著者
山科 健一郎
出版者
特定非営利活動法人日本火山学会
雑誌
火山 (ISSN:04534360)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.44, no.2, pp.71-82, 1999-04-30
参考文献数
79
被引用文献数
1

Associated with the 1914 great eruption at Sakurajima volcano, southwestern Japan, the maximum height of volcanic cloud is discussed based on collected documents, sketches and photographs in those days. A series of photographs up to around 10 : 40 on January 12 (in Japanese Standard Time) represents that the volcanic cloud height attained to 7,000 to 8,000 m above sea level. After then, it proved that several documents reported the height to be 9,500-15,000 m, or even more than 18,000 m a.s.l, although it is difficult to obtain reliable evidences. Considering these reports and other observations from a distance, the height of 15,000 m is tentatively proposed here as a possible maximum value. According to an empirical relation, an eruption rate of small pyroclastic materials is suggested as, roughly speaking, 5,000 tons per second or 20 millions of tons per hour, if the volcanic cloud was 15,000 m in height.
著者
下司 信夫 小林 哲夫
出版者
特定非営利活動法人日本火山学会
雑誌
火山 (ISSN:04534360)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.51, no.1, pp.1-20, 2006-02-28
被引用文献数
2

Volcanic history of Kuchinoerabujima Volcano in the last 30,000 years is reconstructed based on tephra stratigraphy. Kuchinoerabujima is a volcanic island which is a cluster of at least nine volcanic edifices; Gokyo, Jyogahana, Ban-yagamine, Takadomori, Noike, Kashimine, Hachikubo, Furutake and Shintake. Eruptions within the last 30,000 years occurred from Noike, Hachikubo, Furutake and Shintake volcanoes. Two major pumice and scoria eruptions occurred between 15 and 11 ka after an inactive period since ca. 30ka. NoikeYumugi tephra (15-14ka, DRE>0.06km^3), erupted from the summit of Noike Volcano, consists of Yumugi pumice fall deposit and Nemachi pyroclastic flow deposit. Furutake-Megasaki tephra (12-11 ka, DRE ca. 0.8km^3) erupted from Furutake Volcano and consists of Furutake agglutinate, Furutake scoria flow deposit and Megasaki scoria fall deposits. Volcanic edifice of Older Furutake was built during the 12-11 ka eruption. Eruption style changed around 10ka, after the collapse of Older Furutake Volcano. Activities of Yougner Furutake and Shintake Volcanoes are characterized with effusion of lava flow and no major pumice eruption is recognized. Lithic tephra erupted from Younger Furutake and Shitake Volcanoes within the last 10,000 indicates repetitive Vulcanian-type and phreatomagmatic eruptions. All historical eruptions since 1841 occurred at and around Shintake crater and were Vulcanian-type explosions with emission of magmatic materials and phreatic explosions.
著者
宮地 直道 富樫 茂子 千葉 達朗
出版者
特定非営利活動法人日本火山学会
雑誌
火山 (ISSN:04534360)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.49, no.5, pp.237-248, 2004-10-29
被引用文献数
4

