著者
白山 映子
出版者
東京大学大学院教育学研究科
雑誌
東京大学大学院教育学研究科紀要 (ISSN:13421050)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.49, pp.333-345, 2009

This paper challenges two generally accepted views. The first one is that "Sansuijin Keirin Mondo-" written by Nakae Cho-min is considered as the first Japanese book which argues the government and international politics by means of a dialogue style. The second one is that although "Bampo- Seiri" by Ga Noriyuki has been said to be the first translation of "De l'Esprit des Lois" written by Montesquieu, this book was actually a secondhand translation through the English version of the French original. // This paper will examine "To-sei Isakairon," "Ritsurei Seigi" and "Ritsurei Seigi no Taii." Particular concerns in this research are the following: firstly, "To-sei Isakairon," published by Shimizu Usaburo- (1829-1910) in 1882, represented three sorts of governments: the republic, the constitutional monarchy and the monarchy; secondly, the style of this story appears much more dialogic than "Sansuijin Keirin Mondo-." The former seems to be rather light and comical, intented to the ordinary people; thirdly, "Ritsurei Seigi" and "Ritsurei Seigi no Taii," translated by Suzuki Tadakazu and published by Shimizu Usaburo- through his company, were the translations of the French original "De l'Esprit des Lois," unlike "Banpo- Seiri." // Shimizu Usaburo- was one of the modern Japanese pioneers of cultural exchange during the Meiji period between Japan and western countries, in particular, France and the USA. After his participation in the International Exhibition held in 1867 in Paris, he founded a new trading company in order to import numerous materials such as books of philosophy, science and jurisprudence as well as dental instruments. As a well-known ' Hiragana-ronsha, ' he contributed an article about an orthographical system to "Meiroku Zasshi." // This research describing the dialogue of "To-sei Isakairon," explicates the influences of Western thoughts, focusing on Usaburo-'s way of thinking about governments.
著者
根本 彰 三浦 太郎 中村 百合子 古賀 崇
出版者
東京大学
雑誌
東京大学大学院教育学研究科紀要 (ISSN:13421050)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.39, pp.453-478, 2000-03-15

12 policy statements, in which 4 are during the former, 3 during the middle, 5 during the later Occupation Period (1945-1952) in Japan, are analyzed to investigate the course of library policies at the Education Division of the Civil Information and Education Section (CIE). General Headquarters, Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers (GHQ/SCAP). In result we indicate that the national plan with public libraries made by P. O. Keeney was not taken over by his successors after his dismissal in April 1947,and that important library policies were begun by those except the libraries officers. And we consider that there was a concept of library developments among those of the CIE but there was no single continuing policy with the library.
著者
西田 季里 久保田(河本) 愛子 利根川 明子 遠藤 利彦
出版者
東京大学大学院教育学研究科
雑誌
東京大学大学院教育学研究科紀要 (ISSN:13421050)
巻号頁・発行日
no.58, pp.31-39, 2019-03-29

With the growing interest in "non-cognitive abilities" in the field of early childhood education in recent years, it is necessary to carefully examine once again what is the non-cognitive( socio-emotional) competence, and what it means to support the growth of non-cognitive( socio-emotional) competence. This paper examines the major, previous findings of non-cognitive( socio-emotional) competence with a particular focus on the self-efficacy and intrinsic motivation among other non-cognitive( socio-emotional) competence and describes the baseline temperament for intervention and its content, as well as measuring techniques for young children.
著者
吉田 裕典
出版者
東京大学大学院教育学研究科
雑誌
東京大学大学院教育学研究科紀要 (ISSN:13421050)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.49, pp.247-258, 2009

Recently in Japan, most secondary schools are conducting work experience in career education. To clarify its meaning, this study reviews the history of career education in Japan first. On this basis, I review the change of treatment and meaning of work experience in the history of career education. The result shows three essential meanings of work experience; 1. Cultivation of work ethic and work value, 2. Understanding of aptitude and interest, 3. Acquirement of vocational understanding and skill. To ensure their theoretical background, this study adopts Super's career development theory and social learning theory. However, I find these theories are not sufficient to figure out unified meaning of work experience. Thus, this study discusses the viewpoint of Legitimate Peripheral Participation and tries to figure out unified meaning of work experience.
著者
河野 桃子
出版者
東京大学大学院教育学研究科
雑誌
東京大学大学院教育学研究科紀要 (ISSN:13421050)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.51, pp.1-9, 2012-03-10

