著者
荻野 亮吾
出版者
東京大学大学院教育学研究科
雑誌
東京大学大学院教育学研究科紀要 (ISSN:13421050)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.49, pp.127-137, 2009

The purpose of this paper is to clarify the construction process of " the publicness " in the residents ' movement in the 1970's. Previously, " the publicness" of social activity has been mainly discussed from the viewpoint of " counter-publicness." However, there still seems to remain to be examined from the perspective of mutual relationships among citizens. It will be necessary to focus on processes of interaction with "others" who have different concept of values. // I investigate four case examples of residents' movement on the journal of Gekkan-Syakai-Kyoiku in the 1970's. The examples are made up of three types. One is to call on the administration to construct pubic institutions. Other is to call on the government and the company not to build facilities or not to overexploit. To this, I take two examples. The other is to only identify the problems. For analyzing, I take particular note of three points, how the movement began and ended, what kind of repertories and framings residents strategically used, and how mutual transformation could emerge. // As a result, I can show three common features of the movements during this period. First, " the publicness " lied between "universality" and "locality." Second, "the publicness" was built upon residents' uninterrupted discussion about needs or interests, and its basis was quite temporary. Third, I highlight micro-politics between citizens, which has been previously hidden.
著者
金 志英
出版者
東京大学大学院教育学研究科
雑誌
東京大学大学院教育学研究科紀要 (ISSN:13421050)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.51, pp.387-396, 2011

This study is about the High School Equalization Policy in the Republic of Korea. The bulk of research until recently focused mainly on the problem after the policy was implemented. Accordingly, research on the original policy is scarce. So, the aim of this study is to understand more fully the original policy, particularly, the influence on the competition between schools by the policy. As a research method, analysis transition of school ranking before and after the policy was used to examine.
著者
奈須 恵子
出版者
東京大学大学院教育学研究科
雑誌
東京大学大学院教育学研究科紀要 (ISSN:13421050)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.35, pp.1-9, 1995-12-20

The theme of this paper is making the plan of "History of Daitoa" clear. The plan was an attempt to remodel "Oriental History" in historical sciences and education. The author of this paper clarifid the project which produced the plan of "History of Daitoa", analaysed this text, and pointed out the back-ground of this plan. The ministry of Education started making the plan in 1942,corresponding to Japanese invasion to Asian countries. It needed to construct a hisyory of Asia based on new concepts, as Japan had been coverd larger area and more various cultures. But the planing of making new history of Asia had already started as early as in 1930s among scolars of Oriental history and research of Asian countries. They aimed to renew contents and methods about Asian studies, going with Japanese invasion. So they introduced the viewpoints of geography, ethnology, philology, and more to the study of "Oriental History". The text of "History of Daitoa" is also regarded as the 'accademical fruits'of WW II period in Japan.
著者
三宅 なほみ 齊藤 萌木 飯窪 真也 利根川 太郎
出版者
東京大学大学院教育学研究科
雑誌
東京大学大学院教育学研究科紀要 (ISSN:13421050)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.51, pp.441-458, 2012-03-10 (Released:2012-04-05)

The Consortium for Renovating Education for the Future, founded at the University of Tokyo in 2009, has been striving to help teachers develop a networked community for creating authentically learner-centered classrooms. The classes are designed on a cognitive framework where the constructively interactive components during classroom student discussions provide individual students with a chance to express and reflect upon their own ideas as well as others, for integrating and constructively deepening them. This community currently involves more than 100 teachers coming from sixty-nine schools, ranging from elementary to high-schools. The paper reports its success for helping teachers to create sub-communities around their locations as well as their subject areas, so that they could collaboratively share the prime plans for similar classes and reflect upon their outcomes. Discussions on future plans conclude the paper.
著者
山中 秀幸
出版者
東京大学大学院教育学研究科
雑誌
東京大学大学院教育学研究科紀要 (ISSN:13421050)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.40, pp.251-260, 2001-03-15

The purpose of this paper is to clear the peculiarity of education through the definition of "Thatcherism". For the purpose, first, especially in the economic policy, this study attempts to define the normative concept of Thatcherism in comparison with the former policy. Second, it considers whether aforementioned concept can be applied to the educational policy of the Thatcher Government. By this consideration, it is cleared that the role wanted the government is ambiguous comparatively in educational policy.
著者
三浦 太郎 根本 彰
出版者
東京大学大学院教育学研究科
雑誌
東京大学大学院教育学研究科紀要 (ISSN:13421050)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.41, pp.475-489, 2001

