著者
上野 正道
出版者
東京大学大学院教育学研究科
雑誌
東京大学大学院教育学研究科紀要 (ISSN:13421050)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.42, pp.283-291, 2002

This paper clarifies John Dewey's reconstruction of the aesthetic experience in light of recent studies that interpret his theory of art as being related to social and cultural issues. By focusing on Art as Experience (1934) and his other works in the 1920s and the 1930s, the following three points are indicated. First, he developed his concept of art through his inquiry into the common experience shared by mankind. By criticizing art that is spiritualized out of any connection with the world of daily life, he insists that the experience of art is public and communicating since it has the potential to create community. Second, Dewey was critical of the nationalism and the expansion of the market mentality in the 19th century that had deprived art of the actual sense of community and helped to separate people's experiences. In contrast, his theory of art reflected the public participation of the mass culture in the 20th century. Third, it is of great help to see Dewey's friendship with Albert C. Barnes. Barnes established the school that idealized Dewey's concepts of democracy and art education, though they faced many difficulties of putting their ideals into practice. It follows from these that Dewey attempted to construct a publicness founded on the aesthetic experience of the community.
著者
吉田 右子
出版者
東京大学
雑誌
東京大学大学院教育学研究科紀要 (ISSN:13421050)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.36, pp.495-503, 1996-12-20

During 1920s-1930s, it was the era of expansion in adult education in the United States. Public libraries have also developed various educational services. In 1938, A. S. Johnson wrote The Public Library : A People's University, a study of adult education in libraries. This paper examines Johnson's book with the aim of studying library adult education in 1930s. In his book, Johnson discussed how public libraries were functioning in the adult education movement, how librarians felt about developing work of this kind, and what the future position of the library might be. Johnson made the point that public library had the active educational function in the community and recommended that public library should develop into the permanent center for adult education in the community. As the result of this study, it was found that Johnson's work contained some philosophies that support library adult service provided by public libraries in our time.
著者
栗原 浪絵
出版者
東京大学
雑誌
東京大学大学院教育学研究科紀要 (ISSN:13421050)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.47, pp.327-336, 2008-03-10

Akiko Yosano, a famous tanka poet in Japan, wrote a lot of tanka poems and essays concerning with her giving birth and raising children in the Meiji period. She also made many children's stories because she thought they were not enough during the era. This paper describes how she developed her works during the Meiji period when she gave birth to seven children and brought them up. The following three points are discussed in this paper. First, she came to make the tanka poems on her life with children after she had the twins in 1907. Second, in her essays and her children's stories, she expressed her views freely without any hesitations. She wrote the essays and children's stories with intelligence and a realistic point of view. Third, in her book of tanka poems called "Seigaiha", she expressed how hard it was to give birth to a baby without any shame. She also made a lot of tanka poems of her child care showing her failure or loneliness honestly. Akiko's works in the Meiji period certainly reveals how faithfully she wrestled with having and taking care of her children.
著者
末木 新
出版者
東京大学大学院教育学研究科
雑誌
東京大学大学院教育学研究科紀要 (ISSN:13421050)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.49, pp.277-284, 2010-03-10

The purpose of this study was to review CMC (Computer-Mediated Communication) theories in order to unify the ambivalent functions of suicide message boards, namely the suicide-preventive function (e.g., self-help group) and suicide-inducing function (e.g., Internet suicide pact). The study also aimed to clarify the research task that was not treated in the existing theories. In this study, as a major CMC theory, Cues Filtered Out, Hyper Personal Communication, and the Social Identity model of Deindividuation Effect were introduced and considered in terms of their relation to suicidal communication via the Internet. In addition, ease of reusing postings and emoticons were considered as a feature of CMC that cannot be treated by the above theories. By using the above process to construct a web-based communication system with suicide-preventive functions, it was shown that future research is necessary to study the interaction between the user's personality and the technical features of CMC.
著者
小入羽 秀敬
出版者
東京大学
雑誌
東京大学大学院教育学研究科紀要 (ISSN:13421050)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.45, pp.309-316, 2006-03-10

This paper focuses on the reason why the private high school subsidies differ between prefectural governments. To answer this question, this paper mainly refers to Ito's policy diffusion model. According to Ito and other foregoing studies on government, factors of policy decision can be segmented into "internal factor" and "external factor". In addition to these two factors, this paper discusses the "institutional factor". The discussion of the private school subsidy system adds new information to the hypothesis made by the internal and external factor. The output of the analysis shows that 1) internal and external factor effects the subsidy, and 2) also the institutional factor effects the subsidy.
著者
安藤 理 井上 公人 中西 啓喜 有海 拓巳 苅谷 剛彦
出版者
東京大学大学院教育学研究科
雑誌
東京大学大学院教育学研究科紀要 (ISSN:13421050)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.48, pp.43-67, 2008

