著者
苅谷 剛彦
出版者
日本教育社会学会
雑誌
教育社会学研究 (ISSN:03873145)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.66, pp.213-229, 2000-05-15

In the field of the sociological study of educational attainment, inequality due to socioeconomic status has long been a major theme. Many theories have been proposed to explain such inequalities : heredity, cultural deprivation, linguistic socialization, anti-school culture, and cultural capital. Most of these theories, which emerged from the West, emphasize differences in ability or preschool-family socialization depending on SES (socioeconomic status). Based on empirical analyses of the study hours of Japanese high school students, this study attempts to challenge these Western theoretical traditions by introducing a theory of inequality of effort. This study uses two survey data sets of 11th graders in 11 Japanese high schools : one was collected in 1979,and the other in 1997,using questionnaires with the same questions. Using these two data sets, the after-school study hours of students are compared between the two periods, and the influences of socioeconomic status on study hours are also examined. Cross tabulation analysis, comparing means of study hours, and regression analyses are conducted. The results of these analyses show that study hours decreased over the 18 years, that the degree of decrease differed among different SES groups, and that the effect of SES has increased over the 18 years, after controlling other variables. Based on these findings, we argue that inequality of effort contributes to the inequality of educational attainment, that the effect of SES is dependent on educational situations, such as the reduction in the pressure of "exam hell" which has been caused by a decline of young people's population and education reform, and that even in Western societies, inequality of effort may be involved in inequalities of educational attainment. We contend that the ideology of meritocracy, particularly the Japanese version of it with its strong emphasis on effort, successfully conceals a reality of unequal educational attainment by assuming an equal distribution of efforts.
著者
苅谷 剛彦 安藤 理 有海 拓巳 井上 公人 高橋 渉 平木 耕平 漆山 綾香 中西 啓喜 日下田 岳史
出版者
東京大学
雑誌
東京大学大学院教育学研究科紀要 (ISSN:13421050)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.47, pp.51-86, 2008-03-10

For academic high school students in local areas, it is necessary to make geographical transition from their home town to cities to go to ""good"" universities, while others may decide to remain their home countries to go to local colleges. What factors differentiate students into those two routes to have higher education? For what sake do some students decide to leave for large cities, and others to stay in their home town? This study pays attention to geographical mobility of students in top rank academic high schools in Japan. We administered a survey of 3,767 senior students in 12 high schools, all of which admit academically top students in their areas in 2006 and 2007. By analyzing the survey data, we will explore the following research questions: 1. What factors, including structural and socio-psychological, influences students'decision of mobility both at college entrance and future job entry? 2. What reasons lead them to pursue ""elite"" universities? Which goals either for self -realization or contribution to the society give rationale to apply for those universities? Are there any different mechanisms of this determination between high schools in large cities and rural areas? 3. What factors influence the formation of students'consciousness to contribute to the society? Do school experiences raise such consciousness? What school activities and cultures affect it? The data analyses shows that academic high schools in local communities have power to influence students'mobility and creating consciousness for devoting for the society.
著者
苅谷 剛彦 濱名 陽子
出版者
関西国際大学
雑誌
基盤研究(C)
巻号頁・発行日
2011 (Released:2011-08-05)

この研究は、1970年代末から1980年代初頭にかけて、政府関係の審議会等の公式文書や政策文書において、日本が西欧諸国へのキャッチアップが完了したという認識を持つに至った経緯、さらにはその認識を持つことで、その後の教育政策やその基盤となる社会認識・教育問題の社会的構築にどのような影響がおよんだのかを明らかにした。研究の結果、ジャパン・アズ・ナンバーワンなどの海外の日本認識が提供した知識の影響と、キャッチアップ型近代化の限界と問題点が日本の教育政策を打ち立てる上でのトラウマとしてつきまとっていたことが示された。中央集権制や詰め込み受験教育の弊害などの「開発国家型」の教育としての問題である。
著者
苅谷 剛彦
出版者
文芸春秋
雑誌
文芸春秋
巻号頁・発行日
vol.81, no.6, pp.359-365, 2003-05
著者
苅谷 剛彦 安藤 理 有海 拓巳 井上 公人 高橋 渉 平木 耕平 漆山 綾香 中西 啓喜 日下田 岳史
出版者
東京大学大学院教育学研究科
雑誌
東京大学大学院教育学研究科紀要 (ISSN:13421050)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.47, pp.51-86, 2008-03-10