Es gibt ab und zu eine Tendenz, nur die Praxis der Waldorfpädagogik zu beachten und die Diskussion über den Gedanken von R.Steiner, der eine Grundlage für die Praxis ist, zu tabuisieren. Es leitet sich von der dualistischen Komposition seines späteren mystischen Gedanken her. In dieser Abhandlung wird versucht, eine positive Bedeutung zu zeigen, auch seinen Gedanken in Betracht zu ziehen, um die Praxis besser auszulegen. Dabei thematisieren wir insbesondere einen "Effekt", den sein Gedanke über "Reinkarnation"(damit auch über "Persönlichkeit" und "Individualität") ermöglicht. Am Ende ergänzen wir diesen "Effekt" mit der Intention zur monistischen Erkenntnis, die Steiner ganze Zeit erhalten hat.
著者
米津 美香
出版者
東京大学大学院教育学研究科
雑誌
東京大学大学院教育学研究科紀要 (ISSN:13421050)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.52, pp.13-22, 2013-03-10

The purpose of this study is to explore the historical and the theoretical relations between Montessori and Gandhi and to make a suggestion for moral education today. First, this study focuses on the historical relations between them in India, then we examine the theoretical points in common, and also examine the differences of their views, which enables to clarify the moral educational viewpoint of them. In conclusion, this study argues that, if we understand moral education from children's development through Montessori and Gandhi's Education, we can make a new evaluation of moral education in school.
著者
岩瀬 令以子
出版者
東京大学大学院教育学研究科
雑誌
東京大学大学院教育学研究科紀要 (ISSN:13421050)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.46, pp.121-130, 2006

This paper, through an examination of trials done by ""juku"" which had been symbolical in each times and of a number of assumptions toward the trials of juku from 1960's to this day, indicates some subjects to be examined from now on. In the 1960's, new types of juku had emerged remarkably, while another type of juku had been kept with tradition from the period of Edo. It had begun that new types had been attracted attention by mass-media. In the 1970's, a number of juku had developed new styles marked departure from anything that had been done before. ""Franchise"" system had been introduced to the management of juku, and a number of companies which had not related to education originally, had ventured into juku trade. Toward these tendencies, mass-media had attracted considerable attention by establishing a lot of tactics to report impressively. It had been also taken that a lot of organization related education had begun a valley of investigations about juku. From the beginning of the 1990's, some trends based on a new assumption of juku had emerged. Through recognizing the effectiveness of juku as one important educational institution, mass-media had altered their stance for approaching juku as the object of entertainment. The organizations of education had requested juku as it ought to be. The commercial trade had begun to propose a new management for juku necessary to survive between educational logic and commercial logic. Through these social experiences, juku now faces the subjects how to keep and create its originality while existing with other educational institutions meaningfully and how to balance with two logics.
著者
諏訪 猛
出版者
東京大学大学院教育学研究科
雑誌
東京大学大学院教育学研究科紀要 (ISSN:13421050)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.58, pp.451-463, 2019-03-29

In the United States, there are currently more than 4.500 colleges and universities, which show us the development and diversity in the Higher Education System. The military university system has been researched as Education System in accordance with the Federal Policies. The military universities which have Reserve Officers Training Couse (ROTC) have produced nearly two-third of American active duty officers since 1950. These graduates have brought to military services a wider and more diverse background as officers. This study focuses on the Military University and ROTC system to clarify the influence of the Defense policy through its accreditation system.
著者
小国 喜弘
出版者
東京大学大学院教育学研究科
雑誌
東京大学大学院教育学研究科紀要 (ISSN:13421050)
巻号頁・発行日
no.37, pp.271-280, 1997