The social difference is controversial in modern society. Regarding this issue, high school education study has developed its work on high school students, as the subject of the research, of going on to various courses after graduation or those born in lowgrade family. It is said that those in relatively weak tier are likely to have more disadvantage, which depicts the clearer aspect of differentiated society./ On this matter, we pay an attention to students graduating in privileged high schools or those going on to four-year university after such style of high schools. We additionally divide the region of high schools that the mentioned students graduated into "rural part" and "urban part" in order to make an argument based upon differences among the concerned areas. The aim of this study is to analyze the ability and consciousness of those thought to steadily pave the way the route in order to gain the socially stable life and to argue differentiated society from varied aspects. Mainly four subjects as followed are to be analyzed./ Japan has various regional differences. In such a society,/ 1. Who considers them elite ?/ 2. Who will be in favor of redistribution ? We are, upon the two written subjects, to clarify the influence of the regional movement. Meanwhile, there has been issued the differences from the birth levels. We make an analysis with an attention to Honda's proposal (2005) "post-modern ability". Specifically analysis is to be assigned as below./ 3. What kind of ability developed in high school can make "post-modern ability" be in full swing at university ?/ 4. What kind of person can make "post-modern ability" be in full swing at university ? This study aims to analyze the ability and consciousness of those, without sexual difference, on social difference and to clarify their real aspects so that we can see the future of the differentiated society.
著者
森田 慎一郎
出版者
東京大学大学院教育学研究科
雑誌
東京大学大学院教育学研究科紀要 (ISSN:13421050)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.45, pp.179-188, 2006-03-10

Today, it is essential to help the students who intend to become professionals, because the ratio of those students is supposed to increase in the future. The purpose of this paper is to provide useful knowledge for promoting those students'career development. First, previous psychological studies regarding the vocational decision in the students intending to become professionals were reviewed. As a result, it became clear that (a) the level of vocational decision in those students is higher than that in the other students, that (b) the level of vocational decision in those students has relation to 'job orientation'in them, and that (c) the scale to assess orientation toward a profession (Profession Orientation Scale) has not been developed. Second, according to (c) , previous sociological studies regarding the definition of a profession were reviewed in order to construct the concept of 'profession'that could become a framework of Profession Orientation Scale. As a result, it was found that the concept of 'profession'was constructed by five features ; altruism, autonomy, human relationships in professional community, qualification, and skill upgrading training.
著者
下山 晴彦 屋嘉比 光子 西村 詩織 平林 恵美 林 潤一郎
出版者
東京大学大学院教育学研究科
雑誌
東京大学大学院教育学研究科紀要 (ISSN:13421050)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.48, pp.163-184, 2009-03-10

The purpose of this study was to develop and to evaluate psychological education programmes in school setting. They were made in terms of cognitive behavioural group treatment in children and adolescents. At first, 4 sessions programme for elementary school children was developed and carried out and the result was evaluated. Next, 11 sessions programme which was revised in the light of the evaluation was implemented at a reformatory and the result suggested that it could promote the control of anger. Finally, 6 sessions programme on changing negative mood was developed and was examined in 199 junior high school students. The result showed the psychological education program significantly promoted the skill of changing negative mood.
著者
青山 鉄兵
出版者
東京大学
雑誌
東京大学大学院教育学研究科紀要 (ISSN:13421050)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.45, pp.279-288, 2006-03-10

The meanings of NPO, which is a kind of institutionalized functional group, have often been discussed in various contexts in recent years. However, the meanings for human development of the members have not been discussed. In this paper, I review the argument about functional groups after 1970s and suggest what we should attach importance to when we think about the relationship between functional group (in particular NPO) and human development.
著者
中澤 渉
出版者
東京大学
雑誌
東京大学大学院教育学研究科紀要 (ISSN:13421050)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.44, pp.149-157, 2005-03-10