A large-scale collapse occurred at the eastern slope of Fuji volcano about 2900 years ago, based on calibrated <l4>^C age of a wood sample collected in the resulting debris avalanche deposit. The collapsed slide deposit, called "Gotemba debris avalanche deposit" (Goda), is distributed on the eastern foot of the volcano covering an area of more than 53 km^2 The source amphitheater is not preserved because it became covered by younger tephra erupted from the summit crater. This avalanche deposit is overlain by the "Gotemba, mudflow deposits" (Gomf) emplaced repeatedly after the avalanche. Some now units of the Goda and Gomf entered pre-existing rivers and were finally emplaced as fluvial deposits. The Goda is composed of debris-avalanche blocks, showing jigsaw cracks, along with smaller blocks ranging from several tens of centimeters up to l m in diameter. The debris-avalanche matrix is a mixture of smaller nieces of blocks and ash-sized materials due to mainly shearing and fragmentation of large blocks. Igneous rocks include fresh and altered gray basaltic lava, weathered tephra including red scoria and white clay. Petrographical and geochemical data indicate that most blocks were derived from the Older Fuji volcano. The volumes of the Goda and Gomf are about l.05km^3 and 0.71km^3 respectively, based on presently available geological and borehole data. Since the blocks of Goda are composed mostly of the products of the Older Fuji volcano and the older stage lavas of Younger Fuji volcano do not extend to the eastern foot of Fuji volcano, a bulge of Older Fuji volcano must have existed in the eastern flank of Fuji volcano preventing the older stage lavas to now to the east. This bulge collapsed in the form of three blocks from the foot of the mountain. The abundance of hydrothermally altered deposits in the Goda and the absence of fresh volcanic products within the Goda suggest its origin as a rupture inside the altered deposits possibly triggered by a large earthquake or phreatic eruption.
著者
須藤 靖明 筒井 智樹 中坊 真 吉川 美由紀 吉川 慎 井上 寛之
出版者
特定非営利活動法人日本火山学会
雑誌
火山 (ISSN:04534360)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.51, no.5, pp.291-309, 2006-10-31
被引用文献数
5

So far the ground deformation associated with a magma supply system of Aso Volcano had not been discussed because any clear signals in ground deformations and volcanic earthquake activity had been hardly observed near the Nakadake active crater during its activity enhancement cycles. In this article, however, the deflation source and magma supply system is investigated by the long-term geodetic surveys. The secular subsidence is observed in the Kusasenri area about 3km west of the Nakadake active crater from the 1951's levelling survey in compiled levelling surveys along the Bouchuu-line since 1937. While the ground deformation near the active crater has been obscure. The source of this deflation near the Kusasenri area is estimated on the basis of the spherical pressure source model through the non-linear least square method with using recent survey data which include the Bouchuu-line and an extended survey route. The deflation source is located beneath the Kusasenri area at about 5km depth. However, recent volume changes at the spherical deflation source are smaller than before 1959. The location of the deflation source coincides with the low P- and S-wave velocity body in the 3D seismic velocity structure. This fact supports a hypothesis that the low seismic wave velocity body represents a magma reservoir. Therefore this magma reservoir beneath the Kusasenri area must be connected to the Nakadake active crater. We inferred a rigid conduit in the magma supply system from the obscure ground deformation in the vicinity of the Nakadake crater.
著者
早川 由紀夫
出版者
特定非営利活動法人日本火山学会
雑誌
火山 (ISSN:04534360)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.40, no.3, pp.177-190, 1995-07-31
参考文献数
47
被引用文献数
24

Loam is an international scientific term, however, it has been used in a peculiar way in Japan. Japanese loam is a massive, brown, weathered rock unit composed of silt, clay, sand and occasional lapilli. It extensively covers coastal terraces, river terraces, ignimbrite plateaus and other uplands around volcanoes. Loam is not a product of soil forming process operated beneath the earth surface against rock bodies ; but it is a sediment accumulated slowly on the earth surface. Small-magnitude volcanic eruptions play a very minor role for the sedimentation. An eolian reworking process of pre-existing fine-grained deposits by the wind plays a major role. This is proved by following facts : 1) loam has accumulated even during the time when no ash-fall was observed ; 2) a volcano infrequently erupts explosively and the intensity of ash fallout is far lower than the sedimentation rate of loam ; it is about 0.1 mm/year ; 3) loam is hardly thickening toward a volcano. Very small particles carried from continental China by the westerlies at a high altitude are contained in loam, however, in the area around volcanoes their contribution is little for the formation of loam compared with eolian dust carried from nearby bare grounds by local winds at a low altitude. Loam does not accumulate all the year round. Just before and during fresh verdure, occasional strong winds pick up fine particles into the air from a bare ground which is dried up by a high-angle sunlight and high-temperatures. Eventually fine particles will settle down in vegetation. The most favorable season for loam deposition is April to May, in which more than half of an annual amount is achieved. It is convenient and practical to define a single eruption by a tephra layer which is not interbedded with loam. The thickness of loam can be used for the quantitative measurement of geologic time intervals, in years to thousands years, on certain conditions. Lithology of Japanese loam and the mechanism of sedimentation are identical to those of loess in other areas, such as China, northern Europe, northern America and New Zealand. There is no reason to hesitate to designate Japanese loam loess.
著者
小林 淳 萬年 一剛 奥野 充 中村 俊夫 袴田 和夫
出版者
特定非営利活動法人日本火山学会
雑誌
火山 (ISSN:04534360)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.51, no.4, pp.245-256, 2006-08-31
参考文献数
45
被引用文献数
1 4

