著者
西島 央 藤田 武志 矢野 博之 荒川 英央 中澤 篤史
出版者
東京大学
雑誌
東京大学大学院教育学研究科紀要 (ISSN:13421050)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.42, pp.99-129, 2003-03-10

In this research, we will endeavour to illuminate the factors that affect high school students'commitment to their schools; their future educational goals and career trajectories. Examining how they have been involved in various club activities at school will provide the basis for this evaluation. In doing so, we will propose "a plural model of school culture." The research is being carried out within a context of significant educational change. The implementation of the new national curriculum (course of study), a five-day week school system, and the co-operative linkage of schools, homes, and communities are likely to have some form of impact that will need to be assessed. This leads us to adopt a methodological approach that makes extensive use of a series of research surveys. These will seek to identify the effects which the new national curriculum will have upon students'school lives, especially in relation to club activities. So far, we have carried out two extensive questionnaires in 1999 and 2001 along with additional participant observation in a limited number of schools. Our target group has been junior high school students. In light of the above and in view of our proposed new series of research surveys for high school students we will construct a hypothetical analysis in order to prepare a survey for use in the reinvestigation of the matter in 2004. This series of research surveys on high school students aims to propose an agenda for school education which should take account of what form club activities should take in the future. To date, we have analysed data stemming from 4,500 questionnaires. These have been collected from high-school students in two (Shizuoka and Niigata) different prefectures and the Tokyo metropolitan area in March 2002. In this paper we will deal with the following four issues. 1, Using four clusters which based on the levels of commitment to their various aspects of the school life, classes, official events, and club activities, we discuss the students'adaptability to school life. 2, Focusing on the differences of the opportunities in sports/culture activities being influenced by the students'family backgrounds, we argue the significance of club-activities for students in their junior high school days. Besides we explore the issues so as to realize "the lifelong sports-society", focusing on the sports club-activities. 3, We examine students'behaviours from the viewpoint of whether they are an active club member or whether they have withdrawn from such activities. This will be used, in part, as a predictor for the various path-ways that students take as they adapt themselves to the changing nature of life during their high school experiences.
著者
松井 健人
出版者
東京大学大学院教育学研究科
雑誌
東京大学大学院教育学研究科紀要 (ISSN:13421050)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.57, pp.33-41, 2017

This paper aims to offer an insight into the meaning of reading in Bildungsroman Santaro's Diary, written by Jiro Abe. Scholars have mainly studied Santaro's Diary through its reception among readers and the influence it had on students of later generations. Above all, this Bildungsroman has been considered as the principal main cause that, which brought about the boom of indiscriminate reading of western classical books in the Taisho Era. More recent studies have revealed that such a statement was based mostly on the reception of the book, rather than its content. Despite this, however, what it meant to read in Santaro's Diary remains unclear. Therefore, in this paper, I am going to show that the reading of Santaro has important function as an art of self-inquiry. Moreover, the limit of the act of reading as self-inquiry will be clarified.
著者
秋田 喜代美 辻谷 真知子 石田 佳織 宮田 まり子 宮本 雄太
出版者
東京大学大学院教育学研究科
雑誌
東京大学大学院教育学研究科紀要 (ISSN:13421050)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.57, pp.43-65, 2018-03-29

The quality of Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) outside environments is becoming an important theme, but not enough is known yet about the settings and practices in Japanese playgrounds. To discuss the way to guarantee the quality of children's experiences, studies were reviewed for foreign countries and Japan, and research was done about playgrounds and outside environments in 1,740 Japanese centers. Similarities and differences between centers were shown, evaluationg scales were made from results, and some important ideas of practice were revealed. In conclusion, there are many differences between outside settings of centers. Practices that have longitudinal view, understanding of surroundings, and enough communication between staffs lead to richer environments. The important points from both tangible and intangible elements of centers' environments should be clarified.
著者
入谷 亜希子
出版者
東京大学
雑誌
東京大学大学院教育学研究科紀要 (ISSN:13421050)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.45, pp.1-9, 2006-03-10

