著者
小林 淳 萬年 一剛 奥野 充 中村 俊夫 袴田 和夫
出版者
特定非営利活動法人 日本火山学会
雑誌
火山 (ISSN:04534360)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.51, no.4, pp.245-256, 2006
参考文献数
45
被引用文献数
1 4

We discovered a set of phreatic explosion deposits, herein referred to as the Owakidani tephra group, on the northern slope of Mt. Kamiyama and in the Owakidani fumarolic area of the Hakone Volcano. The tephra group is the product of the volcanic activities since the latest magmatic eruption of Hakone Volcano at around 2.9ka. It comprises five units named Hk-Ow1 to Hk-Ow5 in the ascending order. Both Hk-Ow1 and Hk-Ow2 comprise tephra fall deposits and secondary debris flow deposits. In addition to these deposits, Hk-Ow2 is also associated with surge deposits. Hk-Ow3, Hk-Ow4 and Hk-Ow5 consist of tephra fall deposits. The ash of these tephra fall deposits and the matrix of the secondary debris flows are principally composed of clay, altered lithics and secondary minerals supposed to be of fumarolic area origin. It is possible that Hk-Ow1 and Hk-Ow2 erupted from a fissure on the northeastern ridge of Mt. Kamiyama, while Hk-Ow3, Hk-Ow4 and Hk-Ow5 erupted at Owakidani. No juvenile material was found within the deposits of these eruptions except for Hk-Ow2, while the surge deposit of Hk-Ow2 contained trace amounts of volcanic glass fragment. Although it is considered that the principal nature of the eruptions of the Owakidani tephra group is phreatic, the deformation of the edifice around the source area implies the possibility of magma intrusion to shallow levels. Based on the calendar ages of the Owakidani tephra group and the stratigraphic position of the Kozushima-Tenjosan tephra, we estimated that Hk-Ow3, Hk-Ow4 and Hk-Ow5 erupted in relatively short intervals between the latter half of the 12th and 13th centuries. On the other hand, Hk-Ow1 and Hk-Ow2 erupted at around 3 kyr BP and 2kyr BP, respectively. The eruption ages of the Owakidani tephra group generally correspond to the seismic events that occurred in the Kozu-Matsuda Faults and the Tanna-Hirayama tectonic line. It is suggested that the activity of the Hakone Volcano may be closely related to the tectonic events in this region.
著者
井村 隆介 小林 哲夫
出版者
特定非営利活動法人 日本火山学会
雑誌
火山 (ISSN:04534360)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.36, no.2, pp.135-148, 1991-07-15 (Released:2017-03-20)
被引用文献数
8

This paper presents results of geologic investigation of the eruptive activity in the last 300 years of Shinmoedake, an active volcano in the Kirishima Volcano Group. The recent activity of this volcano is divided into four eruptive episodes : the 1716-1717, 1771-1772, 1822 and 1959 episodes. The most important activity occurred in 1716-1717. During the 1716-1717 eruption, fallout deposits, pyroclastic flows and mudflows were widely dispersed around the volcano. The products of this episode show that the eruption progressed with time from phreatic to magmatic. These field data are in good agreement with historic records of eruptive activity. According to the historic records, the eruptive activity lasted from 11 March, 1716 to 19 September, 1717. The 1771-1772 and 1822 activities produced base surges, pyroclastic flows, fallout tephra and mudflows that were confined to the slope and eastern base of the volcano, but historic records do not reveal the details of these eruptions. The field evidence shows the same phreatic to magmatic sequence as the 1716-1717 activity. However, the eruptions of both episodes were on a smaller scale than the 1716-1717 eruption. The 1959 activity was well described. This episode produced minor gray silty to sandy lithic fallout tephra indicating that only phreatic activity occurred. The fallout was distributed northeast of the vent. In conclusion, the field evidence and historical records show that each eruptive episode of the current activity of Shinmoedake progressed from phreatic to magmatic. The eruptions are frequently accompanied by pyroclastic flows and mudflows.
著者
三宅 康幸 小坂 丈予
出版者
特定非営利活動法人 日本火山学会
雑誌
火山 (ISSN:04534360)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.43, no.3, pp.113-121, 1998-06-10 (Released:2017-03-20)
参考文献数
14
被引用文献数
2

