著者
岩佐 和典
出版者
日本感情心理学会
雑誌
エモーション・スタディーズ (ISSN:21897425)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.4, no.Si, pp.47-53, 2019-02-28 (Released:2019-03-11)
参考文献数
40

The behavioral immune system (BIS) regulates one’s cognition, emotion, behavior for avoiding diseases. History shows that disgust as the key component of the behavioral immune system has played a crucial role in the spread of extreme out-group exclusion. This article aimed to examine how the BIS influences negative attitude towards the specific group. A broad range of literature review suggested that the fundamental principles of the BIS, smoke-detector principle and functional flexibility principle, are essential for understanding this issue. Previous studies showed individual differences in disgust sensitivity and perceived vulnerability to disease affect the negative attitude towards the specific group based on the BIS. Presence of disease cues also facilitates the formation of such attitude. In addition, the literature review revealed information provides the disease context can easily alter an individual’s attitudes towards the specific group in a negative direction. Furthermore, based on these findings, the direction of future research is discussed.
著者
大平 英樹
出版者
日本感情心理学会
雑誌
エモーション・スタディーズ (ISSN:21897425)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.3, no.1, pp.2-12, 2017-10-01 (Released:2018-01-10)
参考文献数
28
被引用文献数
3

Lisa Feldman-Barrett, who has promoted a psychological constructivism theory of affect, recently proposed the Embodied Predictive Interoception Coding (EPIC) model of affect, on the basis of the perspective of predictive coding. The theoretical framework of predictive coding argues that the brain creates inner models which can provide predictions for perception and motor movement, and that perception and behaviors are emerged from Bayesian computations rooted on the predictions. The EPIC model expands this perspective into interoception, which is perception of inner body states, and tries to explain phenomena of affect as integrative experiences based on interoception. This article introduces concepts of the EPIC model and examines the model by referencing to empirical findings.
著者
川上 直秋
出版者
日本感情心理学会
雑誌
エモーション・スタディーズ (ISSN:21897425)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.1, no.1, pp.81-86, 2015-10-01 (Released:2017-04-24)
参考文献数
26

The mere exposure effect means that repeated, unreinforced exposure is sufficient to enhance one's liking toward a stimulus. Furthermore, a number of experiments have demonstrated that this effect can be obtained outside of conscious awareness. The present article reviews empirical findings pointing to the cognitive factors which enhance the effect, such as familiarity-novelty and consistency of action. This review suggests that the mere exposure effect is closely related to the social fluency associated with an exposed object. Finally, some prospects for emerging themes for the future of study on the mere exposure effect are discussed.
著者
籠谷 公司
出版者
日本感情心理学会
雑誌
エモーション・スタディーズ (ISSN:21897425)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.3, no.1, pp.30-37, 2017-10-01 (Released:2018-01-10)
参考文献数
44

This article reviews the recent development of war studies with a focus on the rational choice and the psychological approaches. Scholars in international relations have been studying the origins of war. A traditional theory, Realism, emphasized power as the determinant of international outcomes. However, it did not explain how the distribution of power induces the onset of war. Rationalists connected the missing link by highlighting crisis bargaining as a key process and described the outset of war as a negotiation failure. Wars occur because of the uncertainty problem, the issue indivisibility problem, and the commitment problem. Psychologists applied prospect theory to international conflict behavior and explained how the possible loss of territories drives states to take the risk and escalate crisis bargaining to the onset of war. The latter approach shows more difficulties in reaching a peaceful settlement. Moreover, scholars start using experiments to examine which is more important to explain crisis behavior. Some studies detect the importance of psychological factors in crisis bargaining. We will develop the understanding of conflict behavior by examining the relative importance of the rational choice and the psychological approaches.
著者
JIDAI
出版者
日本感情心理学会
雑誌
エモーション・スタディーズ (ISSN:21897425)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.4, no.1, pp.3-12, 2019-03-31 (Released:2019-05-18)

In “Art Mime,” as a theatrical performance, it is important to bodily experience emotions. When we see the relationship between body and emotions from the perspective of Art Mime, we understand that emotions, which are really personal, can exist as something separated from the person. Experiencing not egocentric but universal emotions gives us abundant emotions of mental energy, and helps us release ourselves and realize others.
著者
片平 健太郎
出版者
日本感情心理学会
雑誌
エモーション・スタディーズ (ISSN:21897425)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.3, no.1, pp.18-24, 2017-10-01 (Released:2018-01-10)
参考文献数
19

Computational models are becoming important tools in psychology. They offer a way to describe and investigate behaviors and physiology of living systems. However, it has yet been sufficiently discussed how they contribute to studies on emotion. In this paper, I discuss the role of the computational models in studies on emotion, introducing example studies. Emotions emerge as a construct that corresponds to variables or parameters of computational models during the processes of modeling behavioral or physiological data. Computational models also contribute to clarify the function of emotions in adaptive behaviors.
著者
遠藤 寛子
出版者
日本感情心理学会
雑誌
エモーション・スタディーズ (ISSN:21897425)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.1, no.1, pp.3-8, 2015-10-01 (Released:2017-04-24)
参考文献数
37
被引用文献数
1

