copedwith the situation. The older generation recognized their skills in detail andrelied on networks built by longtime co-working. The younger generationaccepted the new situation and found their occupational value in the new workingenvironment through the occupational image of “the artisan.” This imagereflected the new occupational competence and made the formation of peercommunities of young animators possible. This industrial transformation sustainedthe supply of a broad workforce, which drew on various expressions duringthe anime-boom period.
著者
永田 大輔
出版者
日本マス・コミュニケーション学会
雑誌
マス・コミュニケーション研究 (ISSN:13411306)
巻号頁・発行日
no.88, pp.137-155, 2016-01-31

This paper discusses the Video Tape Recorder (VTR) spread process in the 1960s and 1970s. Previous studies on videos have mainly focused on two aspects: (1) sexual media and (2) leisure communities' unique consumption. This paper examines how functions such as slow motion, which were usually used by the leisure communities only were prepared in the first process of family spread. This paper researches the industry paper Video Journal in the period 1968-1978. This industrial magazine has a different focus than that of leisure magazines. This magazine discusses multiple markets in the spread process. This paper will examine each market's demands, according to the industry magazine. From the 1960s to the 1970s the video market was supported by an educational demand. Video was a revolutionary media in audio-visual education. Education has diverse functional needs and feedback regarding these needs can reach the market through study groups. These unique functional demands of leisure groups later spread to family use. In the mid -1970s, Video Journal was conscious of the family market, but its development in this market had been late. First, this may be due to a lack of good content on video. But the true reason is the cost of video recording. Thus, the market could not identify families' needs for a long time, and could not predict the time of family spread. Furthermore, educational needs continued and their demand is left. Both family and educational needs continued and their demand is left. Both family and educational needs did not utilize video functions such as slow motion, which were only used by leisure groups.
著者
永田 大輔
出版者
関東社会学会
雑誌
年報社会学論集 (ISSN:09194363)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.2017, no.30, pp.134-145, 2017-07-31 (Released:2018-09-01)
参考文献数
33

This paper discusses the history of the discussion in Japan about otaku. We discuss how, early on, it was recognized that the critique around the phenomenon of otaku faced difficulties as otaku were regarded negatively in Japanese society. In order to depart from this negative critique, while the tojisha approach (first-person studies) emerged, other viewpoints were restricted. Sociologists were enlisted to help overcome this problem, but there then arose an internal debate within sociology, specifically. Sociology's participation in the critique was criticized internally. We discuss the ensuing relationship between sociology and the social critique around the phenomenon of otaku.
著者
永田 大輔
出版者
日本マス・コミュニケーション学会
雑誌
マス・コミュニケーション研究 (ISSN:13411306)
巻号頁・発行日
no.88, pp.137-155, 2016-01-31

This paper discusses the Video Tape Recorder (VTR) spread process in the 1960s and 1970s. Previous studies on videos have mainly focused on two aspects: (1) sexual media and (2) leisure communities' unique consumption. This paper examines how functions such as slow motion, which were usually used by the leisure communities only were prepared in the first process of family spread. This paper researches the industry paper Video Journal in the period 1968-1978. This industrial magazine has a different focus than that of leisure magazines. This magazine discusses multiple markets in the spread process. This paper will examine each market's demands, according to the industry magazine. From the 1960s to the 1970s the video market was supported by an educational demand. Video was a revolutionary media in audio-visual education. Education has diverse functional needs and feedback regarding these needs can reach the market through study groups. These unique functional demands of leisure groups later spread to family use. In the mid -1970s, Video Journal was conscious of the family market, but its development in this market had been late. First, this may be due to a lack of good content on video. But the true reason is the cost of video recording. Thus, the market could not identify families' needs for a long time, and could not predict the time of family spread. Furthermore, educational needs continued and their demand is left. Both family and educational needs continued and their demand is left. Both family and educational needs did not utilize video functions such as slow motion, which were only used by leisure groups.