著者
岡田 成幸 南 慎一 北川 諭
出版者
日本自然災害学会
雑誌
自然災害科学 (ISSN:02866021)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.16, no.1, pp.75-92, 1997-05-31
参考文献数
25
被引用文献数
1

When disaster strikes, though the Japanese central administration gives an economic support to any damaged local governments for rehabilitation of their public facilities destroyed, it asserts that the disaster victims should achieve the personal calamity restoration by their self-help efforts. Instead of officially pecuniary assistance, donation money is voluntarily drawn to them for the individual restoration. In the 1993 Hokkaido Nansei-Oki earthquake, a donation of 257 billion yen was made to the major damaged areas of Hokkaido district which had significant damage of 1,323 billion yen. Despite of suffering from the comparable damage of 755 billion yen in the 1994 Sanriku Haruka-Oki earthquake, the major damaged area of Tohoku district got a donation money only of 2.7 billion yen owing to a larger earthquake that is the Hyogoken Nanbu earthquake occurred immediately after the Sanriku Haruka-Oki earthquake. This paper appeals the necessity of social system on financially mutual aid for individual restoration through the comparative analyses of donations to aid the disaster victims.
著者
村上 仁士 島田 富美男 伊藤 禎彦 山本 尚明 石塚 淳一
出版者
日本自然災害学会
雑誌
自然災害科学 (ISSN:02866021)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.15, no.1, pp.39-52, 1996-04-30
被引用文献数
2

The data on the 1605 Keicho Tsunami, 1707 Hoei Tsunami and 1854 Ansei Nankai Tsunami on Shikoku island were extracted from the newly discovered historical documents on these tsunamis. The inundation heights of these tsunamis measured in many villages were reexamined and reestimated by field investigation. Accurate data which were useful for checking the validity of the numerical simulation on the historical tsunamis were offered. As the result, the inundation heights of these tsunamis were greater in comparison with the 1946 tsunami heights at almost all of the surveyed points. This fact should be reconsidered in the future planning of the tsunami prevention.
著者
三村 衛 折井 友香 近藤 隆義
出版者
日本自然災害学会
雑誌
自然災害科学 (ISSN:02866021)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.29, no.2, pp.219-231, 2010

The geoinformatic database of Oaki Town, Toba City was developed by digitizing the written information of boring logs and 3-dimensional underground model has been developed based on the newly developed geoinformatic database. A serious uneven profile of bed rock overlain by the very soft clayey deposits is expected there. A new surveying procedure, called Mobile Mapping System; MMS, is introduced to monitor the 3-dimensional digital geographical data such as sets of latitude, longitude and elevation of each point of the target area. The monitoring data set provides a detailed distribution of settlement of Oaki Town. Based on this underground model, a series of finite element analyses was conducted to describe the actual differential settlement for the past 40 years. The calculated performance is validated by comparing with the present elevation of the original clay deposits checked by the newly conducted boring as well as the digital information through MMS. The newly developed system is found to be versatile and promising to support local governments to establish a policy for disaster mitigation.
著者
牛山 素行 北澤 秋司
出版者
日本自然災害学会
雑誌
自然災害科学 (ISSN:02866021)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.14, no.2, pp.147-159, 1995-10-01
参考文献数
3
被引用文献数
2

Temporary BBS(Bulletin Board System) was opened on major personal computer network, NIFTY-Serve in September 1993. This BBS aimed to exchange informations about Typhoon 9313. In three days about 200 messages were submitted to this BBS from all of Japan. Reference numbers of messages submitted at the time of landing of typhoon. Their main topics were about member's surroundings, the location and power of typhoon and traffic information. This BBS had never been advertised enough, nevertheless many messages were submitted in a few days from wide area. BBS is available in collecting disastrous informations. We propose opening a BBS on disaster by its specialists.
著者
田中 重好 田渕 六郎 木村 玲欧 伍 国春
出版者
日本自然災害学会
雑誌
自然災害科学 (ISSN:02866021)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.25, no.2, pp.183-195, 2006-08-31

Tsunami evacuation plannings have been built on "alert-evacuation" model, which assumes "tsunami alert -transmission -evacuation behavior" connection. Analyzing the data on the behavior of residents (n=1,710) in coastal area of Aichi prefecture after the tsunami warning on September 5, 2004, the results indicated that only a few residents evacuated despite their strong concerns on tsunami. This behavioral pattern results from the "empirical knowledge" which was gained by their past experience of not evacuating after a tsunami alert. In order to transform this knowledge, we need to build a new evacuation model based on the understandings of ambiguity which people face in disasters.
著者
奥西 一夫 諏訪 浩
出版者
日本自然災害学会
雑誌
自然災害科学 (ISSN:02866021)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.11, no.1, pp.27-37, 1992-04-30
被引用文献数
2

