著者
木村 哲二
出版者
社団法人日本獣医学会
雑誌
日本獸醫學雜誌 (ISSN:00215295)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.27, no.6, pp.1-4, 1965-12-25
著者
秋葉 和温
出版者
社団法人日本獣医学会
雑誌
日本獸醫學雜誌 (ISSN:00215295)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.22, no.5, pp.309-PLATE I, 1960-10-30

鶏の Leucocytozoon 病(L. caulleryi)は北海道と東北の一部の県を除いた各県に分布すると共に, 台湾, 印度支那, 泰, エジプドにも存在している. またその種類も5種類記載されている. しかし, その中間宿主は何れの種類においても未だ明らかにされていない. 私は今回, ワクモ (Dermanyssus gallinae), アカイエカ (Cnlex pipiens pallens) とニワトリヌカカ (Culicoides arakawae) の3種の吸血ダニならびに昆虫について媒介試験を試みた結果, ニワトリヌカカ体内に Zygote, Oocyst, Sporozoite が多数例に認めることができると共に, Sporozoite のみられたニワトリヌカカ乳剤を雛の静脈内接種により13羽の人工感染雛を得ることができた. また gametogony の出現は14日前後で末梢血液塗抹標本で検出しえた. これらの成績からニワトリヌカカが L. caulleryi の中間宿主であることが明らかになった.
著者
三浦 克洋 藤崎 優次郎 中島 靖之 村上 洋介 柏崎 守 後藤 信男
出版者
社団法人日本獣医学会
雑誌
日本獸醫學雜誌 (ISSN:00215295)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.43, no.3, pp.399-409, 1981-06-25

1977年3月から4月に, 系統を維持しているマウスコロニーに呼吸器病が流行し, その臨床観察, 分離ウイルスの性状, 肺の病理組織学的変化, 細菌学的および血清疫学的調査からHVJの単独感染によることが明らかになった. 流行時, 多数の成熟マウスが発病・死亡し, 系統間に死亡率の差異が認められた. 実験室保存血清の抗体調査結果から, 当コロニーでは少なくとも1973年までさかぼのぼる限りHVJの汚染は起きていなかった. いっぽう, 別棟の購入マウスおよび今回の流行が起きた同一棟内のラットコロニーにおいては, すでにHVJによる汚染が生じていた. 流行マウスコロニーでは, 感染と同時に抗体が出現し生残マウスのほとんどは高い抗体価を示した. 流行終息後の1代産仔においては若齢時には抗体が検出されたが成熟時には検出されなかった. 1代産仔およびその後約2年間に生産された6-8世代のマウスには発病も抗体出現も全く認められなかった. このことから, 当コロニーでは流行時の発病マウスの淘汰, 約2か月間の繁殖停止および流行後の生残マウスの免疫獲得により, ウイルスの存続を防止できたものと考えられる. 謝辞: 本研究の遂行にあたって, 家畜衛生試験場国安主税博士, 今村憲吉技官, 日本医科大学鈴木博博士ならびに国立予防衛生研究所中川雅郎, 鈴木映子両博士に御協力いただいたのでここに深謝いたします.
著者
尾村 嘉昭 福本 幸夫 大滝 一夫
出版者
社団法人日本獣医学会
雑誌
日本獸醫學雜誌 (ISSN:00215295)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.45, no.1, pp.23-30, 1983-02-25

35頭のニホンジカについて血液培養により染色体検査を試みたところ, 個体によって65, 66, 67, 68と染色体数に変異があった. この染色体の変異は, 常染色体中における大型のメタセントリック(M)染色体およびサブメタセントリック(SM)染色体の存否に起因していた. この二つの異形染色体の有無により, 6つの核型を観察することができた. このような染色体の多型現象は, 常染色体中の4個のアクロセントリック(A)染色体が動原本部で癒合して大型のM染色体をつくるか, SM染色体をつくるかにより, 生じたものと思われる. なお, いずれの場合も染色体の基本数は70で一定しており, いわゆるRobertson型転座によるものと思われる. すべての検査個体に共通して, 常染色体中に中型のM染色体1対が存在した. X染色体はA染色体中最大で, Y染色体は小型のSM染色体であり, 識別は容易であった.
著者
越智 勇一 勝部 泰次
出版者
社団法人日本獣医学会
雑誌
日本獸醫學雜誌 (ISSN:00215295)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.20, no.4, pp.171-177, 1958-08-30