The purpose of this paper is to explain why some polices are implemented regardless of short of support, and why some policies are not implemented although lots of people hope to do so. To make this clear, I examine the problem of commercially produced tests. The reason I take this topic is that I can easily compare three similar cases because the former two cases were not resolved but the latter case was resolved. Therefore we can understand the differences between the successful and the unsuccessful clearly as we controlled the case. Excessive competition for the entrance examination had been one of the major topics at educational field in Japan for a long time. To pass the exam, students go to cram school, so-called juku, and take commercially produced tests several times at their own school eagerly. In the opinion of the bureaucrats at the Ministry of Education, these situations promoted excessive competition. Then they tried to stop using them at schools in 1976 and 1983, however, they failed. Finally they succeeded to remove these tests at school in 1993. What is the difference? At the last case, minister of education and executive played an important role. They used mass communication cleverly. They appealed to public opinion about the unfairness of entrance exam by commercially produced tests. The image of using commercially produced tests became worse and the actors around the schools and educational fields wanted to avoid criticized for using them. Although the Ministry of Education didn't have legal force to remove them at school, they were removed. There leaves one important problem. The government decided to take public opinion the highest priority. Needless to say, it is very important. However this public opinion leaves ambiguous and idealistic, and nobody knows how many people believe and agree with it. Furthermore, the Ministry of Education didn't follow up this problem after removal of commercially produced tests and it ignored the teachers'opinion. After 1990s, the Ministry of Education tends to give public image or public opinion priority over teachers'opinion. The teachers who work at school are thrown into confusion. We have to find another way to implement the policy considering both the public and teachers.
著者
中澤 渉
出版者
東京大学
雑誌
東京大学大学院教育学研究科紀要 (ISSN:13421050)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.40, pp.47-58, 2001-03-15

The high school admission by school recommendation is extended into all prefectures in Japan except Osaka and Gumma now. But there is no research on the impact of the recommendation system on junior high school students. This paper focuses on the impact by making a survey of their action at Saitama Prefecture. The recommendation system aims at evaluating the students by "Kosei (individuality)". Because Japanese selection system has been criticized by making too much of scholarship and making light of other good points. "Kosei" means "outstanding" or "prominent" in this context. According to this survey, the more excellent academic records he (she) has, the more outstanding he (she) is considered. The recommendation system is advantageous to the students who have excellent academic records after all. And the recommendation system increases the points of evaluation. A student who wants to go to the college-minded high school has a lot of hurdles to survive the competition. On the other hand, a student who doesn't want to go to the college-minded high school can avoid serious competition. Thus, the gap in scholarship between the two kinds of students will extend in the long run.
著者
新藤 浩伸
出版者
東京大学
雑誌
東京大学大学院教育学研究科紀要 (ISSN:13421050)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.43, pp.343-353, 2004-03-10

In Japan, volunteers now support increasing number of music festival. This paper will call them "community music festival". The aim is to clarify the meaning of a participation of volunteers and their learning, showing a practice of Kiso Music Festival. First, some main discussions are shown which are related to community music festival. Since 1970s, cultural activities based on community have been practiced. These are studied in the field of community education. In addition, since 1990s, a perspective of economics and management has been introduced in art activities. Secondly, after introducing the history and classification of music festival, the participation of volunteers and its meanings are shown. As one characteristic practice, Kiso Music festival is reported. The festival is supported by Cooperation of administration of social education and volunteers.
著者
バットオロシホ ナフチャー
出版者
東京大学大学院教育学研究科
雑誌
東京大学大学院教育学研究科紀要 (ISSN:13421050)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.45, pp.159-170, 2006-03-10

The aim of this study is to modify the Rasmussen's Identity Scale to develop the standardized Mongol Version of Identity Scale, which could cover the present situation of Mongol society. Mongol Version of Rasmussen's Identity Scale, Anxiety Trait scale, another Identity Scale, Self-esteem Scale were distributed to 400 Mongol university students. The reliability was tested in terms of the Cronbach's coefficient reliability. The validity was examined by the test of correlation coefficient with the other 3 scales. As a result, the Mongol Version of Rasmussen's Identity Scale was verified as a standardized scale to assess the identity status of Mongol university students.
著者
施 佩君
出版者
東京大学大学院教育学研究科
雑誌
東京大学大学院教育学研究科紀要 (ISSN:13421050)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.44, pp.171-179, 2005-03-10

One of the foci of higher education reform in China is related to how students'learning experiences are channeled and guided. Chinese universities have been criticised for their excessive specialization. Attempts are made now to expose students to a wider range of knowledge. In this paper I choose Peking University, Tsinghua University and Fudan University for the case study. These three universities are very progressive in China, and we will see the tendency of higher education through these three universities. From the results of the study, a conclusion can be made that the reforms have brought out a variety of changes in higher education and these have enriched students'experience .