This paper tries to demonstrate how and why the working class got high literacy before the formation of public educational system, and also to clarify the significant meaning of execution as educational place. For example, chapbooks or reading matters which educated people and raised their literacy came not from school but from the place of execution that played a role of amusement. This explains how reading matters had helped the working class to get reading ability before 1870 (Elementary Education Act).
著者
松永 幸子
出版者
東京大学大学院教育学研究科
雑誌
東京大学大学院教育学研究科紀要 (ISSN:13421050)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.44, pp.59-64, 2005-03-10

David Hume (1711-1776), a philosopher of Scotland in 18 th century, treats 'education'concerned with the artificial virtues in his moral theory, especially in his most important work A Treatise of Human Nature (1739-1740). But his theory about 'education'has been neglected, as compared with other conceptions. In this paper, the writer has attempted to clarify Hume's moral theory concentrating on his treatise of 'education'. Hume divides the virtues into two, the natural virtues and the artificial virtues. He treats justice as one of the main artificial virtues and insists it is to be created not only by the human conventions but also by 'education'. As same as justice, other artificial virtues like chastity and modesty are formed mainly by 'education'. 'Education'occupies a quite important position in his theory as the principle that produces the artificial virtues.
著者
豊田 香
出版者
東京大学大学院教育学研究科
雑誌
東京大学大学院教育学研究科紀要 (ISSN:13421050)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.52, pp.275-285, 2013-03-10

This paper focuses on the nature of knowledge learned at business schools. Combining the practical knowledge in business with the academic knowledge in universities can result in knowledge that enriches both worlds, but in order to do so it is essential to understand the whole picture of the nature of knowledge according to its levels of abstraction. This paper shows five levels; (1) pure science, (2) applied science, (3) clinical science, which are developed by scientists or scholars, (4) scientific explicit knowledge, and (5) practical explicit or implicit knowledge, which are developed by people in practice. The differences among them are not only who develops the knowledge, but also who judges its relevance and effectiveness.
著者
海老根 理絵
出版者
東京大学大学院教育学研究科
雑誌
東京大学大学院教育学研究科紀要 (ISSN:13421050)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.48, pp.193-202, 2008

In this article, studies on the construction of the view of death and life, as well as studies on the education of death and life, were reviewed. Today we have a lot of problems on death, such as students commit suicide because of bullying, and children killing and wounding others. However, many previous studies on the view of death and life have focused on only particular groups (e.g., old people, patients in terminal care), and have not focused on general population, especially young population. This review suggested that we should pursue research on the construction of young people's view of death and life, and conduct empirical research on the effective death and life education program in order for us to live happily.
著者
中坪 太久郎
出版者
東京大学大学院教育学研究科
雑誌
東京大学大学院教育学研究科紀要 (ISSN:13421050)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.48, pp.203-211, 2009-03-10

The aim of this article is to review the study on family of patients with schizophrenia. These study were composed of the following three; 1)research about hypothesis of the family etiology theory, 2)study on the expressed emotion, and 3)study uses the stress coping model. These study suggested that the family with schizoprenia could be in a complex context, and they needs special support. Based on above-mentioned, it is necessary to consider the study concereing the family's experience in addition to the finding in a prior study on supporting the family. Therefore, the understanding of the process of the family by a qualitative study is also important.
著者
小室 弘毅
出版者
東京大学
雑誌
東京大学大学院教育学研究科紀要 (ISSN:13421050)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.40, pp.17-26, 2001-03-15

This paper attempts to reexamine the criticism on the "Taisho culturalists" in "the Attempt to modern histoy" by Junzo Karaki. Karaki criticises "Santaro's Diary" by Jiro Abe for its dilettantism. I divide the ideology of the culturalizum into the concept of the cultivation in the "Taisho culturalists" and in the next generation. I attempt to prove that Karaki really attempted to criticise not the concept of the cultivation in the "Taisho culturalists" but in the next generation. For that, I classify the cultivation into "the cultivation as lived" and "the cultivation as written". "The cultivation as lived" is the self-cultivation. "The cultivation as written" is the view of cultivation and the result of "the cultivation as lived". I attempt to examine how "the cultivation as written" is read.
著者
小国 喜弘 木村 泰子 江口 怜 高橋 沙希 二見 総一郎
出版者
東京大学大学院教育学研究科
雑誌
東京大学大学院教育学研究科紀要 (ISSN:13421050)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.55, pp.1-28, 2016-03-31