A steam explosion occurred at about 14:30 JST, February 11th, 1995, in the hot-spring area near Yakedake volcano, central Japan. More than six workers were near the site of the explosion for the road construction, and four of them were buried by the ejected material and killed. A small initial explosion began at the bottom of a 4m deep moat dug by a backhoe and it was followed by the maximum explosion, which ejected about 6,000m3 of blocks (maximum length is more than 2m) and mud, with steam and volcanic gas. The ejecta contain gravels of welded tuff, granite and mesozoic sedimentary rocks, which are the components of a pyroclastic dike of Pliocene age, and pumiceous lapilli tuff derived from the terrace sediments covering the pyroclastic dike. The explosion caused a landslide from the western cliff and the vent was buried by the slid debris, most of which was blown away by the second explosion. All of these processes took place within a few minutes. A small depression (20×5m2) on the west of the mound of the ejecta may represent part of the vent; its depth is estimated to be about 60m or more. Gaseous S02(<30ppm) and H2S(<90ppm) were detected at the explosion site for three days after the explosion. The chemical composition of gas collected from the holes drilled after the explosion were nearly same as the gas from the summit crater of the Yakedake volcano. Because a wall-like Low-Q zone is suggested by seismologists beneath Yakedake volcano and the explosion site, it is most probable that there existed a magma beneath the explosion site and that the heat for the explosion was supplied by the magma and gas exsolved from the magma.
著者
井村 隆介 小林 哲夫
出版者
特定非営利活動法人 日本火山学会
雑誌
火山 (ISSN:04534360)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.36, no.2, pp.135-148, 1991
被引用文献数
16

This paper presents results of geologic investigation of the eruptive activity in the last 300 years of Shinmoedake, an active volcano in the Kirishima Volcano Group. The recent activity of this volcano is divided into four eruptive episodes : the 1716-1717, 1771-1772, 1822 and 1959 episodes. The most important activity occurred in 1716-1717. During the 1716-1717 eruption, fallout deposits, pyroclastic flows and mudflows were widely dispersed around the volcano. The products of this episode show that the eruption progressed with time from phreatic to magmatic. These field data are in good agreement with historic records of eruptive activity. According to the historic records, the eruptive activity lasted from 11 March, 1716 to 19 September, 1717. The 1771-1772 and 1822 activities produced base surges, pyroclastic flows, fallout tephra and mudflows that were confined to the slope and eastern base of the volcano, but historic records do not reveal the details of these eruptions. The field evidence shows the same phreatic to magmatic sequence as the 1716-1717 activity. However, the eruptions of both episodes were on a smaller scale than the 1716-1717 eruption. The 1959 activity was well described. This episode produced minor gray silty to sandy lithic fallout tephra indicating that only phreatic activity occurred. The fallout was distributed northeast of the vent. In conclusion, the field evidence and historical records show that each eruptive episode of the current activity of Shinmoedake progressed from phreatic to magmatic. The eruptions are frequently accompanied by pyroclastic flows and mudflows.
著者
西村 太志
出版者
特定非営利活動法人 日本火山学会
雑誌
火山 (ISSN:04534360)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.64, no.2, pp.53-61, 2019-06-30 (Released:2019-07-06)
参考文献数
14

