- Japan Association for African Studies
- アフリカ研究 (ISSN:00654140)
- vol.1972, no.12, pp.38-54, 1972-12-25 (Released:2010-04-30)
Over a six-month period during 1971-1972, I was able to revisit Hanang District in northern Tanzania and carry out an extensive survey in order to compare the Iraqw with the surrounding tribes, particularly the Gorowa (Southern Cushitic), the Datoga (Nilotic), the Mbugwe (Bantu). As result of this field work, for the purpose of understanding contemporary African tribes, it has been found necessary to throw light on their past. Generally speaking, the history of the Southern Cushities, Nitotes, and other related groups, has been reconstructed mainly from archaeology and linguistics, with the utilization of oral history hitherto largely neglected.The purpose of this paper, therefore, is to illustrate the process of tribal expansion and mixing through the medicine men's struggle for power, by using oral tradition as a useful tool. According to traditions, I think there are four historical stages of expansion of Southern Cushities as follows.first stage: Integrated as Southern Cushities, locating in the vicinity of Kondoa-Irangi.second stage: divided into four tribes (Iraqw, Gorowa, Burunge, Alawa) at the foot of Mt. Hanang.....The Datoga attacked them.....third stage: confined to an extremely restricted region (for example, Mamaisara for the Iraqw, or Gallapo for the Gorowa)....The Masai cattle raids occured frequently.....fourth stage: extened to the neighbouring land occupied by the pastoral peoples.....German rule was established....In each stage, peoples have been territorially organized and politically ruled, through the relation of the giving and receiving of medicines with various rituals, by foreign medicine men-the Datoga, the Isanzu, the Irangi-except in first stage. It is most remarkable, in the third stage, that a rainmaker of Isanzu origin was welcomed into the Iraqw and Gorowa also. The clans known as Manda Hay Irqa or Manda Hay Bayo and Haryambi in the Gorowa althouth originally from the same area and having the same ancesters, have gradually widened the spheres of their influence with the expansion of these cushitic peoples. The process went on throughout the German period and continued under the British colonial administration.Expansion areas of the Iraqw had, by about 1900, included nearly the entire Dongobeshi area regarded as being primarily the country of the Gisamijanga (subtribe of the Datoga) and perhaps by 1920 had reached to the Barabaiga region (the most territorially defined subtribe of the Datoga) in the vicinity of Mt. Hanang. These settlers have established regional compound communities together with the Datoga, and have vital common interests. More important, the peripheral Iraqw has begun to be linked with foreign medicine men-Geragendo Gidamowsa of the Datoga, Muna Sora of the Gorowa-both organizationally and ritually, due to the background of social interaction. The social character of medicine men has been steadily changing, though the peak of ritual leadership has been based on tribal bonds, in northern Tanzania.