著者
苅谷 剛彦
出版者
日本教育社会学会
雑誌
教育社会学研究 (ISSN:03873145)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.66, pp.213-229, 2000-05-15

In the field of the sociological study of educational attainment, inequality due to socioeconomic status has long been a major theme. Many theories have been proposed to explain such inequalities : heredity, cultural deprivation, linguistic socialization, anti-school culture, and cultural capital. Most of these theories, which emerged from the West, emphasize differences in ability or preschool-family socialization depending on SES (socioeconomic status). Based on empirical analyses of the study hours of Japanese high school students, this study attempts to challenge these Western theoretical traditions by introducing a theory of inequality of effort. This study uses two survey data sets of 11th graders in 11 Japanese high schools : one was collected in 1979,and the other in 1997,using questionnaires with the same questions. Using these two data sets, the after-school study hours of students are compared between the two periods, and the influences of socioeconomic status on study hours are also examined. Cross tabulation analysis, comparing means of study hours, and regression analyses are conducted. The results of these analyses show that study hours decreased over the 18 years, that the degree of decrease differed among different SES groups, and that the effect of SES has increased over the 18 years, after controlling other variables. Based on these findings, we argue that inequality of effort contributes to the inequality of educational attainment, that the effect of SES is dependent on educational situations, such as the reduction in the pressure of "exam hell" which has been caused by a decline of young people's population and education reform, and that even in Western societies, inequality of effort may be involved in inequalities of educational attainment. We contend that the ideology of meritocracy, particularly the Japanese version of it with its strong emphasis on effort, successfully conceals a reality of unequal educational attainment by assuming an equal distribution of efforts.
著者
苅谷 剛彦 安藤 理 有海 拓巳 井上 公人 高橋 渉 平木 耕平 漆山 綾香 中西 啓喜 日下田 岳史
出版者
東京大学
雑誌
東京大学大学院教育学研究科紀要 (ISSN:13421050)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.47, pp.51-86, 2008-03-10

For academic high school students in local areas, it is necessary to make geographical transition from their home town to cities to go to ""good"" universities, while others may decide to remain their home countries to go to local colleges. What factors differentiate students into those two routes to have higher education? For what sake do some students decide to leave for large cities, and others to stay in their home town? This study pays attention to geographical mobility of students in top rank academic high schools in Japan. We administered a survey of 3,767 senior students in 12 high schools, all of which admit academically top students in their areas in 2006 and 2007. By analyzing the survey data, we will explore the following research questions: 1. What factors, including structural and socio-psychological, influences students'decision of mobility both at college entrance and future job entry? 2. What reasons lead them to pursue ""elite"" universities? Which goals either for self -realization or contribution to the society give rationale to apply for those universities? Are there any different mechanisms of this determination between high schools in large cities and rural areas? 3. What factors influence the formation of students'consciousness to contribute to the society? Do school experiences raise such consciousness? What school activities and cultures affect it? The data analyses shows that academic high schools in local communities have power to influence students'mobility and creating consciousness for devoting for the society.
著者
苅谷 剛彦
出版者
文芸春秋
雑誌
文芸春秋
巻号頁・発行日
vol.81, no.6, pp.359-365, 2003-05
著者
苅谷 剛彦 濱名 陽子
巻号頁・発行日
2011 (Released:2011-08-05)

この研究は、1970年代末から1980年代初頭にかけて、政府関係の審議会等の公式文書や政策文書において、日本が西欧諸国へのキャッチアップが完了したという認識を持つに至った経緯、さらにはその認識を持つことで、その後の教育政策やその基盤となる社会認識・教育問題の社会的構築にどのような影響がおよんだのかを明らかにした。研究の結果、ジャパン・アズ・ナンバーワンなどの海外の日本認識が提供した知識の影響と、キャッチアップ型近代化の限界と問題点が日本の教育政策を打ち立てる上でのトラウマとしてつきまとっていたことが示された。中央集権制や詰め込み受験教育の弊害などの「開発国家型」の教育としての問題である。
著者
苅谷 剛彦 安藤 理 有海 拓巳 井上 公人 高橋 渉 平木 耕平 漆山 綾香 中西 啓喜 日下田 岳史
出版者
東京大学大学院教育学研究科
雑誌
東京大学大学院教育学研究科紀要 (ISSN:13421050)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.47, pp.51-86, 2008-03-10

For academic high school students in local areas, it is necessary to make geographical transition from their home town to cities to go to "good" universities, while others may decide to remain their home countries to go to local colleges. What factors differentiate students into those two routes to have higher education? For what sake do some students decide to leave for large cities, and others to stay in their home town? This study pays attention to geographical mobility of students in top rank academic high schools in Japan. We administered a survey of 3,767 senior students in 12 high schools, all of which admit academically top students in their areas in 2006 and 2007. By analyzing the survey data, we will explore the following research questions: 1. What factors, including structural and socio-psychological, influences students'decision of mobility both at college entrance and future job entry? 2. What reasons lead them to pursue "elite" universities? Which goals either for self -realization or contribution to the society give rationale to apply for those universities? Are there any different mechanisms of this determination between high schools in large cities and rural areas? 3. What factors influence the formation of students'consciousness to contribute to the society? Do school experiences raise such consciousness? What school activities and cultures affect it? The data analyses shows that academic high schools in local communities have power to influence students'mobility and creating consciousness for devoting for the society.
著者
耳塚 寛明 苅谷 剛彦 樋田 大二郎
出版者
東京大学教育学部
雑誌
東京大学教育学部紀要 (ISSN:04957849)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.21, pp.29-52, 1982-03-10