Eruptive activities of volcanoes are examined by using a global data catalog of volcanoes provided from Smithsonian Institution. Yearly numbers of volcanic eruptions with a volcanic explosivity index (VEI) larger than or equal to 2 are almost constant from 1900, and the frequency distribution of the magnitude of volcanic eruptions obeys a power law in the range of VEI≥2. About 10 to 30% of volcanic eruptions with VEI≤2 end within one day, and 8 to 15% continue for more than 1 year. On the other hand, a few percentages of large eruptions with VEI≥3 end for a few days, and 25-30% continue for more than 1 year. Once an eruption occurs, the occurrence possibility of new eruptions at volcanoes locating within a 100km distance increases about 30% for 0.2 year. When the volcanoes locating at a region with a radius of 200km are examined together, yearly numbers of eruptions per volcano fluctuate within a factor of three for a few tens of years at more than about 90% of the regions. Frequency distribution of the yearly number of eruptions follows an exponential decay, which suggests an existence of a characteristic frequency of the eruptive activity on the globe. These averaged features of eruptive activities at volcanoes around the world can be used to give some basic characteristics of the occurrence of new eruptions.
著者
宮城 磯治 前嶋 美紀
出版者
特定非営利活動法人 日本火山学会
雑誌
火山 (ISSN:04534360)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.57, no.1, pp.45-50, 2012-03-30 (Released:2017-03-20)
参考文献数
13

For better estimation of the temperature of red-hot volcanic ejecta from their images taken by online digital cameras at night, we studied the applicability of a new pyrometer to the images. Our pyrometer applies the theory of black-body radiation to the color of red-hot object. We examined the color of red-hot volcanic ejecta, a heated basaltic rock with known temperature, and infra-red LEDs. Because of the sensitivity to infra-red ray, a digital camera Nikon D40 can visualize hot basalt specimen at temperatures much lower (ca. 370℃) than the naked eyes (500~550℃). As a side-effect of this capability, color data of the hot basalt discord from the isothermal color lines calculated from the black-body radiation and the CIE colorimetric system. Night photographs taken by the online digital camera aimed at the explosive ash eruptions of Asama volcano (2 a.m. 2 Sep., 2009) indicated that the color of red-hot volcanic ejecta was disturbed by the influence of infra-red ray in the same manner as observed on the heated basalt specimen in the laboratory. As a result, the temperature of the volcanic ejecta would be much lower than their appearance in digital images (e.g., 1000℃) but higher than the detection limit (370℃). Comparison of the color of red-hot volcanic ejecta and isothermal color lines revealed that some of the volcanic ejecta fell along the 600℃ isotherm line of the black-body radiation, which suggests that volcanic cloud reduces the influence of infra-red ray. The estimated temperature (600℃) is consistent with those deduced from petrological observation and thermodynamic computation (600〜700℃). We conclude that color analysis of the images of red-hot ejecta taken by online digital cameras are useful in temperature evaluation when images suffer less influence of infra-red ray.
著者
井村 隆介
出版者
特定非営利活動法人 日本火山学会
雑誌
火山 (ISSN:04534360)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.43, no.5, pp.373-383, 1998-10-30 (Released:2017-03-20)
参考文献数
27
被引用文献数
5

The eruptive sequence of the An-ei eruption of Sakurajima volcano (1779-1782) is revealed by historical records. From the evening of November 7, 1779 (the 29th day of the 9th month in the 8th year of An-ei), Kagoshima and its environs were shaken frequently. At 11 a.m. of the next day, the water in the wells in the island boiled up, spouting at several points and the color of sea became purple. On the noon of the same day, minor white plumes rose up from the Minamidake summit crater. At about 2 p.m., plinian eruption oecurred at the southern upper slope of Minamidake, and several tens of minutes later, at the northeastern flank of Kitadake. The height of eruption column reached about 12000 meters. It is estimated that a pyroclastic flow was generated at 5 p.m. The plinian eruption climaxed from the evening of November 8, to the morning of next day, and later was followed by emission of lava flows. The activity of the southern craters ceased within a few days, but lava emission from northeastern craters lasted for a long period. On November 11, the lava flow from northeastern craters entered into the sea. Since then, submarine explosions occurred repeatedly off the northeastern coast, and it continued to January 18, 1782. Nine small islands produced by this submarine volcanic activity during a year. Submarine explosions caused small tsunamis on August 6 and 15, September 9, October 3 1, November 9, 1780 and April 11, 1781.
著者
中村 一明
出版者
特定非営利活動法人 日本火山学会
雑誌
火山.第2集 (ISSN:24330590)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.25, no.4, pp.255-269, 1980-12-01 (Released:2018-01-15)

