著者
高橋 正樹
出版者
日本エアロゾル学会
雑誌
エアロゾル研究 (ISSN:09122834)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.27, no.3, pp.278-283, 2012 (Released:2013-01-18)
参考文献数
39
被引用文献数
3

Super-eruption release voluminous sulfuric gas into the atmosphere, which produce a large amount of sulfuric acid aerosol in the stratosphere. The sulfuric acid aerosol reflects incoming solar radiation, giving rise to the rapid climatic cooling called the “volcanic winter” on the Earth’s surface. The Toba super-eruption 74,000 years ago, the largest eruption in a million years on the Earth, erupted as much as 2,800 km3 of felsic magma. The average global temperature is estimated to have lowered more than 10°C by the Toba super-eruption, which is inferred to have caused a severe bottleneck of the human population. Modern civilized human society will also suffer fatal damage by “volcanic winter”, if a super-eruption were to occur today.
著者
高橋 正樹
出版者
特定非営利活動法人日本火山学会
雑誌
火山 (ISSN:04534360)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.40, no.1, pp.33-42, 1995-03-10
被引用文献数
6 7

There is no positive correlation between the long-term eruption rate of large-scale felsic volcanism and its discharge volume of a single eruptive episode. This means that the storage of voluminous felsic magma at high-level in the crust is caused not by high magma production rate but by continuous accumulation of magma during a long repose time, if the long-term eruption rate reflects the averaged magma production rate. If the cruslal defomation is weak, the magma chamber could be stable in the crust; it is favorable for efficient accumulation of voluminous magma. In fact, the large-volume felsic volcanism occurs exclusively in the region of low crustal strain rate. The low crustal strain rate is considered to be essential for the formation of large-scale felsic volcanism. The large-volume felsic volcanic activity is present in the compressional tectonic stress field as well as in the extensional one; the difference in arrangement of principal stress axes is not related to the occurrence of voluminous felsic volcanism.
著者
三須 俊彦 高橋 正樹 合志 清一 蓼沼 眞 藤田 欣裕 八木 伸行
出版者
一般社団法人電子情報通信学会
雑誌
電子情報通信学会論文誌. D-II, 情報・システム, II-パターン処理 (ISSN:09151923)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.88, no.8, pp.1681-1692, 2005-08-01
参考文献数
13
被引用文献数
12

実時間画像処理に基づくサッカー中継映像用のオフサイドライン可視化システムを開発した. 本システムは, 固定カメラ画像中の人物を抽出し, そのワールド座標を求める. 更に色情報に基づいてユニフォームを分類することでフォーメーション解析を行ってオフサイドライン位置を特定する. 中継用カメラのパン・ズーム操作をロータリエンコーダによって計測することで, ワールド座標を実写ハイビジョン映像上に変換し, パン・ズーム操作に連動したオフサイドラインを仮想表示することができる. 本論文では, システムのブロック構成を追いつつ画像処理手順について定式化を行う. また, 実際のJリーグ公式戦において実施したフィールド実験の結果を示す.
著者
高橋 正樹 編
出版者
日本行動計量学会
雑誌
行動計量学 (ISSN:03855481)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.31, no.2, pp.107-124, 2004 (Released:2005-11-22)
被引用文献数
1 1
著者
高橋 正樹
出版者
特定非営利活動法人 日本火山学会
雑誌
火山 (ISSN:04534360)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.40, no.1, pp.33-42, 1995-03-10 (Released:2017-03-20)
参考文献数
22
被引用文献数
5

There is no positive correlation between the long-term eruption rate of large-scale felsic volcanism and its discharge volume of a single eruptive episode. This means that the storage of voluminous felsic magma at high-level in the crust is caused not by high magma production rate but by continuous accumulation of magma during a long repose time, if the long-term eruption rate reflects the averaged magma production rate. If the cruslal defomation is weak, the magma chamber could be stable in the crust; it is favorable for efficient accumulation of voluminous magma. In fact, the large-volume felsic volcanism occurs exclusively in the region of low crustal strain rate. The low crustal strain rate is considered to be essential for the formation of large-scale felsic volcanism. The large-volume felsic volcanic activity is present in the compressional tectonic stress field as well as in the extensional one; the difference in arrangement of principal stress axes is not related to the occurrence of voluminous felsic volcanism.
著者
高橋 正樹 藤井 真人 柴田 正啓 八木 伸行
出版者
一般社団法人電子情報通信学会
雑誌
電子情報通信学会論文誌. D, 情報・システム (ISSN:18804535)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.92, no.7, pp.1036-1044, 2009-07-01
被引用文献数
1