A landslide at a site beside the prefectural road connecting Otsu and Shigaraki, Shiga Prefecture, Japan resulted in the death of two persons. According to a post-disaster inspection, the landslide involved a translational sliding of a V-shaped block, toppling and fall. These movements are thought to have been controlled by the joint system in the granite which composed the slope. A dynamical analysis of the destruction of steel pillars which had supported the protective fence reveals the velocity of debris and suggests the mechanism of the slope failure. Discussion covers the predictability of such roadside hazards and the possible countermeasures. Considering a wide variation in the mode of roadside slope failures, importance of studies of the causes for individual cases is emphasized in conclusion.
著者
石橋 正信 馬場 俊孝 高橋 成実 今井 健太郎
出版者
日本自然災害学会
雑誌
自然災害科学 (ISSN:02866021)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.37, no.1, pp.125-142, 2019 (Released:2020-02-29)
参考文献数
12

南海トラフの沈み込み帯において,M9クラス巨大地震とそれにともなう巨大津波の発生の可能性が内閣府により指摘されて久しい。この津波被害想定によると,地震域近傍の沿岸地域では地震発生から数分後に巨大な津波が到達してしまうため,津波防災に向けた行動計画の再構築や人的被害軽減のための迅速な対応策の検討が極めて重要になる。その対応策のひとつとして,高速かつ高精度な即時津波予測が有効と考えられる。本研究では,地震と津波観測に向けた稠密海底観測網(DONET)による沖合観測網を利用した即時津波予測システムを構築し,和歌山県沿岸6地域において実装を行い,その有効性の検討を行った。本システムにより,地震と津波の初動到達時間を即時評価できること,沿岸津波高や浸水域の即時予測が可能であることを示した。さらに,1944年昭和東南海地震の事例と内閣府のM9クラス巨大地震の波源シナリオを用いて本システムの予測精度を検証した。本システムで即時予測される沿岸津波高や浸水域面積はやや過大評価傾向にあるものの,おおむね安全側の予測結果となり,津波防災上有効なシステムであることを示した。
著者
佐藤 照子 岸井 徳雄
出版者
自然災害科学会
雑誌
自然災害科学 (ISSN:02866021)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.14, no.3, pp.201-212, 1995-12-31
参考文献数
20
被引用文献数
1

Tokyo, the Metropolis of Japan, frequently has suffered from flood disasters, according to urbanization, since late 1950's. The heavy rainfall due to the Typhoon 9311 on August, of which the daily precipitation was 234.5mm, caused damages in Tokyo. The flood disaster caused by the Typhoon were investigated. The number of houses inundated reached 5,191,but its magnitude reduced to one twentieth of that caused by the Typhoon 6604 in 1966. Two hundred million people were affected by the damage of public transportation systems, being attacked weak points of preparedness for flooding : extra rainwater incidentally coming from outside of disaster stricken area and rainwater flowing into construction fields under the ground, resulted in the suspention of train and subway service.
著者
牛山 素行
出版者
日本自然災害学会
雑誌
自然災害科学 (ISSN:02866021)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.23, no.2, pp.293-302, 2004-08-31
参考文献数
11
被引用文献数
5 8

Heavy rainfall caused by a baiu-front (stationary front) occurred in Niigata prefecture from July 12 to 13, 2004. The Japan Meteorological Agency called this event the "Niigata and Fukushima heavy rainfall of July 2004". In Tochio city, Niigata prefecture, an hourly precipitation of 58 mm was recorded on July 13, with the precipitation in a 48-hour period amounting to 427 mm. This constitutes the highest amount of rainfall in this period since that recorded in 1936 at Tochio observatory. The highest 1-hour precipitation records in the last 25 years were revised at 3 observatories, and the highest 24-hour precipitation rate was revised at 10 observatories based on the data of the Japan Meteorological Agency. During this heavy rainfall, 16 persons were killed, 476 houses were destroyed, and about 13,500 houses were inundated. Eleven levee breaches occurred in class-A rivers, causing serious inundation damage in Niigata prefecture. Most of the inundation damage occurred in Sanjo city, Mitsuke city, and Nakanoshima town. In particular, 23% of the households in Sanjo sustained over floor inundation. The deaths of 12 persons were due to drowning. This is the largest number of drownings by heavy rainfall since the Nagasaki heavy rainfall disaster on July 1982. Moreover, 14 victims were elderly persons more than 60 years old. Evacuation counsels were issued from 4 hours to 20 minutes before the levee breaches. We could say that as compared with past rainfall disasters, these responses were quick. However, many persons were lost their lives and much property was inundated. The development of a disaster information dissemination system is necessary in local communities.
著者
山本 晴彦 岩谷 潔 高山 成 白水 隆之 土谷 安司 兼石 篤志 原田 陽子 東山 真理子
出版者
日本自然災害学会
雑誌
自然災害科学 (ISSN:02866021)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.27, no.3, pp.291-306, 2008-11-29
被引用文献数
1

Typhoon No. 0613 (SHANSHAN) went north up the west coast of Kyushu on September 17, 2006. After the typhoon landed near Sasebo city, Nagasaki past 18:00, it escaped from northern Kyushu into the Sea of Japan. As the typhoon passed through, it triggered a tornado in Nobeoka City of Miyazaki Prefecture, with the peak gust speed recorded at 46.0m/s (14:06) at Asahi Kasei Corporation. The length of the tornado path was estimated as 7.5km and the maximum width 300m based on the damage investigation. The tornado caused 3 fatalities, and around 1,300 damaged homes. The Fujita and Pearson scales were estimated to be F2 and P2, based on the extent of the tornado damage, and the length and width of the damage, respectively.