Rift zones are characteristic features of Hawaiian volcanoes. They are long narrow zones of flank fissure eruptions but are distinct from ordinary flank eruption sites on stratovolcanoes in that eruptions, and therefore dike intrusions, occur repeatedly at the same general place for a long time and thus cause a considerable amount of lateral spreading. This spreading should somehow be accomodated. Moreover, the stress field should remain the same after accomodation in order for a new dike to intrude in the same orientation. The current spreading episode in Iceland (BJORNSSON et al., 1979) between North American and European plates revealed that the sequence of events in the spreading process is similar to that observed for Hawaiian volcanic activities. This implies that the process of plate separation and accretion is nothing but the activity of rift zones. Constructional plate boundaries may be regarded as composed of a chain of rift zones and associated feeding polygenetic centers. Room necessary for repeated dike intrusion is supplied in the case of spreading centers, by the lateral motion (separation) of lithosphere over asthenosphere. In the case of Hawaii, sliding of the volcanic edifice over a deep sea sediment layer may be the analogous mechanism such as appears to have occurred during the 1975 Kalapana earthquake, as studied by ANDO (1979) and FURUMOTO and KOVACH (1979). Kalapana earthquake had been anticipated by SWANSON et al. (1976) as one of the repeated steps as the east rift zone has continuously dilated. Thus, the primary cause for the long, well developed rift zones of Hawaiian volcanoes may be in the existence of thick enough oceanic sediments serving as a potential sliding plane beneath the volcanic edifices. Lack of rift zones in Galapagos shields which grew over the young ocean floor with rough topography is consistent with this view.
著者
田島 靖久 松尾 雄一 庄司 達弥 小林 哲夫
出版者
特定非営利活動法人 日本火山学会
雑誌
火山 (ISSN:04534360)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.59, no.2, pp.55-75, 2014-06-30 (Released:2017-03-20)

The Kirishima volcanoes located in southern Kyushu are comprised of more than 20 volcanic edifices. The volcanoes occupy an elliptical area of approximately 330km2 with the WNW-ESE direction. Among the different types of volcanic edifices, the typical ones are compound maars and lava flows in Ebinokogen. We studied the volcanic history of Ebinokogen by geological examination of tephra layers and lava flows. After the Karakunidake-Kobayashi plinian eruption, seven tephra were formed in this area. We determined the ages of those tephra and two lava flows. The magmatic eruptions, produced Tamakino B tephra, occurred after Karakunidake-Kobayashi tephra eruption. The first activity in Ebinokogen from about 9.0 cal ka BP generated Fudoike lava flow, and Fudoike-Tamakino A tephra erupted from Fudoike crater. Karakunidake north-Ebino D tephra was generated from the northwest flank of Karakunidake at 4.3 cal ka BP, with debris avalanche and lahars. Phreatic Fudoike-Ebino C tephra erupted from the Fudoike crater at 1.6 cal ka BP. Ioyama-Ebino B tephra eruption started from around the 16th to 17th century with lava flow. Phreatic Ioyama east-Ebino A tephra erupted from Ioyama east crater in 1768 AD. The Ebinokogen area is one of the active regions of Kirishima volcanoes explicated by geophysical observations. Our results indicate cyclical tephra depositions mainly produced by small magmatic and strong phreatic eruptions in this area after the Karakunidake-Kobayashi pyroclastic eruption. Furthermore, the vent locations were found to migrate with each eruption.
著者
井村 隆介
出版者
特定非営利活動法人 日本火山学会
雑誌
火山 (ISSN:04534360)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.37, no.5, pp.281-283, 1992-11-15 (Released:2017-03-20)
参考文献数
5
被引用文献数
3
著者
宮城 磯治 東宮 昭彦
出版者
特定非営利活動法人 日本火山学会
雑誌
火山 (ISSN:04534360)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.47, no.6, pp.757-761, 2003-01-08 (Released:2017-03-20)
参考文献数
16
被引用文献数
3