ゴルフ中継番組で利用可能なティーショット軌道表示システムを開発した.広角で撮影したカメラの実映像上へ軌道を表示できるため,軌道の把握が容易である.また1台の放送カメラから得られる情報のみを用いて軌道を作画できるため,撮影機材や人員を追加する必要がなく,運用性に優れている.2005年日本オープンゴルフ選手権中継にて,放送応用を実現した.しかしショット直後や着地直前のボール追跡が困難なため,打点,着地点,静止点を手動指定する必要があり,「軌道表示まで時間を要する」,「バウンド軌道を表現できない」などの課題も残った.そこで本論文では,全区間の軌道を全自動・リアルタイムで作画可能な新たなティーショット軌道表示システムを提案する.提案システムは,背景輝度に基づくしきい値の自動切換機能,三次元実空間での位置予測による着地タイミング推定機能,過去方向への映像再生による打点までのボール追跡機能を備える.実験により,提案システムが速度,精度のバランスにおいて優れており,即時性,信頼性が要求されるゴルフ中継での運用に適していることを確認した.
著者
伊豆田 修祐 高橋 正樹
出版者
自動制御連合講演会
雑誌
自動制御連合講演会講演論文集
巻号頁・発行日
vol.57, pp.731-738, 2014

航空機のエンジン故障により,飛行に必要な推力が得られない場合に,近隣の空港へ速やかに緊急着陸する技術が求められている.緊急着陸時には,着陸点へ到達可能かつ安全な飛行経路を計画する手法が必要となる.そこで,本研究では着陸点での到達高度を考慮した最終進入距離の可変化,および最終進入でのスポイラーの使用による滑空性能の変化を考慮した経路計画手法を提案する.
著者
高橋 正樹 野口 高明 田切 美智雄
出版者
日本地質学会
雑誌
地質学論集 (ISSN:03858545)
巻号頁・発行日
no.44, pp.65-74, 1995-11-30
被引用文献数
2

18〜12 Maの東北日本に出現するアイスランダイトは, 高K_2O量・Ce/Yb比タイプと低K_2O量・Ce/Ybの2種類に区分できる。前者は関東地方北部(茂木・大子地域)や北部阿武隈地域(毛無山)に産し, 後者は東北地方中部脊梁地域(古川〜新庄間)に分布する。周辺の苦鉄質火山岩類の化学組成との関係から, 前者はある種の下部地殻物質の部分融解によって, また後者はソレアイト質苦鉄質マグマの結晶分化作用によって生成されたものと推定される。K_2O/TiO_2比は前者で高く後者で低い。これは, 両者における初源マグマの化学組成上の違いを反映しているものと考えられる。前期中新世に生じた, マントル・プリュームの上昇による日本海の急速な拡大と日本列島の移動は, 高温でH_2Oに乏しく還元的な地殻環境と伸長応力場の発達を促し, アイスランダイト質マグマの生成に寄与したものと思われる。
著者
高橋 正樹
出版者
特定非営利活動法人日本火山学会
雑誌
火山 (ISSN:04534360)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.39, no.4, pp.207-218, 1994-09-20
被引用文献数
4

Late Quaternary poly genetic volcanoes in Japanese islands can be classified into two types : P-type and O-type. The vent of the P-type (parallel types) aligns in parallel with the orientation of regional σ_<Hmax>, while the vent alignment of the O-type (oblique type) is normal or highly oblique to it. The P-type consists of three sub-types based on the kind of associated active faults : PN (with normal faults), PS (with strike-slip faults), and PR (with reverse faults). Most of the O-type are constructed on the mountain range which is bounded on both side with reverse faults ; its vent alignment is probably controlled by the local extensional stress field in the mountain mass caused by the gravity tectonics. Thin sheet-like magma chambers are estimated to be present beneath the O-type volcanoes ; the arrangement of maximum principal stress axis producing reverse faults (σ_v=σ_3) favors the formation of sheet-like magma chambers. The eruption rate of the O-type is generally small because of the complexity of its magma plumbing system.
著者
安井 真也 高橋 正樹 石原 和弘 味喜 大介
出版者
特定非営利活動法人日本火山学会
雑誌
火山 (ISSN:04534360)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.52, no.3, pp.161-186, 2007-06-29
被引用文献数
3