The aim of this study is to find the relations of school organizational structure and non-organizational treatment to students career formation. We studied the relation of "Student Subculture and School Organization in Japanese High school" in 1979, which was reported in this bulletin in 1981. In that study, we showed the importance of school organization and teachers' perspecctives as intervening variables. In this study, we focused on student career formation as an output variable. And we researched how student career formation is influenced by organizational and non-organizational features of the individual school. We tried three case studies. Each case contains two schools which have the same background. By this method, we could clarify school organizational and non-organizational effect on student career formation with any other variables controlled. The data we used are sub-samples of the former study in 1979. The number of the survey objects include 6 high schools, 6 staffs a school, 750 students and 68 teachers.
著者
苅谷 剛彦 Kariya Takehoko 東京大学大学院 Graduate School University of Tokyo
雑誌
教育社会学研究 = The journal of educational sociology (ISSN:03873145)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.36, pp.63-73, 1981-09-12

The problems of "school as organization" have been studied mainly from the viewpoint of school administration and education administration, in the field of educational research in Japan. But such studies have taken interest in the organization of school staff to rationalize school administration. Therefore they have not treated the more elemental problem - How do schools organize the behaviour and learning activities of their pupils ? This article aims to explore its elemental mechanism of school organization, forcusing on Japanese high schools. In the social context which contain the school organization objectively, the school staff members organize the educational activities subjectively. How do they organize the school ? It is the problem for me to explore the mechanism. At the first, I review the study of Ronald Kings "School Organization and Pupil Involvement". Then I point out the important point of his study. It is that he treated organizing schools as teachers' subjective "action". And I point out the limit of his study. It is that his analysis was based on the static bureaucratic model. To get over the weakness, I look into the decision-making process about organizing educational activities. For this purpose, I review the study of March, J.G. &amp Simon, H.A.s' Organization". They pointed out that the decision-making is based on staffs "definition of situation". And based on the study of Becker, H.S. et al., I point out that "group perspective" orientate "definition of situation". So I can say that teachers' group perspectives control the decision-making process about organizing educational activities. After reviewing such studies, I propose the hypothetical model which can explain the mechanism of Japanese high school organization in the schools' hierarchical structure dynamically.
著者
安藤 理 井上 公人 中西 啓喜 有海 拓巳 苅谷 剛彦
出版者
東京大学大学院教育学研究科
雑誌
東京大学大学院教育学研究科紀要 (ISSN:13421050)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.48, pp.43-67, 2009-03-10

The social difference is controversial in modern society. Regarding this issue, high school education study has developed its work on high school students, as the subject of the research, of going on to various courses after graduation or those born in lowgrade family. It is said that those in relatively weak tier are likely to have more disadvantage, which depicts the clearer aspect of differentiated society./ On this matter, we pay an attention to students graduating in privileged high schools or those going on to four-year university after such style of high schools. We additionally divide the region of high schools that the mentioned students graduated into “rural part” and “urban part” in order to make an argument based upon differences among the concerned areas. The aim of this study is to analyze the ability and consciousness of those thought to steadily pave the way the route in order to gain the socially stable life and to argue differentiated society from varied aspects. Mainly four subjects as followed are to be analyzed./ Japan has various regional differences. In such a society,/ 1. Who considers them elite ?/ 2. Who will be in favor of redistribution ? We are, upon the two written subjects, to clarify the influence of the regional movement. Meanwhile, there has been issued the differences from the birth levels. We make an analysis with an attention to Honda's proposal (2005) “post-modern ability”. Specifically analysis is to be assigned as below./ 3. What kind of ability developed in high school can make “post-modern ability” be in full swing at university ?/ 4. What kind of person can make “post-modern ability” be in full swing at university ? This study aims to analyze the ability and consciousness of those, without sexual difference, on social difference and to clarify their real aspects so that we can see the future of the differentiated society.
著者
石田 浩 佐藤 博樹 苅谷 剛彦 本田 由紀 玄田 有史 永井 暁子 白波瀬 佐和子 佐藤 香 三輪 哲
巻号頁・発行日
2006 (Released:2006-04-01)

本研究は、若年者を対象としたパネル(追跡)調査を2007年から毎年実施した。同一の個人を何年にもわたり追跡して調査することにより、(1)学校から職場への移行、(2)初期のキャリア形成と転職、(3)離家と異性との交際・結婚、(4)意識・態度、価値観といった多様な側面から若年者のライフコースを総合的に捉え、その変化を跡付ける分析を行った。
著者
樋田 大二郎 岩木 秀夫 耳塚 寛明 苅谷 剛彦 金子 真理子 大多和 直樹
出版者
聖心女子大学
雑誌
基盤研究(C)
巻号頁・発行日
2003 (Released:2003-04-01)