We developed a new thermometer that uses color of volcanic ashes. A series of heating experiments for basaltic ashes under the atmospheric condition provided a quantitative relationship among color, heating temperature, and heating duration. The higher the heating temperature, the more the redness in color of heated ash. We applied the relationship to estimate heated temperature of the ash that was underlying below or contact with a cauliflower-shaped volcanic bomb ejected from the Miyakejima volcano on 18 August, 2000. The estimated temperature was about 390℃ for the ash underlying 1 cm below the volcanic bomb, and 550℃ for the ash in contact with the bomb. Numerical heat transfer calculations for the volcanic bomb on the ash layer suggested that temperature of its center at the time of landing is about 1,000℃. This is the first concrete evidence that the bomb was essential material and that the 18 August eruption was phreatomagmatic.
著者
早川 由紀夫
出版者
特定非営利活動法人 日本火山学会
雑誌
火山 (ISSN:04534360)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.36, no.3, pp.357-370, 1991-10-15 (Released:2017-03-20)

The recent progress of physical volcanology is reviewed focusing on studies on volcaniclastic flows and their deposits. Pyroclastic flows are high-particle-concentration, laminar currents with gas as a continuous phase. Pyroclastic surges are low-particle-concentration, turbulent currents with gas as a continuous phase. Lahars are flows of debris with liquid water as a continuous phase. Debris avalanches are catastrophic landslides in which a continuous phase is absent or plays no role for the motion. Owing to the upward gas flow, fluidization processes operate in pyroclastic flows. Flow behavior and resultant deposits are remarkably different depending the degree of fluidization, because it effectively reduces the yield strength of the flow. However, the distance traveled is slightly affected by the degree of fluidization. It is determined mainly by the mass incorporated at the source or by the velocity acquired when it wes initiated.
著者
津久井 雅志
出版者
特定非営利活動法人 日本火山学会
雑誌
火山 (ISSN:04534360)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.56, no.2-3, pp.65-87, 2011-06-30 (Released:2017-03-20)
参考文献数
27

The 1783 activity of Asama volcano was reviewed from May to the end of the year based on 166 old documents, including those recorded at a distance. 1. Prior to the 1783 Asama eruption, the level of magma head ascended at Kama-yama crater-pit. Moderately explosive eruptions commenced on May 9, and repeatedly blew off the plugged magma. 2. Depending on the wind direction, ash fell N, NNE, and NE of the crater including Sado Island, Tohoku and Kanto districts. From August 3 to 5, climactic plinian eruption dispersed pyroclastic materials. Distributions of 8 tephra- fall units were presented. 3. The timing of rumbling and quakes at distant places farther than 100km from the crater well correspond with explosive events witnessed by neighbors of the volcano. 4. Duration of a single eruptive event rarely exceed 6 hours. It was true even during the culminating plinian stage from Aug. 3 to 5, 1783. The eruption was so violent in this stage that huge blocks larger than 10m were thrown from Kama-yama crater. 5. Documents concerning with Kambara pyroclastic flow and subsequent debris avalanche occurred on August 5, suggested that an explosion on the northern flank triggered collapse of northern sector. The event occurred at about 08:00 to 08:30am, which is 90 to 120 minutes earlier than estimations appear in previous work. 6. Small and less frequent eruptions continued until January 15, 1784.
著者
及川 輝樹 筒井 正明 大學 康宏 伊藤 順一
出版者
特定非営利活動法人 日本火山学会
雑誌
火山 (ISSN:04534360)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.57, no.4, pp.199-218, 2012-12-28 (Released:2017-03-20)
参考文献数
65