We discovered a set of phreatic explosion deposits, herein referred to as the Owakidani tephra group, on the northern slope of Mt. Kamiyama and in the Owakidani fumarolic area of the Hakone Volcano. The tephra group is the product of the volcanic activities since the latest magmatic eruption of Hakone Volcano at around 2.9ka. It comprises five units named Hk-Ow1 to Hk-Ow5 in the ascending order. Both Hk-Ow1 and Hk-Ow2 comprise tephra fall deposits and secondary debris flow deposits. In addition to these deposits, Hk-Ow2 is also associated with surge deposits. Hk-Ow3, Hk-Ow4 and Hk-Ow5 consist of tephra fall deposits. The ash of these tephra fall deposits and the matrix of the secondary debris flows are principally composed of clay, altered lithics and secondary minerals supposed to be of fumarolic area origin. It is possible that Hk-Ow1 and Hk-Ow2 erupted from a fissure on the northeastern ridge of Mt. Kamiyama, while Hk-Ow3, Hk-Ow4 and Hk-Ow5 erupted at Owakidani. No juvenile material was found within the deposits of these eruptions except for Hk-Ow2, while the surge deposit of Hk-Ow2 contained trace amounts of volcanic glass fragment. Although it is considered that the principal nature of the eruptions of the Owakidani tephra group is phreatic, the deformation of the edifice around the source area implies the possibility of magma intrusion to shallow levels. Based on the calendar ages of the Owakidani tephra group and the stratigraphic position of the Kozushima-Tenjosan tephra, we estimated that Hk-Ow3, Hk-Ow4 and Hk-Ow5 erupted in relatively short intervals between the latter half of the 12th and 13th centuries. On the other hand, Hk-Ow1 and Hk-Ow2 erupted at around 3 kyr BP and 2kyr BP, respectively. The eruption ages of the Owakidani tephra group generally correspond to the seismic events that occurred in the Kozu-Matsuda Faults and the Tanna-Hirayama tectonic line. It is suggested that the activity of the Hakone Volcano may be closely related to the tectonic events in this region.
著者
町田 洋 新井 房夫 百瀬 貢
出版者
特定非営利活動法人日本火山学会
雑誌
火山. 第2集 (ISSN:04534360)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.30, no.2, pp.49-70, 1985-07-01
被引用文献数
41

The Aso-4 pyroclastic flow is one of the largest of late Pleistocene age in Japan covering extensive areas of Kyushu around the Aso caldera and western part of Honshu. We have recently discovered a distal ash which has very similar petrographic and chemical properties to the flow deposits at several localities of Japan, and is assumed to be an airfall part of the Aso-4 unit. The ash, named the Aso-4 ash, is a crystal-vitric fine-grained ash, consisting of rhyodacitic bubble-walled glass shards, and brown hornblende and orthopyroxene (bronzite) as mafic phenocrysts. Its identification is carried out by combined parameters ; refractive index of glass ranges 1.506-1.511, low refractive index of orthopyroxene (γ=1.699-1.701) and relatively high index of hornblende (n_2=1.687-1.688). In addition glass in the ash is characteristically rich in potassium. These properties are similar to those of the Aso-4 pyroclastic flows. It is suggested that the ash is a coignimbrite airfall deposit of fine-grained materials from the upper part of an eruption column formed at the same time as the Aso-4 flow. The ash mantles extensive areas from Kyushu to Hokkaido and is also recognized and identified in several piston cores from the Sea of Japan and the northwest Pacific Ocean. The fallout area of this ash is now known to attain approximately 4×10^6 km^2. It is striking that in the eastern part of Hokkaido, ca. 1700 km distant from the source, the ash with the thickness of 15 cm is well preserved immediately below the Kutcharo pyroclasitc flow deposits II/III. The bulk volume of this ash is estimated to be more than 400 km^3, possibly larger than that of the flow deposits. The stratigraphic position of this ash in standard sequence of South Kanto shows that it occurs after the Obaradai interstade (ca. 80 ka) and before the Misaki interstade (ca. 60 ka). Thus the Aso-4 ash provides a very important datum plane in late Pleistocene sequence in and around Japan.
著者
金子 克哉 伊藤 公一 安部 祐一
出版者
特定非営利活動法人日本火山学会
雑誌
火山 (ISSN:04534360)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.55, no.2, pp.109-118, 2010-04-30
参考文献数
10