he purpose of this paper is to focus on the images of Japanese history asserted by Wakamori Taroh, an historian (1915-1977), and to clarify the characteristics in his theory on education. In the latter half of 1940s and to the 1950s, Wakamori intended to provide junior high school students with new images of Japanese history which he believed suitable for the newly -introduced democratic society after the World War II. However, the images of Japanese history presented by him was affected by Japanese Folklore, which was transformed singular features embedded in villages and towns into universal factors to form Japanese history. Therefore, his view resulted in representing Japanese nationals as homogeneous. During the war, he was involved in studies in Kokumin Seishin Bunka Kenkyujyo, an institute where Japanese Ideology were invented to justify World War II. In post war days, as he remained the basic flame of Japanese nationalism, his image of Japanese history, therefore, lacked respect for otherness of Asian people.
著者
三宅 なほみ 齊藤 萌木 飯窪 真也
出版者
東京大学大学院教育学研究科
雑誌
東京大学大学院教育学研究科紀要 (ISSN:13421050)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.51, pp.441-458, 2011

The Consortium for Renovating Education for the Future, founded at the University of Tokyo in 2009, has been striving to help teachers develop a networked community for creating authentically learner-centered classrooms. The classes are designed on a cognitive framework where the constructively interactive components during classroom student discussions provide individual students with a chance to express and reflect upon their own ideas as well as others, for integrating and constructively deepening them. This community currently involves more than 100 teachers coming from sixty-nine schools, ranging from elementary to high-schools. The paper reports its success for helping teachers to create sub-communities around their locations as well as their subject areas, so that they could collaboratively share the prime plans for similar classes and reflect upon their outcomes. Discussions on future plans conclude the paper.
著者
村松 灯 田中 智輝 岩坂 尚史
出版者
東京大学大学院教育学研究科
雑誌
東京大学大学院教育学研究科紀要 (ISSN:13421050)
巻号頁・発行日
no.56, pp.223-232, 2017-03-31

The purpose of this article is to argue for the importance of dealing with controversial issues in citizenship education. This develops through examining the thoughts of Jacques Rancière's, one of the most famous radical democrats, focusing especially on his idea of "Dissensus." On controversial issues in citizenship education, there have been a number of studies in Japan since 1960's, and many of those have agreed to think it helpful for development of student's political literacy to recognize controversial issues or to try to reach an agreement on them. These arguments tend to implicitly assume that we should and are able to reach a reasonable consensus on each of the issues. Nowadays, however, radical democrats criticize such assumption because consensus in fact inevitably hides decisive differences among people, and they also argue that it is the very impossibility of reaching consensus on controversial issues that constitutes politics fundamentally. This article redefines the controversial issues referring to an important radical democracy theory, namely Rancière's. First of all, we try to make it clear what Rancière means by "dissensus." Then, we examine a social studies' class in Ochanomizu Elementary School, in which "dissensus" seemed to occur. Lastly, we explore how the idea of "dissensus" can change existing views on citizenship education, and hence on politics.
著者
森田 智幸
出版者
東京大学大学院教育学研究科
雑誌
東京大学大学院教育学研究科紀要 (ISSN:13421050)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.51, pp.319-327, 2012-03-10

This paper illuminates some historical aspects of the concept of 'Gōgaku'in the process of editing "Nihon-Kyouikushi-Shiryo" and clarifies what the historical process of it the Ministry of Education described in order to raise some issues for further discussion. This paper takes the following three points into consideration: first is that 'Gōgaku'was embedded in various case not classified in schools of feudal domains (han-ko) or private schools and academies (terakoya and shijuku) when "Nihon-Kyouikushi-Shiryo" was published, though the concept of 'Gōgaku'was found in the process of editing. This is because "Nihon-Kyouikushi-Shiryo" was edited for depicting the history that 'Gakusei'was adopted as the period of renovation of education in Japan. Secondly, according to original document, 'Gōgaku'was established with a mission for building new society that was not assumed in "Nihon-Kyouikushi-Shiryo". Thirdly, we have to explore the history of 'Gōgaku'as a history of the education of post elementary level.
著者
秋田 喜代美 斎藤 兆史 藤江 康彦 藤森 千尋 柾木 貴之 王 林鋒 三瓶 ゆき 大井 和彦
出版者
東京大学大学院教育学研究科
雑誌
東京大学大学院教育学研究科紀要 (ISSN:13421050)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.54, pp.355-388, 2014