Shinmoedake (Kyushu, Japan), which is one of the Kirishima Volcanoes, experienced several small eruptions in 2010, finally culminating in a sub-plinian eruption on January 26-27, 2011. After this sub-plinian phase, the eruption style shifts to the phase of vulcanian eruption or ash emission. This volcanic activity is still occurring. We here summarize the eruption history of Shinmoedake during the Edo period on the basis of historical records. The eruptions of Shinmoedake during the Edo period occurred in AD 1716-1717 (Kyoho eruption) and AD 1822 (the 4th year of Bunsei eruption). The Kyoho eruption, which was a large-scale (total amount of tephra: 2×1011 kg) eruption, is divided into the following seven stages. Stage 1 (Apr. 10, 1716 to May 7, 1716): small eruptions occurred over two months; Stage 2 (Sep. 26, 1716): falling ash first observed at the foot of Shinmoedake; Stage 3 (Nov. 9 to 10, 1716): the first large eruption was observed, with pumice falling over a wide area; Stage 4 (Dec. 4 to 6, 1716): small eruptions; Stage 5 (Feb. 9 to 20, 1717): the second pumice fall eruption, with an intermittent ash fall eruption thereafter; Stage 6 (Mar. 3, Mar. 8, Mar 13, Apr. 8, 1717): ash fall eruptions; Stage 7 (Sep. 9, 1717): the last ash fall eruption. These eruptions, which continued intermittently over 17 months, were characterized by multiple repetitions of a large eruption. Based on the results of a comparison between the Kyoho eruption and the 2011 eruption, the eruptions from March 30, 2010 to January 26, 2011, were similar to Stages 1 to 3 of the Kyoho eruption; the eruptions after January 26, 2011, were similar to Stages 5 to 6 of the Kyoho eruption. In addition, the relatively large eruption events of Stages 3 and 5 of the Kyoho eruption and the January 26-27, 2011, eruption began without any noticeable precursors. The eruption in the 4th year of Bunsei (AD 1822) was a small eruption that lasted less than a day. The recent eruption sequences, which were also similar to the Edo period eruptions, are divided into a small-scale eruption (the 1959 eruption) and a large-scale eruption (the 2011 eruption). The eruption duration time of the small-scale (total amount of tephra: < 1010 kg) eruption was less than a day. The eruption duration time of the large-scale (total amount of tephra: > 1010 kg) eruption could be a few months or years. Both eruption sequences began with a small eruption. A large-scale eruption can occur a few months after the start of the eruption sequence. This is an important turning point in the eruption sequence of Shinmoedake.
著者
高橋 正樹
出版者
特定非営利活動法人 日本火山学会
雑誌
火山 (ISSN:04534360)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.40, no.1, pp.33-42, 1995-03-10 (Released:2017-03-20)
参考文献数
22
被引用文献数
5

There is no positive correlation between the long-term eruption rate of large-scale felsic volcanism and its discharge volume of a single eruptive episode. This means that the storage of voluminous felsic magma at high-level in the crust is caused not by high magma production rate but by continuous accumulation of magma during a long repose time, if the long-term eruption rate reflects the averaged magma production rate. If the cruslal defomation is weak, the magma chamber could be stable in the crust; it is favorable for efficient accumulation of voluminous magma. In fact, the large-volume felsic volcanism occurs exclusively in the region of low crustal strain rate. The low crustal strain rate is considered to be essential for the formation of large-scale felsic volcanism. The large-volume felsic volcanic activity is present in the compressional tectonic stress field as well as in the extensional one; the difference in arrangement of principal stress axes is not related to the occurrence of voluminous felsic volcanism.