In this article, results of studies on the process of maintaining anger are described, and experimental research examining the effectiveness of the structured writing method for reducing anger is reviewed. Our research has indicated that the key factor in the process of maintaining anger is “the sense of unintegration of thoughts.” Anger is prolonged by this sense, because it mediates avoidance behaviors and recurrent thinking. Our research has also indicated that to reduce anger, it is crucial to integrate and organize thoughts about anger-evoking events by eliciting “perspective taking,” and the “need for self-change.” Moreover, it has been demonstrated that “the structured writing method,” developed on the basis of research into the process of maintaining anger, was more effective for reducing anger than traditional expressive writing methods. Participants tend to change how they talk about an event with others and decrease the number of negative words after engaging in structured writing. These findings suggest that taking various perspectives, including other’s feeling, and possible self-improvements into consideration in the structured writing method facilitates reappraising the relationship between the self and others, which in turn inhibits intrapersonal, interpersonal, and intergenerational processes of maintaining anger.
著者
縄田 健悟
出版者
日本感情心理学会
雑誌
エモーション・スタディーズ (ISSN:21897425)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.1, no.1, pp.9-16, 2015-10-01 (Released:2017-04-24)
参考文献数
47
被引用文献数
1

Recent studies have demonstrated the importance of emotions in the escalation and reduction of intergroup conflicts. This paper reviews and discusses studies on emotions in intergroup conflict. This paper aims to understand recent findings and indicate future areas of focus regarding how emotions elicit discrimination, prejudice, and war. First, I introduce intergroup emotions theory, one of the most important theories on intergroup relations, and discuss the relation between intergroup emotions and intergroup aggression. Second, I examine collective emotions, which is the social or group phenomenon of sharing intergroup emotions across the entire group. Finally, I review studies on emotion regulation in intergroup conflicts and provide ways for resolving conflicts by intervening in real intergroup conflicts.
著者
今田 純雄
出版者
日本感情心理学会
雑誌
エモーション・スタディーズ (ISSN:21897425)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.4, no.Si, pp.39-46, 2019-02-28 (Released:2019-03-11)
参考文献数
47

As a basic emotion, disgust is thought to have evolved as a biological function to protect human bodies from potentially dangerous foods. Along with the growth, elicitors of disgust have expanded to multiple domains: animals, body products, sex, death corpses, bad hygiene, body envelope violations and moral offenses. Rozin and his colleagues proposed that functions of disgust is to protect the body, soul and social order. They also proposed the CAD triad hypothesis (Rozin, Lowery, Imada, & Haidt, 1999) which stipulates that people feel anger for violations of autonomy, contempt for violations of community, and disgust for violations of divinity. In this paper, a hypothetical assumption that disgust, as a moral emotion, may be an underlying motive to produce hostility, expulsions and hate crimes toward outgroups was discussed.
著者
清水 奈名子
出版者
日本感情心理学会
雑誌
エモーション・スタディーズ (ISSN:21897425)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.1, no.1, pp.50-55, 2015-10-01 (Released:2017-04-24)
参考文献数
26
被引用文献数
1

Despite countless international efforts for the peaceful resolution of armed conflicts, why are so many conflicts still observed today? To find an answer to this question, the author seeks to test the following hypothesis; it is difficult to find the root causes of armed conflicts because peace and conflict studies have not paid much attention to research on human emotions. By reviewing previous studies, this hypothesis has been proven true for the following reasons. Firstly, the so-called “rational model” in conflict studies (including the areas of International Law, International Relations and International Politics) does not reflect peoples' felt emotions such as hatred and fear. Secondly, the present international system is not designed to handle politically motivated, aggressive emotions properly. As a conclusion, this essay notes that a pro-social emotion such as empathy does not necessarily prevent conflicts. Interdisciplinary research efforts concerning armed conflicts are needed so that the “vulnerable human model” which indicates a person who can easily switch from victim to aggressor or vice versa will replace the “rational model” in the future research.
著者
遠藤 由美
出版者
日本感情心理学会
雑誌
エモーション・スタディーズ (ISSN:21897425)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.1, no.1, pp.42-49, 2015-10-01 (Released:2017-04-24)
参考文献数
65
被引用文献数
1

Empathy is a source of altruistic behavior by offering kind help for people in distress, and so regarded as a good thing, sometimes a precondition of morality. Empathetic friends and family doubtlessly make us feel warm. It does not follow, however, that empathy is prosocial. Society where we are living now is globalized one big society with a goal of living all together in harmony, including not only people in intimate sphere but dissimilar others from different groups. We would ask how empathy works and what effects of it are in this modern social context. It is discussed that intergroup empathy bias may enlarge conflicts between groups and empathy directed toward in-group victims potentially changes into angry and violence against enemy, even into the vicious cycle of violence.
著者
熊谷 智博
出版者
日本感情心理学会
雑誌
エモーション・スタディーズ (ISSN:21897425)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.4, no.Si, pp.33-38, 2019-02-28 (Released:2019-03-11)
参考文献数
20