Monitoring of volcanic phenomena close to active volcanic vents and inside active craters is needed to predict change of volcanic activities and to understand dynamics of volcanic eruptions. In order to carry out safe volcanic monitoring, we have developed a prototype of a mobile sensor for volcanic observation "HOMURA" which is a new robotic system that has been designed to observe volcanic phenomena inside active volcanic craters. HOMURA is a small unmanned ground vehicle (approx. 780×560×300mm in dimension and 10kg in weight) with six wheels driven by electric motors and it is operated by wireless remote control at a distance of more than 1km. Data measured by some sensors in HOMURA are sent to the base station in real time. Materials of the vehicle body and wheels are aluminum with 2mm thick and plywood with 9mm thick, respectively. HOMURA can climb up and down a rough surface with slope angle of 30 degree. In addition, HOMURA does not readily become undrivable even in overturning during climbing because it has a unique body shape with a horizontal symmetry plane. HOMURA can be made and transported to mission fields at small costs. These allow us to make a new vehicle even if HOMURA should be lost by accident during missions and promptly to explore a sudden volcanic event by HOMURA. In test campaigns at Aso volcano and Izu-Oshima volcano, we confirmed that HOMURA has planned abilities on moving on rough surfaces and wireless communication.
著者
宮縁 育夫 増田 直朗 渡辺 一徳
出版者
特定非営利活動法人日本火山学会
雑誌
火山 (ISSN:04534360)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.49, no.5, pp.267-282, 2004-10-29
被引用文献数
7

The western part of post-caldera central cones of Aso Volcano, southwestern Japan, is characterized by wide chemical variation of lava flows (SiO_2=49-73 wt.%) and complicated topography. Geologic history of the area was reconstructed by stratigraphic relationships between lava flows and airfall tephra layers. Stratigraphy and chronology of lavas and tephra distributed on the western slope of the central cones are as follows: Ayugaerinotaki lava, Matsuhata pumice (MhP), Tochinoki lava (73±10 ka; K-Ar age), Aso central cone pumice 4 (ACP4), Tateno lava. Aso central cone pumice 3 (ACP3), Takanoobane lava (51±5ka), Eboshidake lava, Karisako lava, Akase lava (30 cal ka ; calibrated <l4>^C age), Sawatsuno lava (27±6ka), Kusasenrigahama pumice (Kpfa; 31 cal ka), Otogase lava and Aso central cone pumice 1 (ACPI ; 4 cal ka), in ascending order. Between about 70,000 to 50,000 years ago Tochinoki lava, Tateno lava and Takanoobane lava accompanied precursor pumice-fall deposits. A catastrophic eruption occurred in and around the Kusasenrigahama crater at 31 cal ka. The eruption was initiated by the dacite Sawatsuno lava now and produced the largest plinian numice-fall deposit (Kpfa; 1.2 km^3 in DRE volume). In the western part of post-caldera central cones of Aso Volcano, total discharge volumes of felsic and mafic magmas from about 70,000 to 30,000 years ago were estimated to be about 2.4 km^3 and 0.47km^3 respectively.
著者
高橋 正樹
出版者
特定非営利活動法人日本火山学会
雑誌
火山 (ISSN:04534360)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.40, no.1, pp.33-42, 1995-03-10
被引用文献数
6 7