The authors previously rerorted on the bacterial flora of the udders ofhealthy" and mastitis cows," as well as on the bacteriological classification of theisolated organisms."I. Comparison of the bacterial flora of the udders of healthy and mastitis cows.As for the normal flora of the udders, (3 herds, 53 cows, 201 quarters)Staphylococcus was the most predominant and Bacillus, Corynebacterium, Stre-ptococcus, Gafkya, Sarcina, Gram-negative bacilli and Fungi were usolated witha lessening frequency in the order listed. Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Bacillus,Gafkya, Corynebacterium and Gram-negative bacilli were isolated in the stateof either pure culture or predominant to the other organisms at the rate of 42,9, 6, 5, 4 and 1%, respectively. Two or more kinds of organisms were isolatedin an almost equal quantity in 29% and no viable organisms were isolated in2,96.As for the bacterial flora of mastitis cows, (100) Streptococcus was isolatedmost frequently and Bacillus, Gram-negative bacilli, Staphylococcus, (:oryne-bacterium, Sarcina, and Gafkya were isolated less frequently in the order listed.Streptococcus, Corynebacterium, Staphylococcus, and Gram-negative bacilli wereisolated in the state of either pure culture or predominant to the other organismsin 51, 11, 9 and 9%, respectively. Two or more kinds of organisms weremsolated in an almost equal amount in I7g and bacterial isolation was negativein 3%.IT. Relation between our classification of the organisms isolated frorn norrnaludders and bovine mastitis.I) StreptococcusLactococcus group was predominant in both the healthy or the diseasedudders next in frequency was Enterococcus group and the least frequent wasSlre ptococcus group.2) StaphylococcusAs for the normal flora of udders, Staphylococcus type II was observedrnost frequently (89%), Staphylococcus type I came next (9,961), Staphylococcustype III was least in frequency (1%).In the case of rrnastitis, Staphylococcus type I comprised 40% of the organisnxsisolated and Staphylcccccus type II, 60%. Out ofwas Staphylococcus type II and this moreover, was isolated with a considerableamount of Escherichiae.3 ) CorynebacteriumAll the organisms isolated from normal udders were Corynebacteriumpseudodiphthericum, while the organisms isolated from cases of of mastitis, 70%were identified as Corxnebacterium pxoxenes and 30% as Corxnebacterium pseudo-diphthericuwt.In the case of mastitis out of the 11 cases from which ()orynebaeterittmwas isolated in the state of either pure culture or predominant to otherorzanisms, 9 cases were Corxnebacterium pxozenes and 2 cases were Cortne-bacterium pseudodiphthericum, one being mixed with Streptococcus and the otherwith Escherichiae and Streptococcus.4) Gram-negative bacilliA few strains isolated from normal udders were identified as Enterobacter-iaceae, while many strains isolated from the cases of mastitis were identified asEschet"ichiae.In the case of mastitis, out of the 9 cases from which Gram-negative bacilliwere isolated in the state of either pure culture or predominant to the otherorganisms, 8 cases were Escherichiae and 1 case was Protetts, mixed withStreptococcus.Isolation of Gafkya and Sarcina was low in frequency and Bacillus wasrather high from both normal and mastitis udders. In the case of mastitis,however, these organisms were not isolated in the predominant state.On the basis of the above mentioned results, Streptococcns, especiallyLactococcus nrouv, StaPh;lococcus tvr>e I, Corxnebacterittm P?ozenes and Escheri-chiae are regarded as the most important causative agents of bovine mastitis.Since all the causative agents of bovine mastitis are the organisms found111 the normal flora, the authors consider that bovine mastitis is a disease causednot merely by the organisms themselves but requires some predisposing factorsplaced on the udders which allow active multiplication of these organisms andsuggest that it is a poly-bacterial non-specific disease which can be included inthe 0CHIS theory of autogenous infectious diseases. The authors have already reported a survey on the incidence of Iarval lung-flukes,Paragonimus ohirai, in Sesarma dehaani collected from the Xlaruyama River, in HyogoPrefecture.In the present study, immature P. ohirai obtained from the abdominal cavity ofwhite rats 15 to 24 days after their infection by metacercariae, were transplanted intothe peritoneal cavity of uninfected rats. It was the purpose of this work to producerats harboring a known number of these lung-flukes, as well as to gain a better under-standing of the biological natures of these implanted flukes and the course of the infec-tion in the experimental hosts.The experiment was made on a total of 15 adult white rats exposed, individually,to from l to 4 young adult worms : of these, five received 1 worm each, five received 2worms each, three received 3 worms each and two received 4 worms each. These ani-mats were killed between the 21st and 97th days after the infection, and the distributionof the adult worms and worm cysts in the host was examined macroscopically andmicroscopically.The results obtained are as follows(l) The number of young adult worms recovered from the lungs and pleural cavityof the hosts as adult worms, namely, the rate of infection by these implanted flukes,was 100% with the exception of rat 14 as shown in Table I.