This paper is a brief review of our meta-grammar project with special emphasis on the meta-grammatical activities conducted in Japanese classrooms. The first section describes the research questions and research procedures of the project; the second section reviews the recent history of language education in China with reference to grammar teaching; the third section is an analysis of secondary-school Japanese students' response to the meta-grammar classes as seen in the questionnaire survey; the fourth section considers how teachers found the project by analyzing their answers to the questionnaire and discussions at teachers' meetings; the fifth section presents the teaching materials we actually used in the experimental classes and describes how they were used; and the sixth and final section, based on the discussion up to this point, suggests the way this project can make a great contribution to the curriculum development of language teaching at the level of secondary education in Japan.
著者
平本 早雪 両角 亜希子
出版者
東京大学大学院教育学研究科
雑誌
東京大学大学院教育学研究科紀要 (ISSN:13421050)
巻号頁・発行日
no.57, pp.147-164, 2018-03-29

In recent years, Japanese higher education policy has encouraged the strengthening of the leadership role of the university president; however, the meaning of "leadership role" has not always been very clear. To clarify the understanding of what is expected of university presidents; we must first understand what roles they are playing now and which factors affect the ways in which they fulfill their position. The purpose of this study was to clarify the influence of the university president's job description and number of years in office on what the president actually does and on his or her abilities using a questionnaire-based survey. The results revealed notable differences in the duties and capabilities of university presidents, depending on their professional experience and number of years of service.
著者
澤井 和彦 高橋 義雄
出版者
東京大学大学院教育学研究科
雑誌
東京大学大学院教育学研究科紀要 (ISSN:13421050)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.44, pp.457-468, 2005-03-10

The purpose of this study is 1) to describe the allocation of sports resources at the University of Tokyo as the institution including some economic units and their rules, and 2) to investigate the merits and demerits of resource allocation using the Peer-to-Peer Networks through development and operation of the on-line reservation system for sport facilities. Basically, sports resources are allocated by re-distribution system in the organization of the University of Tokyo and ""The Univ. of Tokyo Athletic Association"" which is independent organization usually called ""Undou-kai"". The university decreased their re-distribution costs by making the part of their management cost internalized in the organization and moralistic communication of ""Undou-kai"", whereas the ""Undou-kai"" also decreased their costs to maintain their membership by making their operating cost internalized in the organization of the university. However, the number of students who belong to unofficial sport clubs is three times more than students who belong to the official sport club of ""Undou-kai"", which that the re-distribution system by university authorities and ""Undou-kai"" is unfair or inefficient for the students. We also investigated the possibility to make the distribution fair or efficient by Peer-to-Peer Networks using on-line reservation system for sport facilities.
著者
本迫 庸平
出版者
東京大学大学院教育学研究科
雑誌
東京大学大学院教育学研究科紀要 (ISSN:13421050)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.49, pp.105-114, 2010-03-10

This paper focuses on educational activities of “Educational Back-up Intelligence Center(EBIC)”, which is run by community's people. EBIC was established lately for the supports of its owner school(s) in Japan, and Ministry of Education has made it project since 2008. Through two antecedent EBIC's cases study, the paper points out its educational functions; discipline, primary career sense and learning attitude. On the other hand, EBIC's educational activities have difficulty because it is practiced by community's people as amateur teacher. The paper suggests how they tackle the problem.
著者
橋本 鉱市
出版者
東京大学大学院教育学研究科
雑誌
東京大学大学院教育学研究科紀要 (ISSN:13421050)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.56, pp.97-107, 2016