There is no positive correlation between the long-term eruption rate of large-scale felsic volcanism and its discharge volume of a single eruptive episode. This means that the storage of voluminous felsic magma at high-level in the crust is caused not by high magma production rate but by continuous accumulation of magma during a long repose time, if the long-term eruption rate reflects the averaged magma production rate. If the cruslal defomation is weak, the magma chamber could be stable in the crust; it is favorable for efficient accumulation of voluminous magma. In fact, the large-volume felsic volcanism occurs exclusively in the region of low crustal strain rate. The low crustal strain rate is considered to be essential for the formation of large-scale felsic volcanism. The large-volume felsic volcanic activity is present in the compressional tectonic stress field as well as in the extensional one; the difference in arrangement of principal stress axes is not related to the occurrence of voluminous felsic volcanism.
著者
井村 隆介 小林 哲夫
出版者
特定非営利活動法人 日本火山学会
雑誌
火山 (ISSN:04534360)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.36, no.2, pp.135-148, 1991-07-15 (Released:2017-03-20)
被引用文献数
8

This paper presents results of geologic investigation of the eruptive activity in the last 300 years of Shinmoedake, an active volcano in the Kirishima Volcano Group. The recent activity of this volcano is divided into four eruptive episodes : the 1716-1717, 1771-1772, 1822 and 1959 episodes. The most important activity occurred in 1716-1717. During the 1716-1717 eruption, fallout deposits, pyroclastic flows and mudflows were widely dispersed around the volcano. The products of this episode show that the eruption progressed with time from phreatic to magmatic. These field data are in good agreement with historic records of eruptive activity. According to the historic records, the eruptive activity lasted from 11 March, 1716 to 19 September, 1717. The 1771-1772 and 1822 activities produced base surges, pyroclastic flows, fallout tephra and mudflows that were confined to the slope and eastern base of the volcano, but historic records do not reveal the details of these eruptions. The field evidence shows the same phreatic to magmatic sequence as the 1716-1717 activity. However, the eruptions of both episodes were on a smaller scale than the 1716-1717 eruption. The 1959 activity was well described. This episode produced minor gray silty to sandy lithic fallout tephra indicating that only phreatic activity occurred. The fallout was distributed northeast of the vent. In conclusion, the field evidence and historical records show that each eruptive episode of the current activity of Shinmoedake progressed from phreatic to magmatic. The eruptions are frequently accompanied by pyroclastic flows and mudflows.
著者
鈴木 隆介
出版者
特定非営利活動法人日本火山学会
雑誌
火山. 第2集 (ISSN:04534360)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.13, no.2, pp.95-108, 1968-08-01
被引用文献数
1