The 1914-1915 Sakurajima eruption was the largest eruption in Japan in the 20th century and erupted andesitic magma was about 1.5km^3 DRE (Dense Rock Equivalent) in volume. Pumice fall and lava flows were generated from the fissure vents on the western and the eastern flanks of the volcano and pyroclastic cones were formed around the vents. Eruptive style changed with time. It is divided into three stages. After the initial, vigorous, Plinian eruption of about 36 hours (Stage 1), extrusion of lava associated with intermittent ash-emitting eruptions with or without detonations lasted for about 20 days on both sides (Stage 2), followed by an outflow of lava for more than 1.5 years on the eastern side (Stage 3). Consequently, the vast lava fields, which consist of a number of flow units formed on both sides of the volcano. Some units of lava show evidence of welded pyroclastic origin, suggesting clastogenic lava. In the western lava field, surface blocks characteristically consist of pyroclastic materials which show variable degrees of welding even within a single block. Typical eutaxitic textures and abundant broken crystals are also recognized under the microscope. Some flow units can be traced upstream to a pyroclastic cone. These features indicate that many flow units of lava on the western flank are clastogenic, which were generated by the initial, Plinian eruption of Stage 1. In the eastern lava field, evidence of pyroclastic origin is rarely discernable. However, the content of broken crystals varies widely from 20% to 80% in volume. Most lava flows, which were erupted in Stage 2 associated with frequent ash-emitting eruptions, contain broken crystals more or less than 50%. This fact indicates that magma in the conduit experienced repetitive fragmentation and coalescence due to intermittent explosions prior to outflow. Lava flows of Stage 3 contain much smaller amounts of broken crystals indicating gentle outflow of coherent lava. Relatively large-scale lava deltas developed toward the sea in the eastern lava field. Eyewitness account at that time reports that ocean entry of lava from several points started several months after the beginning of Stage 3. Although small-scale breakouts formed at the flow fronts of some lava on both sides, a large volume of the deltas can not be accounted for by secondary breakouts of ponded lava within the precedent flow lobes. It is considered that lava tube system fed lava to form the lava deltas.
著者
高橋 正樹 三須 俊彦 合志 清一 藤田 欣裕
出版者
一般社団法人電子情報通信学会
雑誌
電子情報通信学会論文誌. D-II, 情報・システム, II-パターン処理 (ISSN:09151923)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.88, no.8, pp.1672-1680, 2005-08-01
被引用文献数
22

画像内の物体(オブジェクト)抽出技術を用いて野球映像からボールを抽出し, その位置情報をもとに投球軌跡CGを作画する手法を考案した. 複数の画像間差分を利用して高速移動オブジェクトを抽出し, 様々な画像特徴のフィルタリングを行うことでボールオブジェクトのみをロバストに選定する. またカルマンフィルタと最小二乗法を併用したボールの位置予測処理を行い, 高速な自動追跡処理, 及び高輝度領域(打者のユニフォーム部分や白字広告部分等)での軌跡作画を実現した. 本手法を利用し, 投球軌跡作画装置(B-Motion)を開発した. 野球中継においては新たなカメラの設置やキャリブレーションの必要がないため, 運用が容易である. 2004年よりNHKプロ野球中継, スポーツ教育番組にて放送応用を実現している. 本論文ではまず高速なボール抽出・追跡手法について述べ, 続いて軌跡作画手法及び装置の構成や特徴について述べる. 最後に本装置を放送へ応用した結果を報告する.
著者
安井 真也 高橋 正樹 石原 和弘 味喜 大介
出版者
特定非営利活動法人 日本火山学会
雑誌
火山 (ISSN:04534360)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.52, no.3, pp.161-186, 2007-06-29 (Released:2017-03-20)
参考文献数
49
被引用文献数
4

