- 中京体育学研究 = Research journal of physical education, Chukyo University (ISSN:02870088)
- vol.20, no.2, pp.1-11, 1980-03-01
The main purpose of this study was to clear the determinants of collective behavior in selected sport events in Japan. For this purpose, the present author refered to N. J. Smelser's the value-added theory with relation to collective behavior in sport events. That is to say, the determinants suggested by N. J. Smelser as those giving rise to collective behavior are : (1) structural conduciviness, (2) structural strain, (3) growth and spread of generalized belief and precipitating factors, (4) mobilization of participants for action, and (5) the operation of social control. As the result of investigated these factors in selected sport events for last 30 years, the following pertinent findings were shown. (1) structural conduciveness The collective behavior in sport events occures by the hostile feelings in directly, but the author points out that there are some structural conduciveness as a social conditions. For example, one good evidence is the discriminative feeling between the people of Okinawa under American rule and main land Japan. In 1968, many Okinawa's baseball fans showed this structural conduciveness at the stadium. (2) structural strain The second determinant for the appearance of an episode of collective behavior in sport events is some structural strains which comes out of natural conditions, the situations of game itself, and sport participant without player. (3) growth and spread of generalized belief and precipitating factors The third determinant is to wake up sport fan's generalized aggressive spirit and to give it a justifiable grounds. A sport fan as a member of society has various aggressive aspirations, and he waits to flow into a variety of forms of hostility such as griping, insult, discrimination, or in extreme cases violence. The precipitating factor may confirm or justify existing generalized belief, and throw a sport fan's aggressive spirit into the concreat fear and opposition. And, it comes out of : (a) player's mixed fight, bad feeling between player and fan, opposition between player and referee, lack of confidence between fan and police ; (b) fire, blackout, deficiency of game place ; and (c) reprisal against the failed game, exciting, filibustering play, lazy play, and so forth. (4) mobilization of participants for action The last stage of value-added process for collective behavior in sport events is mobilization of participant for action. First, leader-ship for mobilization is few in the beginning, but some cases showed it in the progress. Most leaders recognize as the result of intended behavior. Second, organization, is also few. This is because of fan is usually unorganized group. Therefore, most cases showed that sport fan in its entirely does not participated actively. Even it is one in generalized belief, they are divided into a small active nucleus and a large proportion of spectators. (5) operation of social control The determination of outbreak and scale of collective behavior in sport events, is governed by the operation of social control as a public agent. Whenever it hesitates the decision-making for stop it, collective behavior becomes growing it's energy. As above mentioned, the determinants of collective behavior as a hostile outburst in sport events has four, and the author pointed out that once they are established, sport fans are ready to be take into a hostile outburst.