(2) In the rats individually exposed to only one young adult worm, all of theimplanted flukes remained free in the pleural cavity of the host without invading intothe lung tissue, throughout the entire period of the investigation. Therefore, in theseaninnals no clear evidence of elimination of the eggs in the feces, or their entry intothe cavity formation in the lungs, were observed. On the other hand, in the rats indi-vidually exposed to from 2 to 4 young adult worms, all of the implanted flukes enteredinto the lung tissue of the host, where they formed the typical worm cysts. These ratsalso began to pass the eggs in their feces between the 18th and 37th days after the in-fection by immature P. ohirai.(3) The implant once or twice, the peak egg count throuughout the entire period of the investigation, asshown in Fig. 2 to 4. The first peak egg count (2,850 to II,250EPG) occurred betweenthe 4th and 16th days, and the second one (3,816 to TO,TOO F,PG) between the 19th and31st days after the beginning of patency. As soon as the fecal egg production reacheda peak, it rapidly fell to a low level of between O and 183 eggs per gram of feces.(5) It is suggested, therefore, that the transitory decrease in the egg count to nega-tive or near negative may be connected with a removal of the dwelling place of theimplanted flukes in the lungs of their hosts.EXPLANATION or PLATESPlate I1=3. Showing the morphology of the young adult worms of P. ohirai used in the experiment.1. Young adtnlt worm from the alcdominal cavity of a rat 15 days after infection by meta-cercariae, mounted specimen. 0.225 by 0.118 rum.2. Young adult worm from the abdominal cavity of a rat 20 days after infection by meta-cercariae, mounted specimen. 0.338 by 0.170mm.3. Young adult worm from the abdominal cavity of a rat 24 days after infection by meta-cercariae, mounted specimen. 0.388 by 0.195 mm.4?13. Showing the distribution of the worm cysts in the lungs of rats which had received a youngadult worm of P. ohirai, respectixxely. (No cavity formation was observed in the lungs of any ofthese rats as shown in the photographs.)4. Cross section of the left lung of rat 1.5. Cross section of the right lung of rat 1.6. Cross section of the left lung of rat 3.7. Cross section of the right lung of rat 3.8. Cross section of the left lung of rat 6.9. Cross section of the right lung of rat 6.10. Cross section of the left lung of rat 7.11. Longitudinal section of the right lung of rat 7.12. Cross section of the left lung of rat 8.13. Cross section of the right lung of rat 8.14?23. Showing the distribution of the worm cysts in the lungs of rats which had received twoadult worms of P. ohirai, respectively.14. Cross section of the left lung of rat 5.15. Cross section of the right lun cyst, containing no worm. It forms a cavity due to softening the lung tissue.23. Cross section of the left and right lungs of rat 19. In the right lung a cut surface of ayounger worm cyst which contains two adult worms is seen. It forms a cavity due tosoftening of the lung tissue.Plate II24?31. Showing the distribution of the worm cysts in the lungs of rats which had received threeyoung adult worms of P. ohirai, respectively.24. Cross section of the left lung of rat 10. There are seen the cut surfaces of a younger wormcyst (A) from which a living adult worm (B) had been recovered, and an older one (C). Theformer forms a cavity due to softening of the lung tissue, while the latter, a cavity due to thedilation of the bronchtus.25. Another cross section of the left lung of rat 10. There are seen the cut surfaces of a youngerworm cyst (A) which contains two adult worms, and two older ones (B, C). The oneforms a cavity due to softening of the lung tissue, while the others, the cavities due to thedilations of the bronchi.26. Cross section of the right lung of rat 10. There are seen the two older worm cysts (A, B).Each of them forms a cavity due to the dilation of the bronchus.27. Cross sections of the left lung and the intermediate Robe of the right lttng of rat 15.28. Cross section of the right lung of rat 15. There are seen the cut surfaces of a younger wormcyst (A) which contains two adult worms, and an older one (B) which contains a deadadult worm. Each of them forms a cavity due to the dilation of the bronchus.29. Cross sections of the left lung and the intermediate Robe of the right lung of rat 18.30. Cross section of the right lung of rat 18. There is seen a cut surface of a younger wormcyst (A) from which two living adult worms (B) had been recovered. It forrms a cavitydue to softening the lung tissue.31.
著者
野牛 一弘 梁川 良 松浦 善治 福士 秀人 喜田 宏 野田 寛
出版者
社団法人日本獣医学会
雑誌
日本獸醫學雜誌 (ISSN:00215295)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.44, no.4, pp.691-693, 1982-08-25