One of the fundamental differences between volcanic cone and non-volcanic mountains such as folded mountains is that the latter itself is a part of the earth's crust, while the former is taken as a heavy load which is laid upon the pre-existing earth's crust within a short geological time and is durable for several tens of thousands of years. In this respect, a volcanic cone resembles an ice sheet, a huge building and a large dam. It is, therefore, postulated that volcanic cone settles down by its own weight. From this point of view, characteristics of the subsidence of some strato-volcanic cones in Japan and Indonesia (Table 1) are comprehensively discussed in this paper. The results are summarized as follows. The settlement of volcanic cone causes various deformations at the foot of volcanic cone such as ring fault, thrust and the circular anticlinally uplifted ridge, all of which tend to encircle the volcanic cone settled. Based on the modes of these deformations at the foot, the settlement of volcanic cone is classified into three types ; 1) fault type, 2) fold type, and 3) mixed type. They are schematically shown in Fig. 5. Which type among the three takes place seems to depend on the nature of the basal rocks beneath the volcanic cone (Table 1 and Fig. 5). The fault type occurs in the case where Pliocene sedimentary rocks are thinner than about two hundreds meters in thickness and also most of the basal rocks are composed of Tertiary sedimentary rocks older than Pliocene. On the contrary, in the case where Pliocene sedimentary rocks are thicker, generally several hundreds to thousands meters, the fold type or the mixed type results. Magnitude of settlement is of order of one to two hundreds of meters in the depth settled. Rate of settlement of Iizuna volcano, which belongs to the fold type, is estimated to be of order of about four millimeters per year. Distance from the center of volcanic cone to the circular deformed feature (D), which is thought to show the magnitude of deformation originated by the settlement, is proportional to the relative height of volcanic cone (H), which can be taken as the substitute for the weight of volcanic cone (Fig. 6). Such relationship between D and H is also found in the case of guyot, which is surrounded by circular moat or ridge (Fig. 5), but not found in the case of collapse calderas as shown in Fig. 6.
著者
小野 晃司 渡辺 一徳 星住 英夫 高田 英樹 池辺 伸一郎
出版者
特定非営利活動法人日本火山学会
雑誌
火山 (ISSN:04534360)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.40, no.3, pp.133-151, 1995-07-31
被引用文献数
21

We describe in this paper the character of ash eruption of Nakadake volcano presently going on and maintain that the products of the volcano during the recent geologic past are the main constituents of ashy soils distributed around, especially to the east of, the volcano. Nakadake volcano, the only active central cone of Aso caldera, mainly discharges black, sandy essential ash of basaltic andesite during its active period. The ash is the most voluminous constituent of the products of Nakadake through its activity of recent more than 20,000 years. We call ash eruption for the activity which discharges dominantly ash. The ash is divided into three groups : block-type ash, splash-type ash, and free crystals. The block-type ash, most common, is polyhedral surrounded by a few flat planes. It is formed by brittle fracturing of semi-solid top part of the magma column. While, the splash-type ash, discharged only during the very active phase in active periods, is derived from liquid magma which underlies the semi-solid top of the column. The ash is transported by gas stream from the magma in a quasi-steady state or intermittently, and is distributed around Nakadake volcano in a near-circular pattern by a low eruption column usually less than 1,000 m in height. Long-term thickness contours of the ashy soil from Nakadake volcano in three time intervals, separated by the present earth surface and three ash or pumice layers, of recent more than 20,000 years also show near-circular pattern but a little elongated to the east. 'Loam beds', mainly composed of decomposed and argillized volcanic ash, are said to be formed by accumulation of aeolian dusts during periods of no eruption in volcanic districts. But, loam beds (Akaboku) and black humic soils (Kuroboku) distributed around Aso volcano are composed mainly of primary fall-out deposits of ash or pumice along with aeolian dusts. Ash eruption of Nakadake mostly produces sandy ash rather continuously without long time break but in small rate of discharge. A correlation of detailed columnar sections eastwards of Nakadake crater shows most single strata of ashy soils, light brown- to black-colored, thin according to the increase of distance from the source crater. The ash, especially very fine ash distributed in the distal area, easily decompose and lose primary stratification to form a massive layer which is hardly discernible from aeolian loam beds by their close resemblance. Not only fine ash layers but Plinian pumice fall layers form 'loam' beds which are not distinguishable with adjacent aeolian beds by further decomposition. The thickness contours of the Kanto loam elongate and thin eastward from Fuji volcano over the Kanto plain. The thickness of loam beds changes regionally, thicker in volcanic areas and thinner in non-volcanic areas. These facts suggest contributions of primary pyroclastic falls for thickening of 'loam beds'.
著者
井村 隆介 小林 哲夫
出版者
特定非営利活動法人日本火山学会
雑誌
火山 (ISSN:04534360)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.36, no.2, pp.135-148, 1991-07-15
被引用文献数
16