For academic high school students in local areas, it is necessary to make geographical transition from their home town to cities to go to "good" universities, while others may decide to remain their home countries to go to local colleges. What factors differentiate students into those two routes to have higher education? For what sake do some students decide to leave for large cities, and others to stay in their home town? This study pays attention to geographical mobility of students in top rank academic high schools in Japan. We administered a survey of 3,767 senior students in 12 high schools, all of which admit academically top students in their areas in 2006 and 2007. By analyzing the survey data, we will explore the following research questions: 1. What factors, including structural and socio-psychological, influences students'decision of mobility both at college entrance and future job entry? 2. What reasons lead them to pursue "elite" universities? Which goals either for self -realization or contribution to the society give rationale to apply for those universities? Are there any different mechanisms of this determination between high schools in large cities and rural areas? 3. What factors influence the formation of students'consciousness to contribute to the society? Do school experiences raise such consciousness? What school activities and cultures affect it? The data analyses shows that academic high schools in local communities have power to influence students'mobility and creating consciousness for devoting for the society.
著者
苅谷 剛彦
出版者
名古屋大学大学院教育発達科学研究科附属中等教育研究センター
雑誌
中等教育研究センター紀要 (ISSN:18810411)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.3, no.1, pp.55-66, 2003-03-31

国際教育フォーラム(2002:名古屋), 中等教育改革の国際比較 : 中学・高校の学力とカリキュラムを考える
著者
苅谷 剛彦
出版者
日本教育社会学会
雑誌
教育社会学研究 (ISSN:03873145)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.66, pp.213-230, 2000-05-10 (Released:2011-03-18)
参考文献数
24
被引用文献数
5 1

In the field of the sociological study of educational attainment, inequality due to socioeconomic status has long been a major theme. Many theories have been proposed to explain such inequalities: heredity, cultural deprivation, linguistic socialization, anti-school culture, and cultural capital. Most of these theories, which emerged from the West, emphasize differences in ability or preschool-family socialization depending on SES (socioeconomic status). Based on empirical analyses of the study hours of Japanese high school students, this study attempts to challenge these Western theoretical traditions by introducing a theory of inequality of effort.This study uses two survey data sets of 11th graders in 11 Japanese high schools: one was collected in 1979, and the other in 1997, using questionnaires with the same questions. Using these two data sets, the after-school study hours of students are compared between the two periods, and the influences of socioeconomic status on study hours are also examined. Cross tabulation analysis, comparing means of study hours, and regression analyses are conducted. The results of these analyses show that study hours decreased over the 18 years, that the degree of decrease differed among different SES groups, and that the effect of SES has increased over the 18 years, after controlling other variables.Based on these findings, we argue that inequality of effort contributes to the inequality of educational attainment, that the effect of SES is dependent on educational situations, such as the reduction in the pressure of “exam hell” which has been caused by a decline of young people's population and education reform, and that even in Western societies, inequality of effort may be involved in inequalities of educational attainment. We contend that the ideology of meritocracy, particularly the Japanese version of it with its strong emphasis on effort, successfully conceals a reality of unequal educational attainment by assuming an equal distribution of efforts.
著者
耳塚 寛明 苅谷 剛彦 樋田 大二郎
出版者
東京大学教育学部
雑誌
東京大学教育学部紀要 (ISSN:04957849)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.21, pp.29-52, 1982-03-10