北海道で1978-1980年に1278頭のミンクについて各種A型インフルエンザウイルスに対する抗体調査を行なった. 1980年の11月および12月に, それぞれ175例中35例(18%)および110例中44例 (40%) に A/Hokkaido/45/80 (H3N2) に対する抗体が検出され, 抗体陽性ミンク中48例 (64%) が 1:512 以上のHI抗体価を示した. 野外のミンクにおいてインフルエンザの流行が血清学的に明らかにされたのは今回が初めてと考えられる.
著者
金内 長司 光岡 知足 山本 脩太郎 瀬賀 利夫
出版者
社団法人日本獣医学会
雑誌
日本獸醫學雜誌 (ISSN:00215295)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.28, no.5, pp.229-236, 1966-10-25

The authors previously devised an inexpensive germ-free chicken cage that couldbe used for experimetnts of 3 or 4 weeks duratiotx. In this study, cage operations werecarried out from January tltrough December, 1965.The following results were obtained.1. Out of 9 experiments to rear germ-free chicks in 8 cages each, eight were suc..cessful from a bacteriological point of view. The other experiment could not be corn..pleted>bacause of an accident in electrical heating. In one experiment, contaminationwas noticed in all 8 cages within 2 days after hatching.2. For bacteriological exatnination>the specimens were collected from more thanfifty eggs with 18 or 20-day-old embryos at the following sites: inside the egg membrane,on the surface of the embrvo>e?u volk>antd intestinal contents. Bacteria were recoveredfrom only a few sites of these eggs Oll culture media with very sntaJ] colony counts.3. One hundred and fortv-four sterilized CggS with 20-dav-old embrvos introducedin the cages gave an average hatchabilitv of 75%. The uerrrt-free t"ate of chicks wasabout 90% at 2 davs after Itatchinw (Just before feeclin:) and about 7Ocs at 25 cta.s or a.e.4. Conventional chicks reared on a non-sterilized cJiet irt cages showed a highergrowth rate than the 8CFITl-fFCC ChlCkS. Ill .1VCt1&C bOd>z weiwht, the male and fernaleconventional chicks were 40 amxd 30 Q, restcectivelv>heavier than the cour-tterparts or thegerm-free chicks at 25 days of age.5. There was no noticeable difference in the growtln rate at 25 days of age betweengerm-free chicks reared on a commercial diet arnd those on diet L=I37 reportect byRE,YNIERS at al.
著者
中村 孝 中張 淳平 町田 登 桐生 啓治 町田 昌昭
出版者
社団法人日本獣医学会
雑誌
日本獸醫學雜誌 (ISSN:00215295)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.46, no.3, pp.405-408, 1984-06-01