The 1914-1915 Sakurajima eruption was the largest eruption in Japan in the 20th century and erupted andesitic magma was about 1.5km3 DRE (Dense Rock Equivalent) in volume. Pumice fall and lava flows were generated from the fissure vents on the western and the eastern flanks of the volcano and pyroclastic cones were formed around the vents. Eruptive style changed with time. It is divided into three stages. After the initial, vigorous, Plinian eruption of about 36 hours (Stage 1), extrusion of lava associated with intermittent ash-emitting eruptions with or without detonations lasted for about 20 days on both sides (Stage 2), followed by an outflow of lava for more than 1.5 years on the eastern side (Stage 3). Consequently, the vast lava fields, which consist of a number of flow units formed on both sides of the volcano. Some units of lava show evidence of welded pyroclastic origin, suggesting clastogenic lava. In the western lava field, surface blocks characteristically consist of pyroclastic materials which show variable degrees of welding even within a single block. Typical eutaxitic textures and abundant broken crystals are also recognized under the microscope. Some flow units can be traced upstream to a pyroclastic cone. These features indicate that many flow units of lava on the western flank are clastogenic, which were generated by the initial, Plinian eruption of Stage 1. In the eastern lava field, evidence of pyroclastic origin is rarely discernable. However, the content of broken crystals varies widely from 20% to 80% in volume. Most lava flows, which were erupted in Stage 2 associated with frequent ash-emitting eruptions, contain broken crystals more or less than 50%. This fact indicates that magma in the conduit experienced repetitive fragmentation and coalescence due to intermittent explosions prior to outflow. Lava flows of Stage 3 contain much smaller amounts of broken crystals indicating gentle outflow of coherent lava. Relatively large-scale lava deltas developed toward the sea in the eastern lava field. Eyewitness account at that time reports that ocean entry of lava from several points started several months after the beginning of Stage 3. Although small-scale breakouts formed at the flow fronts of some lava on both sides, a large volume of the deltas can not be accounted for by secondary breakouts of ponded lava within the precedent flow lobes. It is considered that lava tube system fed lava to form the lava deltas.
著者
萬 礼応 青山 朋樹 福本 貴彦 森口 智規 高橋 正樹
出版者
一般社団法人 日本機械学会
雑誌
日本機械学会論文集 (ISSN:21879761)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.83, no.855, pp.17-00223-17-00223, 2017 (Released:2017-11-25)
参考文献数
17

Gait measurements and physical fitness tests are carried out in the community health activities for health promotion and care prevention services in the growing elderly population. In particular, the timed up and go test (TUG) is the clinical test most often used to evaluate functional mobility in many clinical institutions or local communities. To evaluate the functional mobility during the TUG, a gait measurement system (Laser-TUG system) using a laser range sensor (LRS) has been proposed. The system tracks both legs and measures the foot contact positions to obtain walking parameters such as stride length and step length. To reduce the false tracking and improve the measurement accuracy during the turning phase of the TUG, a data association considering gait phase and a spline-based interpolation have been proposed. However, the false tracking is likely to be occurred in the elderly and the measurement accuracy during the turning phase is still deteriorated because of occlusion and inaccurate observation of legs. Therefore, this paper presents a high-accuracy gait measurement system using multiple LRSs. Using multiple LRSs is able to reduce the situation of leg occlusion. However, the measurement accuracy of leg position depends on the distance from the LRS. To improve the measurement accuracy, an integrated leg detection method by a weighted mean of the observation candidates from each LRS data based on the distance from the LRS is proposed. We confirm that the proposed leg detection method can improve the success rate of leg tracking in the elderly and measurement accuracy of the leg trajectory and walking parameters.
著者
高橋 正樹
出版者
日本エアロゾル学会
雑誌
エアロゾル研究 (ISSN:09122834)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.27, no.3, pp.278-283, 2012

Super-eruption release voluminous sulfuric gas into the atmosphere, which produce a large amount of sulfuric acid aerosol in the stratosphere. The sulfuric acid aerosol reflects incoming solar radiation, giving rise to the rapid climatic cooling called the "volcanic winter" on the Earth's surface. The Toba super-eruption 74,000 years ago, the largest eruption in a million years on the Earth, erupted as much as 2,800 km<sup>3</sup> of felsic magma. The average global temperature is estimated to have lowered more than 10°C by the Toba super-eruption, which is inferred to have caused a severe bottleneck of the human population. Modern civilized human society will also suffer fatal damage by "volcanic winter", if a super-eruption were to occur today.<br>