Before the WWII, there were few educational institutions of library science in Japan. During the Allied occupation period, some library training courses were held, ex. at Doshisha and Kyoto Universities, but they were on the lines of the pre-war framework, stressing on how to administrate a library. In 1948,Robert B. Downs suggested to establish a library institution at the University of Tokyo, in vain. Then in 1950,GHQ/SCAP began a program of establishing Japan Library School (JLS) with support of ALA, in order to train professional Japanese librarians. This represents a shift of occupational library policy from reformation as a whole to specification to library training. Robert L. Gitler, the director of JLS, chose Keio University, favoring its westernized philosophy. With financial support of Rockefeller Foundation, JLS went into orbit. There held Americanized library curriculum, laying stress on understanding of library's role in society as well as technical methods. It joined Japanese and American librarianship.
著者
東城 朋
出版者
東京大学大学院教育学研究科
雑誌
東京大学大学院教育学研究科紀要 (ISSN:13421050)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.50, pp.127-138, 2011-03-10

In this case study, an interview with an experienced junior high school classroom teacher is analyzed, in terms of her reflection (the memories and the insight) of everyday teacher-student interactions. From the qualitative analysis of her stories about anticipation for one male student's manner of interaction, it is suggested that this experienced teacher recognizes and deals with the problematic situation students might psychologically experience, based on two concepts : (1) incoherent emergence of developmental processes, (2) different perceptions of psychological distance as representation of desire for autonomy. The results of this case analysis also imply that these two concepts interactively construct a process in which teachers develop tacit skills including knowledge of student guidance and teacher-student interactions, as promoting students'motivation for self-regulation and healthy psychological development.
著者
浅井 幸子
出版者
東京大学
雑誌
東京大学大学院教育学研究科紀要 (ISSN:13421050)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.38, pp.307-316, 1998-03-26

The aim of this paper is to describe the thought process of Sukeo Sakurai (1887-1951) at a private experimental primary school "Ashiya-Jido-no-Mura" (1925-1938), forcusing on his pursuit of "Self". In Taisho liberal education the construction of "Self" in children was regarded as essential. But Sakurai attempted to reform education through pursuing for "Self" in himself as a teacher. Sakurai was a teacher at the elementary school attached to Nara women's higher normal school from 1917 to 1924,which was the main research center for developing "Learning Method". He criticized the proponents of the method on two grounds. First, after he lost his identity as a teacher at the school, he tried to reestablish it based on unmediated and emotional relationships with children. Second, he denied the existence of the generalizable truth in his pursuit for his inner truth. Sakurai established "Ashiya (Mikage)-Jido-no-Mura" in 1925 as a place where there was no oppression on "Self" of each child and teacher. Teachers came to the school to depict their own "Selves". Sakurai dreamed a utopia where people lived with perfect freedom, consolation, and happiness as in a playing park. But Sakurai's dream gradually became narcistic. With the shortage of funds, what "Ashiya-Jido-no-Mura" meant changed from a place as an utopia of "Self" to the stage where he performed a tragic hero. After closing the school in 1938,his pursuit for "Self" turned out to have stemmed from his narcistic love to "Mother", which supported and symbolized the nation "Japan".
著者
河原 哲雄
出版者
東京大学大学院教育学研究科
雑誌
東京大学大学院教育学研究科紀要 (ISSN:13421050)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.36, pp.227-238, 1996-12-20

10 years have passed since the 'Bible'of the prallel distributed processing was published (Rumelhart, McClelland & PDF Research Group, 1986). Throughout the decade, architectures and procedures of connectionist (a.k.a neural nets or parallel distributed processing) models have been growing more and more subtle and complex. The aim of this article is to review some recent connectionist models for three typical research domains of higher cognitive processes (language, analogical inference, and category learning) in detail, and to speculate on their impacts on the coming decade of cognitive psychology and connectionism.
著者
河原 哲雄
出版者
東京大学大学院教育学研究科
雑誌
東京大学大学院教育学研究科紀要 (ISSN:13421050)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.36, pp.227-238, 1996-12-20 (Released:2011-01-13)

10 years have passed since the 'Bible'of the prallel distributed processing was published (Rumelhart, McClelland & PDF Research Group, 1986). Throughout the decade, architectures and procedures of connectionist (a.k.a neural nets or parallel distributed processing) models have been growing more and more subtle and complex. The aim of this article is to review some recent connectionist models for three typical research domains of higher cognitive processes (language, analogical inference, and category learning) in detail, and to speculate on their impacts on the coming decade of cognitive psychology and connectionism.
著者
斉藤 利彦 市山 雅美
出版者
東京大学大学院教育学研究科
雑誌
東京大学大学院教育学研究科紀要 (ISSN:13421050)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.48, pp.435-461, 2008