日本カモシカの剖検例5例の肝臓に槍形吸虫 (Dicrocoelium dendriticum) の寄生をみとめた。吸虫は胆管内に寄生し, 粘膜における上皮細胞の過形成および globule leucocyte の出現, 粘膜下織におけるリンパ球・好酸球の浸潤, 胆管壁における肉芽組織増殖および線維性肥厚がみられた。
著者
加世田 雄時朗 野村 晋一
出版者
社団法人日本獣医学会
雑誌
日本獸醫學雜誌 (ISSN:00215295)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.35, no.4, pp.335-342, 1973-08-25
被引用文献数
1 1

From a mec.hanical point of view, tlte swimming movement of fish was studied claieflyby electromyograph. Investigation was also carried out on the function of the segmentalarrangement of the body muscle which is found in fish and other lowest vertebrate.A carp was restrained to a fish holder in the water-tank. Then tactile stimulationwas given to the whole body of the fish, from head to tail. Reflex movements were evokedby stimulation.(l) The stimulation to a selected point on the operculurm produced a body bendingreflex toward the contralateral side of the stimulation.(2) Tl?e stimulation to the base of the dorsal fin evoked a body bending reflex to-ward the same side of the stimulation.These reflex movements were analyzed by cinematography and electromyography.The muscles observed by electromyography were M. carinatus dorsalis, M. latero-dorsalis,M. latero-ventralis, and M. carinatus ventralis. Results from the electromyographicalrecords are summarized as follows.(I) When the operculum was stimulated, the largest burst was observed at Id 6of M. Iatero-dorsalis and lv 6 of M. latero-ventralis.(2) When the base of the dorsal fin was stimulated, the largest burst was observedat ld 4 of M. latero-dorsalis.The results of analysis of those reflex movements by cinematograplay and electromyo-graphy are summarized as follows.(l) The reflex movement which was evoked by the stimulation to the operculumwas the initial motion of backward swimming nTovement.(2) The reflex movement evoked by the stimulation to the base of the dorsal finwas the initial motion of forward swimming movement.(3) The independence of the activities and function of each myomere of the bodymuscle was an essential factor of the swimming movement of fish.
著者
鈴木 孝司 大久保 真人
出版者
社団法人日本獣医学会
雑誌
日本獸醫學雜誌 (ISSN:00215295)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.39, no.1, pp.59-67, 1977-02-25
被引用文献数
4

Each lung of the domestic animals, exclusive of the horse, is divided intothe cranial, middle and caudal lobes with an addition of the accessory Robe in the rightlung. This lobation is in agreement with that described by Ellenberger and Baum (1932),but not with that mentioned by Seiferle (1956).The horse has the uniform left and right lungs divided into two lobes, as mentionedby Sisson and Grossman (1954). Regardless of the external difference, the left and rightlungs of the horse have those structures which correspond to the lobar bronchi and lobarblood vessels present in the lungs of the other domestic animals. There are, however, thefollowing differences: (l) The cranial and middle lobar bronchi in both lungs of the horseconstitute a common trunk, as is formed in the left lung of the other domestic animals,and (2) the caudal pulmonary vein in the right lung which is an unbranched vein in theother domestic animals is composed of cranial and caudal branches that enter the leftatrium.From a comparative anatomical point of view there are no fundamental differences inlobar bronchi and blood vessels between the unlobated lung of the horse and the lobatedlung of the other domestic animals.