This paper presents results of geologic investigation of the eruptive activity in the last 300 years of Shinmoedake, an active volcano in the Kirishima Volcano Group. The recent activity of this volcano is divided into four eruptive episodes : the 1716-1717, 1771-1772, 1822 and 1959 episodes. The most important activity occurred in 1716-1717. During the 1716-1717 eruption, fallout deposits, pyroclastic flows and mudflows were widely dispersed around the volcano. The products of this episode show that the eruption progressed with time from phreatic to magmatic. These field data are in good agreement with historic records of eruptive activity. According to the historic records, the eruptive activity lasted from 11 March, 1716 to 19 September, 1717. The 1771-1772 and 1822 activities produced base surges, pyroclastic flows, fallout tephra and mudflows that were confined to the slope and eastern base of the volcano, but historic records do not reveal the details of these eruptions. The field evidence shows the same phreatic to magmatic sequence as the 1716-1717 activity. However, the eruptions of both episodes were on a smaller scale than the 1716-1717 eruption. The 1959 activity was well described. This episode produced minor gray silty to sandy lithic fallout tephra indicating that only phreatic activity occurred. The fallout was distributed northeast of the vent. In conclusion, the field evidence and historical records show that each eruptive episode of the current activity of Shinmoedake progressed from phreatic to magmatic. The eruptions are frequently accompanied by pyroclastic flows and mudflows.
著者
池辺 伸一郎 藤岡 美寿夫
出版者
特定非営利活動法人日本火山学会
雑誌
火山 (ISSN:04534360)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.46, no.4, pp.147-163, 2001-08-30
被引用文献数
1 2

Yunotani spa is located to the west part of the Central cones of Aso Volcano. Since the 14th Century, many people have been visiting this hot spring. A few explosions were referred in an old document "Nagano-ke-nikki; Diary of Nagano family". However, the details of these events are not yet clear. We have found a set of historical records on the explosion called "Yunotani Catastrophe" that took place at the solfatara of Yunotani spa in July 6, 1816. These records, two drawings and five reports on the explosion, describe the events and damages in detail. A lot of "hot-mud" with many blocks were ejected from two vents, and destroyed 12 bathrooms and injured one person in the area about 100 m from the vents. Judging from the descriptions and occurrences of the hydrothermally altered ejecta around the vents, it can be said that this event was caused by steam explosions from the solfatara. By the revelation of these records, it became clear that an explosion occurred not only at Naka-dake but also in the area outside of Naka-dake in the historic age. This fact is important for the prevention of volcanic disaster in Aso Volcano.
著者
井村 隆介
出版者
特定非営利活動法人 日本火山学会
雑誌
火山 (ISSN:04534360)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.43, no.5, pp.373-383, 1998-10-30 (Released:2017-03-20)
参考文献数
27
被引用文献数
5

The eruptive sequence of the An-ei eruption of Sakurajima volcano (1779-1782) is revealed by historical records. From the evening of November 7, 1779 (the 29th day of the 9th month in the 8th year of An-ei), Kagoshima and its environs were shaken frequently. At 11 a.m. of the next day, the water in the wells in the island boiled up, spouting at several points and the color of sea became purple. On the noon of the same day, minor white plumes rose up from the Minamidake summit crater. At about 2 p.m., plinian eruption oecurred at the southern upper slope of Minamidake, and several tens of minutes later, at the northeastern flank of Kitadake. The height of eruption column reached about 12000 meters. It is estimated that a pyroclastic flow was generated at 5 p.m. The plinian eruption climaxed from the evening of November 8, to the morning of next day, and later was followed by emission of lava flows. The activity of the southern craters ceased within a few days, but lava emission from northeastern craters lasted for a long period. On November 11, the lava flow from northeastern craters entered into the sea. Since then, submarine explosions occurred repeatedly off the northeastern coast, and it continued to January 18, 1782. Nine small islands produced by this submarine volcanic activity during a year. Submarine explosions caused small tsunamis on August 6 and 15, September 9, October 3 1, November 9, 1780 and April 11, 1781.
著者
石原 和弘 小林 哲夫
出版者
特定非営利活動法人日本火山学会
雑誌
火山. 第2集 (ISSN:04534360)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.33, no.3, pp.269-271, 1988-10-31
被引用文献数
2