The purpose of this paper is to discuss theory and art in Inclusive Education (referred to as “Full Inclusion” in the United States) within regular classes or at regular schools, by focusing on the practice of Osaka City Municipal Ozora Elementary School, which is known to utilize Inclusive Education. Section 1, entitled “Explaining Ozora Elementary School,” was written by Yasuko Kimura, the former principal of the school. In section 2, we discuss the history of the movement towards Inclusive Education in Japan, which began in the 1970s. In section 3, we discuss details pertaining to teachers’ value of human rights in daily school life. In section 4, we outline the kinds of techniques that must be acquired by teachers who work in Inclusive Education schools.
著者
李 軍
出版者
東京大学
雑誌
東京大学大学院教育学研究科紀要 (ISSN:13421050)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.38, pp.125-134, 1998-03-26

Confucius (551-479 B. C.), the most famous ancient Chinese educator and philosopher, successfully ran the largest private school of his time and explored a vast spectrum of educational issues. Revered as the first great educator in Chinese history, Confucius cast a long shadow not only on Chinese education but on Chinese society and the state as a whole. This paper tries to explore the relationship of Confucian educational ideology to Traditional Chinese Culture through perspectives of Educational sociology and history. The author holds that Confucius clearly defined the role of education in the development of society, developed the most comprehensive curriculum of his time which centered on the six arts and a highly innovative and flexible pedagogy, and at last founded his Confucian educational ideology which influenced deeply on the formation of ancient Chinese culture. The research also focuses on the role of Confucian educational ideology in the formation and development of traditional Chinese culture from five aspects which are : 1) Confucian benevolence and Chinese philosophy of life; 2) Confucian etiquette and Chinese social principles; 3) Confucian golden mean and Chinese thinking model; 4) Confucian Six Classics and Chinese national characteristics; and 5) Confucianism and China's respecting teachers and attaching importance to education. What Confucius emphasized on was You Jiao Wu Lei (provide education for all people without social discrimination) which is the first statement about equality and expansion of educational opportunity in the world history. The author points out that Confucian educational ideology emphasized on the responsibility of individual to society and nation, and is conducive to cultivating global citizens in the future.
著者
許 婷婷
出版者
東京大学大学院教育学研究科
雑誌
東京大学大学院教育学研究科紀要 (ISSN:13421050)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.47, pp.41-50, 2008-03-10

「六諭」及與其相關的道徳話語在中國明清時代的庶民教化政策中扮演著重要的角色,而且與宗族社會形成息息相關。在十八世紀初期,《六諭衍義》這一主要解釋「六諭」的書亦傳來日本,對日本徳川時代的庶民教化政策亦〓了相當重要的作用。該書被施于訓點在日本出版之外,以室鳩巣所注釋的《六諭衍義大意》爲首之許多「六諭」道徳話語的異本亦陸續被出版。故,本文首先従教育思想史的觀點來考察與「六諭」相關的諸文本是如何輸入日本且出版的。然而在中國明清時代使用的《六諭衍義》與在徳川時代主要被使用的《六諭衍義大意》一書的内容並不盡相同。所以,本文對《六諭衍義》與《六諭衍義大意》的内容進行比較,試圖探討《六諭衍義》與鳩巣所注釋的《六諭衍義大意》之内容差異與日中社會體係差異之間的關係。並且希望透過以上的檢討,來思考在東亞各國間之道徳話語的流傳與演變的這一問題。
著者
三浦 太郎
出版者
東京大学大学院教育学研究科
雑誌
東京大学大学院教育学研究科紀要 (ISSN:13421050)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.38, pp.393-401, 1998-03-26

In the Edo period, among Japanese people who went abroad there were some who were keen about the difference between Western and Japanese libraries. Okataro Morita created the word "Shojaku-kwan (or Shoseki-kwan)" in order to express huge scale of the Western library. Then Seiryu Ichikawa used the word to give expression to a new library which would be open to the public and overcome the limit of the previous Japanese governmental library, Momijiyama Bunko, whose use had been restricted to the tycoon as a rule. The idea "Open to the public" was realized in 1875 when the Tokyo Shoseki-kwan was established as a free public library.
著者
古仲 素子
出版者
東京大学大学院教育学研究科
雑誌
東京大学大学院教育学研究科紀要 (ISSN:13421050)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.55, pp.29-38, 2016-03-31