This study collects the most basic data concerning the alumni magazine of the old system junior high school based on the nationwide survey, and does the analysis by the questionnaire. That is, how was the alumni magazine published, and those starting year, preservation, and the situation and the issue frequency etc. of owning are clarified in the old system junior high school in various places. In addition, the composition of a concrete content of magazine in each alumni magazine is analyzed, and the name, the content of each column and each item, and those changes are examined. In addition, there is a problem of the relation etc. between the organization, that is, the system of the edit of the alumni magazine and the student and the participation of the principal and the teacher. The realities of the student autonomy at the period of prewar days, and they are a deeply related, and extremely interesting problems. Furthermore, let's clarify the transition in original of the situation of the contribution of the student and publishing and the passing of an eras. And, let's add consideration to the function for the alumni magazine to have and the role out which it carried based on the above-mentioned analysis at the end.
著者
馬 志遠
出版者
東京大学
雑誌
東京大学大学院教育学研究科紀要 (ISSN:13421050)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.42, pp.235-243, 2003-03-10

A big gap on a new college graduate's starting salary exists in China. In what factor is such a gap specified? This paper deduces the factors which specify a new college graduate's starting salary based on investigation in Shanghai, and analyzed the degree of the influence. The result of analysis show that three biggest factors; the position in a company, the fields of study in university, and the status of a college graduate's university have influence in a starting salary, and it shows the result which can explain 40% of starting salary distribution. The unique characteristics of Chinese Labor Market effects the job opportunity and the starting salary of graduates.
著者
川崎 成一
出版者
東京大学大学院教育学研究科
雑誌
東京大学大学院教育学研究科紀要 (ISSN:13421050)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.48, pp.353-364, 2009-03-10

While tuition and other education-related costs continue to rise, the federal loan limits have remained relatively stagnant. Private student loans have been the fastest growing segment of financial aid. The growth of private student loans depends on the capital markets, which include asset-backed securities and bond issues. But the subprime mortgage credit crisis occurred in August 2007 and continued disruptions in the capital markets resulted in higher funding costs for lenders who participate in the term securitization market. As a result of the confluence of legislative and capital market challenges, many players have exited or scaled back activities in the education finance industry. To make matters worse, student loans, especially private loan losses will increase in reaction to weaker economic conditions. If this happens, borrowers with high-risk characteristics such as low FICO scores don’t have a chance to borrow private loans. There is a possibility of depriving of the equality of opportunity
著者
小林 剛志
出版者
東京大学大学院教育学研究科
雑誌
東京大学大学院教育学研究科紀要 (ISSN:13421050)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.49, pp.327-332, 2010-03-10

The purpose of this paper is to review the trend of studies in the interaction for music making. In this paper, the inquiry is focused on the linguistic praxis related to musical praxis. The keyword is the languages of craft on the music making process.
著者
上野 正道
出版者
東京大学大学院教育学研究科
雑誌
東京大学大学院教育学研究科紀要 (ISSN:13421050)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.42, pp.283-291, 2002

This paper clarifies John Dewey's reconstruction of the aesthetic experience in light of recent studies that interpret his theory of art as being related to social and cultural issues. By focusing on Art as Experience (1934) and his other works in the 1920s and the 1930s, the following three points are indicated. First, he developed his concept of art through his inquiry into the common experience shared by mankind. By criticizing art that is spiritualized out of any connection with the world of daily life, he insists that the experience of art is public and communicating since it has the potential to create community. Second, Dewey was critical of the nationalism and the expansion of the market mentality in the 19th century that had deprived art of the actual sense of community and helped to separate people's experiences. In contrast, his theory of art reflected the public participation of the mass culture in the 20th century. Third, it is of great help to see Dewey's friendship with Albert C. Barnes. Barnes established the school that idealized Dewey's concepts of democracy and art education, though they faced many difficulties of putting their ideals into practice. It follows from these that Dewey attempted to construct a publicness founded on the aesthetic experience of the community.
著者
吉田 右子
出版者
東京大学
雑誌
東京大学大学院教育学研究科紀要 (ISSN:13421050)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.36, pp.495-503, 1996-12-20