The purpose of this article is the content analysis of university advertisements placed in the exam-study magazine "Keisetsu-Jidai" during the 40 years following World War II. Especially focused on the graphics (non-textual matter), it traces universities' publicity activities and their transformation. Findings were as follows. 1) Buildings pictures have been used as a symbol of reconstruction of universities during postwar Showa era. 2) Chat scenery of students and laboratory pictures has increased since the late 1960s. 3) Portraits placed only one student also increased after the late 1970s. It is assumed that these changes reflect the transformation of the image for university.
著者
柴田 崇
出版者
東京大学大学院教育学研究科
雑誌
東京大学大学院教育学研究科紀要 (ISSN:13421050)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.43, pp.279-286, 2003

This paper attempts to demonstrate the uniqueness of David Katz's theory in general and of his theory of ""medium"" in particular. When we explore the environment with our hand we can immediately feel objects in the environment. What is intriguing is that the same seems to hold true when we explore the environment with a rod in our hand. The tip of the tool, in other words, seems to be capable of direct perception and the tool as a whole seems to become ""transparent"" when it is in use. It will be argued that a phenomenon like this can be understood as the Cartesian ""dogma"" if we read Katz's ""The World of Touch"" in the light of James J. G ibson's theory of tools.
著者
西島 央 藤田 武志 矢野 博之 荒川 英央 中澤 篤史
出版者
東京大学
雑誌
東京大学大学院教育学研究科紀要 (ISSN:13421050)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.42, pp.99-129, 2003-03-10

In this research, we will endeavour to illuminate the factors that affect high school students'commitment to their schools; their future educational goals and career trajectories. Examining how they have been involved in various club activities at school will provide the basis for this evaluation. In doing so, we will propose "a plural model of school culture." The research is being carried out within a context of significant educational change. The implementation of the new national curriculum (course of study), a five-day week school system, and the co-operative linkage of schools, homes, and communities are likely to have some form of impact that will need to be assessed. This leads us to adopt a methodological approach that makes extensive use of a series of research surveys. These will seek to identify the effects which the new national curriculum will have upon students'school lives, especially in relation to club activities. So far, we have carried out two extensive questionnaires in 1999 and 2001 along with additional participant observation in a limited number of schools. Our target group has been junior high school students. In light of the above and in view of our proposed new series of research surveys for high school students we will construct a hypothetical analysis in order to prepare a survey for use in the reinvestigation of the matter in 2004. This series of research surveys on high school students aims to propose an agenda for school education which should take account of what form club activities should take in the future. To date, we have analysed data stemming from 4,500 questionnaires. These have been collected from high-school students in two (Shizuoka and Niigata) different prefectures and the Tokyo metropolitan area in March 2002. In this paper we will deal with the following four issues. 1, Using four clusters which based on the levels of commitment to their various aspects of the school life, classes, official events, and club activities, we discuss the students'adaptability to school life. 2, Focusing on the differences of the opportunities in sports/culture activities being influenced by the students'family backgrounds, we argue the significance of club-activities for students in their junior high school days. Besides we explore the issues so as to realize "the lifelong sports-society", focusing on the sports club-activities. 3, We examine students'behaviours from the viewpoint of whether they are an active club member or whether they have withdrawn from such activities. This will be used, in part, as a predictor for the various path-ways that students take as they adapt themselves to the changing nature of life during their high school experiences.
著者
松井 健人
出版者
東京大学大学院教育学研究科
雑誌
東京大学大学院教育学研究科紀要 (ISSN:13421050)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.57, pp.33-41, 2017

This paper aims to offer an insight into the meaning of reading in Bildungsroman Santaro's Diary, written by Jiro Abe. Scholars have mainly studied Santaro's Diary through its reception among readers and the influence it had on students of later generations. Above all, this Bildungsroman has been considered as the principal main cause that, which brought about the boom of indiscriminate reading of western classical books in the Taisho Era. More recent studies have revealed that such a statement was based mostly on the reception of the book, rather than its content. Despite this, however, what it meant to read in Santaro's Diary remains unclear. Therefore, in this paper, I am going to show that the reading of Santaro has important function as an art of self-inquiry. Moreover, the limit of the act of reading as self-inquiry will be clarified.