われわれが1979年以来行ってきたデータの再分析、および日本、シンガポールの再調査を行っている。シンガポールは、非常に学歴が重視される国であり、研究者の間ではメリトクラシー(能力と努力の結果が支配する)の国であると考えられている。こうした背景には、シンガポールの国際社会やアジアにおける軍事的、経済的位置づけやさらには多民族の融合というこの国独自の事情がある。しかし、それだけでなく、人々を学習に駆り立て、学習の結果を人材の社会的配分の基準にすることを正当化するような考え方や仕組みが存在する。一昨年度以来のわれわれの調査では、シンガポールは、教育政策においてアファーマティブ・アクション(マイノリティへの優遇:大学入学枠の確保、点数の加算など)や救済重視的な社会的敗者対策はとらずに、競争参加への機会均等をすべての国民に対して保証する/競争の結果に基づいて地位配分を行う/競争の結果に基づいて地位配分が行われるプロセスと基準を明確化し納得させる/競争の内容(学習の内容と方法)を明示化し納得させる/競争の内容(学習の内容と方法)を「学問中心」ではなく、生徒の興味、企業からの要請や国際社会からの要請に応じたものにしている/競争の内容(学習の内容と方法)が卒業後の生活と結びついていることを生徒に認知させ、納得させる/競争の結果に基づいて手厚いエリート教育と手厚い大衆教育を行う/敗者復活の機会を用意する、などの教育政策を採っている。しかし、こうしたシステムのあり方に加えて、授業面で、私たちの知見では、シンガポールは、授業内容が卒業後の進路とレリバンスが高く、それを可能にするために、コース設置、教員採用、カリキュラム、教科書などが、現場裁量に任せられる部分が大きく、ガンバが進路先とコミニュケーションを親密にとっている。
著者
安藤 理 井上 公人 中西 啓喜 有海 拓巳 苅谷 剛彦
出版者
東京大学大学院教育学研究科
雑誌
東京大学大学院教育学研究科紀要 (ISSN:13421050)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.48, pp.43-67, 2008

The social difference is controversial in modern society. Regarding this issue, high school education study has developed its work on high school students, as the subject of the research, of going on to various courses after graduation or those born in lowgrade family. It is said that those in relatively weak tier are likely to have more disadvantage, which depicts the clearer aspect of differentiated society./ On this matter, we pay an attention to students graduating in privileged high schools or those going on to four-year university after such style of high schools. We additionally divide the region of high schools that the mentioned students graduated into "rural part" and "urban part" in order to make an argument based upon differences among the concerned areas. The aim of this study is to analyze the ability and consciousness of those thought to steadily pave the way the route in order to gain the socially stable life and to argue differentiated society from varied aspects. Mainly four subjects as followed are to be analyzed./ Japan has various regional differences. In such a society,/ 1. Who considers them elite ?/ 2. Who will be in favor of redistribution ? We are, upon the two written subjects, to clarify the influence of the regional movement. Meanwhile, there has been issued the differences from the birth levels. We make an analysis with an attention to Honda's proposal (2005) "post-modern ability". Specifically analysis is to be assigned as below./ 3. What kind of ability developed in high school can make "post-modern ability" be in full swing at university ?/ 4. What kind of person can make "post-modern ability" be in full swing at university ? This study aims to analyze the ability and consciousness of those, without sexual difference, on social difference and to clarify their real aspects so that we can see the future of the differentiated society.
著者
廣田 照幸 田原 宏人 筒井 美紀 本田 由紀 小玉 重夫 苅谷 剛彦 大内 裕和 本田 由紀 小玉 重夫 苅谷 剛彦 大内 裕和 清水 睦美 千田 有紀
巻号頁・発行日
2006 (Released:2006-04-01)

1990年代から現在に至る約20年の教育社会学の研究成果と教育現実の変動との関係の見直しの必要性が明らかになった。政治のレベルでの55年体制、経済のレベルでの日本的雇用システムを、暗黙の前提とした研究枠組みを脱する必要が浮かび上がった。特に、教育政策の立案-実施の過程に働く政治的な諸力が、1990年代初頭から大きく変容したこと、また、卒業生の受け皿である労働市場や雇用システムが、1990年代半ば以降、大きく変容したこと、その二つが、教育政策をめぐる議論に対しても、学校や生徒の現実に対しても、大きな意味を持っていた。とはいえ、実証性を研究の主要なツールとしてきた教育社会学は、そのような大きな構造変動を理論や研究枠組みのレベルで適切にとらえきれないまま、2000年代の教育改革の中で、部分的・断片的な実証データをもとにした推論を余儀なくされる状況に陥ってきたといえる。こうした検討を踏まえて、本研究から明らかになったのは、新たな政治・経済の枠組みをとらえた社会科学の知見を、教育社会学内部に取り込む必要性である。特に、グローバル資本主義の展開が政治や経済のあり方を左右する際、どういう選択肢が理論レベルであり得るのかをふまえ、それらの選択肢が教育政策に及ぼす影響を予測することの重要性が、明らかにされた。