In this paper, I examined hate speech as aggressive behavior from the perspective of social diagnosis and treatment. As the “symptom,” I examined whether hate speech is aggression, what kind of psychological and social damage it causes, and what characters it has as vicarious aggression. Next, as the “cause,” I examined psychological process of retaliation and its psychological reward. Finally, as the “treatment,” I argued the need for social regulation of emotion, establishment of the law for hate speech, and I examined the expected effect on weakening hate speech and restoration of social order from a social psychology perspective.
著者
三浦 麻子 小森 政嗣 松村 真宏 平石 界
出版者
日本感情心理学会
雑誌
エモーション・スタディーズ (ISSN:21897425)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.4, no.Si, pp.26-32, 2019-02-28 (Released:2019-03-11)
参考文献数
18

The present study explored social sharing of negative emotion on social media related to the 3.11 earthquake. A dataset was created from tweets that included one or more of the nuclear disaster at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (F1-NPP) related vocabulary, which were extracted from all Japanese tweets from March 11th, 2011 to April 16th, 2012. The results show anger was less susceptible to attenuation over time and this trend was more obvious in regions farther from the F1-NPP. Anxiety was more commonly shared in regions with a nuclear power plant, but a tendency to decrease over time was observed and this trend was more prominent the closer one was to the F1-NPP.
著者
遠藤 利彦
出版者
日本感情心理学会
雑誌
エモーション・スタディーズ (ISSN:21897425)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.2, no.1, pp.25-30, 2016-10-01 (Released:2017-05-31)
参考文献数
29
被引用文献数
2

Recently there have been accumulating evidences on the mechanism of some emotions supporting human sociality. In this essay, firstly, I point out that humankind’s ultimate strength is the higher and sophisticated sociality. And then, on the basis of recent trends of socio-emotional psychology and behavioral economics, I discuss the function of some emotions as estimator and/or coordinator of the balance of interests and welfares between self and others. Additionally, I mention the nature of shame, sensitizing us to others’ social “eyes” and orienting us towards moral conducts.
著者
河野 和明
出版者
日本感情心理学会
雑誌
エモーション・スタディーズ (ISSN:21897425)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.4, no.Si, pp.54-64, 2019-02-28 (Released:2019-03-11)
参考文献数
44

This study aimed to clarify target groups of dislike feeling of Japanese people and analyze elements of the feeling. Web survey was conducted among 1,000 Japanese adults, whose ages ranged from 20 to 69 years old. The results showed that approximately two thirds of the survey participants could report target group(s) of dislike feeling, and Japanese new religions, three neighboring countries and the Islamic State were mainly reported as target groups. Sex and age differences were small in categories of reported target groups, and male’s hostile commitments for the groups were relatively higher than female’s. Sensitivities for threat in environment related to negative attitude for the target groups and the relationships were higher in males than in females. These results were consistent with general results of previous studies.
著者
一言 英文
出版者
日本感情心理学会
雑誌
エモーション・スタディーズ (ISSN:21897425)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.1, no.1, pp.23-28, 2015-10-01 (Released:2017-04-24)
参考文献数
24
被引用文献数
1

I propose a cultural psychological explication to the problem of power abuse, such as school bullying. The cultural context of interdependence, which fosters sensitivity to rejection, potentiates lowered social identity with friends, encourages to be ordinary among others and cause relational concern can be a background to the indirect, obscured, and collective type of bullying in Japan. Although universal approach to the abuse of power is proven effective, understanding the nuanced, seemingly subtle shared meanings shared among the cultural members on well-being and power may also be used to understand the big picture of this long-lasting classroom problem.
著者
雨宮 怜
出版者
日本感情心理学会
雑誌
エモーション・スタディーズ (ISSN:21897425)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.4, no.1, pp.42-49, 2019-03-31 (Released:2019-05-18)
参考文献数
41

In Japanese society, intensifying competition in several professional arenas is expected to gradually continue, and it is said that a “super competitive society” will develop in the near future. Under such circumstances, the psychological, physical, and interpersonal burdens imposed on people will become more significant, and as a result, it is expected that health problems, performance inhibitions, and dilution of social relations will worsen. As a means of addressing this issue, Japanese society must adjust its solution from that of traditional Western methods such as the top-down approach to a new strategy. This strategy is a body-to-mind approach based on the bottom-up approach transmitted in Oriental culture.
著者
米山 正文
出版者
日本感情心理学会
雑誌
エモーション・スタディーズ (ISSN:21897425)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.1, no.1, pp.36-41, 2015-10-01 (Released:2017-04-24)
参考文献数
13

This paper aims to elucidate how antebellum American fiction addresses the modern ideology of race. It examines how African-American characters are represented in The Yemassee (Simms, 1835), Westward Ho! (Paulding, 1832), Swallow Barn (Kennedy, 1832), Uncle Tom’s Cabin (Stowe, 1852) and The Red Rover (Cooper, 1828). It contends that unlike the other novels, The Red Rover resists racial prejudices by focusing on the comradeship among sailors of different color.