The purpose of this paper is to clarify how activities of music club were carried out in Japanese junior high schools between 1920-1930, focusing on influence of the popularization of harmonica. In the 1920s, product development and advertisement by musical instrument maker, for making harmonica popularized and raising the position, enabled most people including students to get harmonica. The popularization of harmonica made musical activities in schools activated. Also, it drastically changed quality of students' musical performance and relationships between teachers and students, between course of studies and extra-curricular activities.
著者
沈 暁敏
出版者
東京大学大学院教育学研究科
雑誌
東京大学大学院教育学研究科紀要 (ISSN:13421050)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.45, pp.257-266, 2006-03-10

Since 2002 in China, drastic change has occurred in the field of moral education and social studies, wherenew subject is arranged and its contents are correlated and integrated. I have been a chief leader of this innovative movement in Shanghai, as a chief editor of new textbooks. This paper displays conceptions of "citizen ship education" and its "public mind or moral" which are represented in the new textbooks. In editing the new textbooks, such many issues were reexamined, as conflict and dilemma between current democratic idea of citizenship and traditional idea of convenient moral, confusion between new trend of human right and dominant political consciousness, destruction of public moral under marketing economy and so on.Through deliberation of these complicated issues for the editing process, the new textbook challenges to present a new vision based upon public philosophy, which should be empower and enrich "citizenship" in the real educational context.
著者
李 和静
出版者
東京大学大学院教育学研究科
雑誌
東京大学大学院教育学研究科紀要 (ISSN:13421050)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.55, pp.61-70, 2016-03-31

In this paper, the chronological trend of studies on shadow education in the sociology of education in Japan was examined. Based on this examination, future directions are then presented for consideration. Shadow education has been noted as a factor in the relation between educational achievement and social stratification in the 1970-80's in Japan. In the 1990s, based mainly on national survey data, it was found that educational investment and strategy influenced shadow education. Later, in the late 2000s, the amount of research and case studies that focused on shadow education increased. Currently, by controlling endogeneity biases, studies have been conducted in an attempt to identify causal effects of shadow education. In conclusion, for future consideration, within research on shadow education, it is necessary to clearly distinguish between the different terms used for shadow education (“out of school education”, and “private supplementary tutoring”) within the Japanese language.
著者
徐 国興
出版者
東京大学大学院教育学研究科
雑誌
東京大学大学院教育学研究科紀要 (ISSN:13421050)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.43, pp.99-108, 2003

Tuition fees of public universities are greatly increasing in recent years in China. Many researchers have made an attempt to examine the effects of rising fee on students'enrollment behavior. However, there is no systematic analysis of the causes of fee increase, and the causal relations between the fee rising and the expansion of higher education. This paper will focus on the following four points: (1) the history of university fees, (2) the present situation of tuition fees, (3) the mechanism responsible for the fee rising, (4) the relation between the rising of fees and the higher education expansion. The findings of this article are as follows: (1) The transformation of fee system is not from free-fee one to high-fee one directly, but through several transitive phases in which various fee policies were experimented by the central government. (2) The present standard of tuition fee is very high. Fee average is up to 5000 yuan every year. And the amount of fee collected by different institutions varies greatly according to university and department's prestige. (3) Each institution of higher education played an important role in the process of fee rising. The central government changed the fee policies, which gave each institution an arbitrary power to decide its fee level and how to spend it partly. (4) Consequently, the fee rising in public universities gave an incentive to every institution and directly promoted the expansion of the higher education.
著者
米津 美香
出版者
東京大学大学院教育学研究科
雑誌
東京大学大学院教育学研究科紀要 (ISSN:13421050)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.52, pp.13-22, 2013-03-10

The purpose of this study is to explore the historical and the theoretical relations between Montessori and Gandhi and to make a suggestion for moral education today. First, this study focuses on the historical relations between them in India, then we examine the theoretical points in common, and also examine the differences of their views, which enables to clarify the moral educational viewpoint of them. In conclusion, this study argues that, if we understand moral education from children's development through Montessori and Gandhi's Education, we can make a new evaluation of moral education in school.