During 1920s-1930s, it was the era of expansion in adult education in the United States. Public libraries have also developed various educational services. In 1938, A. S. Johnson wrote The Public Library : A People's University, a study of adult education in libraries. This paper examines Johnson's book with the aim of studying library adult education in 1930s. In his book, Johnson discussed how public libraries were functioning in the adult education movement, how librarians felt about developing work of this kind, and what the future position of the library might be. Johnson made the point that public library had the active educational function in the community and recommended that public library should develop into the permanent center for adult education in the community. As the result of this study, it was found that Johnson's work contained some philosophies that support library adult service provided by public libraries in our time.
著者
栗原 浪絵
出版者
東京大学
雑誌
東京大学大学院教育学研究科紀要 (ISSN:13421050)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.47, pp.327-336, 2008-03-10

Akiko Yosano, a famous tanka poet in Japan, wrote a lot of tanka poems and essays concerning with her giving birth and raising children in the Meiji period. She also made many children's stories because she thought they were not enough during the era. This paper describes how she developed her works during the Meiji period when she gave birth to seven children and brought them up. The following three points are discussed in this paper. First, she came to make the tanka poems on her life with children after she had the twins in 1907. Second, in her essays and her children's stories, she expressed her views freely without any hesitations. She wrote the essays and children's stories with intelligence and a realistic point of view. Third, in her book of tanka poems called "Seigaiha", she expressed how hard it was to give birth to a baby without any shame. She also made a lot of tanka poems of her child care showing her failure or loneliness honestly. Akiko's works in the Meiji period certainly reveals how faithfully she wrestled with having and taking care of her children.
著者
末木 新
出版者
東京大学大学院教育学研究科
雑誌
東京大学大学院教育学研究科紀要 (ISSN:13421050)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.49, pp.277-284, 2010-03-10

The purpose of this study was to review CMC (Computer-Mediated Communication) theories in order to unify the ambivalent functions of suicide message boards, namely the suicide-preventive function (e.g., self-help group) and suicide-inducing function (e.g., Internet suicide pact). The study also aimed to clarify the research task that was not treated in the existing theories. In this study, as a major CMC theory, Cues Filtered Out, Hyper Personal Communication, and the Social Identity model of Deindividuation Effect were introduced and considered in terms of their relation to suicidal communication via the Internet. In addition, ease of reusing postings and emoticons were considered as a feature of CMC that cannot be treated by the above theories. By using the above process to construct a web-based communication system with suicide-preventive functions, it was shown that future research is necessary to study the interaction between the user's personality and the technical features of CMC.
著者
小入羽 秀敬
出版者
東京大学
雑誌
東京大学大学院教育学研究科紀要 (ISSN:13421050)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.45, pp.309-316, 2006-03-10

This paper focuses on the reason why the private high school subsidies differ between prefectural governments. To answer this question, this paper mainly refers to Ito's policy diffusion model. According to Ito and other foregoing studies on government, factors of policy decision can be segmented into "internal factor" and "external factor". In addition to these two factors, this paper discusses the "institutional factor". The discussion of the private school subsidy system adds new information to the hypothesis made by the internal and external factor. The output of the analysis shows that 1) internal and external factor effects the subsidy, and 2) also the institutional factor effects the subsidy.
著者
安藤 理 井上 公人 中西 啓喜 有海 拓巳 苅谷 剛彦
出版者
東京大学大学院教育学研究科
雑誌
東京大学大学院教育学研究科紀要 (ISSN:13421050)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.48, pp.43-67, 2008

The social difference is controversial in modern society. Regarding this issue, high school education study has developed its work on high school students, as the subject of the research, of going on to various courses after graduation or those born in lowgrade family. It is said that those in relatively weak tier are likely to have more disadvantage, which depicts the clearer aspect of differentiated society./ On this matter, we pay an attention to students graduating in privileged high schools or those going on to four-year university after such style of high schools. We additionally divide the region of high schools that the mentioned students graduated into "rural part" and "urban part" in order to make an argument based upon differences among the concerned areas. The aim of this study is to analyze the ability and consciousness of those thought to steadily pave the way the route in order to gain the socially stable life and to argue differentiated society from varied aspects. Mainly four subjects as followed are to be analyzed./ Japan has various regional differences. In such a society,/ 1. Who considers them elite ?/ 2. Who will be in favor of redistribution ? We are, upon the two written subjects, to clarify the influence of the regional movement. Meanwhile, there has been issued the differences from the birth levels. We make an analysis with an attention to Honda's proposal (2005) "post-modern ability". Specifically analysis is to be assigned as below./ 3. What kind of ability developed in high school can make "post-modern ability" be in full swing at university ?/ 4. What kind of person can make "post-modern ability" be in full swing at university ? This study aims to analyze the ability and consciousness of those, without sexual difference, on social difference and to clarify their real aspects so that we can see the future of the differentiated society.