- 火山 (ISSN:04534360)
- vol.52, no.3, pp.161-186, 2007-06-29
The 1914-1915 Sakurajima eruption was the largest eruption in Japan in the 20th century and erupted andesitic magma was about 1.5km^3 DRE (Dense Rock Equivalent) in volume. Pumice fall and lava flows were generated from the fissure vents on the western and the eastern flanks of the volcano and pyroclastic cones were formed around the vents. Eruptive style changed with time. It is divided into three stages. After the initial, vigorous, Plinian eruption of about 36 hours (Stage 1), extrusion of lava associated with intermittent ash-emitting eruptions with or without detonations lasted for about 20 days on both sides (Stage 2), followed by an outflow of lava for more than 1.5 years on the eastern side (Stage 3). Consequently, the vast lava fields, which consist of a number of flow units formed on both sides of the volcano. Some units of lava show evidence of welded pyroclastic origin, suggesting clastogenic lava. In the western lava field, surface blocks characteristically consist of pyroclastic materials which show variable degrees of welding even within a single block. Typical eutaxitic textures and abundant broken crystals are also recognized under the microscope. Some flow units can be traced upstream to a pyroclastic cone. These features indicate that many flow units of lava on the western flank are clastogenic, which were generated by the initial, Plinian eruption of Stage 1. In the eastern lava field, evidence of pyroclastic origin is rarely discernable. However, the content of broken crystals varies widely from 20% to 80% in volume. Most lava flows, which were erupted in Stage 2 associated with frequent ash-emitting eruptions, contain broken crystals more or less than 50%. This fact indicates that magma in the conduit experienced repetitive fragmentation and coalescence due to intermittent explosions prior to outflow. Lava flows of Stage 3 contain much smaller amounts of broken crystals indicating gentle outflow of coherent lava. Relatively large-scale lava deltas developed toward the sea in the eastern lava field. Eyewitness account at that time reports that ocean entry of lava from several points started several months after the beginning of Stage 3. Although small-scale breakouts formed at the flow fronts of some lava on both sides, a large volume of the deltas can not be accounted for by secondary breakouts of ponded lava within the precedent flow lobes. It is considered that lava tube system fed lava to form the lava deltas.