The aim of this study is to find the relations of school organizational structure and non-organizational treatment to students career formation. We studied the relation of "Student Subculture and School Organization in Japanese High school" in 1979, which was reported in this bulletin in 1981. In that study, we showed the importance of school organization and teachers' perspecctives as intervening variables. In this study, we focused on student career formation as an output variable. And we researched how student career formation is influenced by organizational and non-organizational features of the individual school. We tried three case studies. Each case contains two schools which have the same background. By this method, we could clarify school organizational and non-organizational effect on student career formation with any other variables controlled. The data we used are sub-samples of the former study in 1979. The number of the survey objects include 6 high schools, 6 staffs a school, 750 students and 68 teachers.
著者
苅谷 剛彦 Kariya Takehoko 東京大学大学院 Graduate School University of Tokyo
雑誌
教育社会学研究 = The journal of educational sociology (ISSN:03873145)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.36, pp.63-73, 1981-09-12

The problems of "school as organization" have been studied mainly from the viewpoint of school administration and education administration, in the field of educational research in Japan. But such studies have taken interest in the organization of school staff to rationalize school administration. Therefore they have not treated the more elemental problem - How do schools organize the behaviour and learning activities of their pupils ? This article aims to explore its elemental mechanism of school organization, forcusing on Japanese high schools. In the social context which contain the school organization objectively, the school staff members organize the educational activities subjectively. How do they organize the school ? It is the problem for me to explore the mechanism. At the first, I review the study of Ronald Kings "School Organization and Pupil Involvement". Then I point out the important point of his study. It is that he treated organizing schools as teachers' subjective "action". And I point out the limit of his study. It is that his analysis was based on the static bureaucratic model. To get over the weakness, I look into the decision-making process about organizing educational activities. For this purpose, I review the study of March, J.G. &amp Simon, H.A.s' Organization". They pointed out that the decision-making is based on staffs "definition of situation". And based on the study of Becker, H.S. et al., I point out that "group perspective" orientate "definition of situation". So I can say that teachers' group perspectives control the decision-making process about organizing educational activities. After reviewing such studies, I propose the hypothetical model which can explain the mechanism of Japanese high school organization in the schools' hierarchical structure dynamically.
著者
安藤 理 井上 公人 中西 啓喜 有海 拓巳 苅谷 剛彦
出版者
東京大学大学院教育学研究科
雑誌
東京大学大学院教育学研究科紀要 (ISSN:13421050)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.48, pp.43-67, 2009-03-10

The social difference is controversial in modern society. Regarding this issue, high school education study has developed its work on high school students, as the subject of the research, of going on to various courses after graduation or those born in lowgrade family. It is said that those in relatively weak tier are likely to have more disadvantage, which depicts the clearer aspect of differentiated society./ On this matter, we pay an attention to students graduating in privileged high schools or those going on to four-year university after such style of high schools. We additionally divide the region of high schools that the mentioned students graduated into “rural part” and “urban part” in order to make an argument based upon differences among the concerned areas. The aim of this study is to analyze the ability and consciousness of those thought to steadily pave the way the route in order to gain the socially stable life and to argue differentiated society from varied aspects. Mainly four subjects as followed are to be analyzed./ Japan has various regional differences. In such a society,/ 1. Who considers them elite ?/ 2. Who will be in favor of redistribution ? We are, upon the two written subjects, to clarify the influence of the regional movement. Meanwhile, there has been issued the differences from the birth levels. We make an analysis with an attention to Honda's proposal (2005) “post-modern ability”. Specifically analysis is to be assigned as below./ 3. What kind of ability developed in high school can make “post-modern ability” be in full swing at university ?/ 4. What kind of person can make “post-modern ability” be in full swing at university ? This study aims to analyze the ability and consciousness of those, without sexual difference, on social difference and to clarify their real aspects so that we can see the future of the differentiated society.
著者
石田 浩 佐藤 博樹 苅谷 剛彦 本田 由紀 玄田 有史 永井 暁子 白波瀬 佐和子 佐藤 香 三輪 哲
巻号頁・発行日
2006 (Released:2006-04-01)

本研究は、若年者を対象としたパネル(追跡)調査を2007年から毎年実施した。同一の個人を何年にもわたり追跡して調査することにより、(1)学校から職場への移行、(2)初期のキャリア形成と転職、(3)離家と異性との交際・結婚、(4)意識・態度、価値観といった多様な側面から若年者のライフコースを総合的に捉え、その変化を跡付ける分析を行った。