- 公益財団法人 史学会
- 史学雑誌 (ISSN:00182478)
- vol.114, no.7, pp.1237-1260, 2005-07-20 (Released:2017-12-01)
How aristocrats and their entourages were to conduct themselves whenever boarding or deboarding their carriages on the open road (rotorei 路頭礼), which is found in Koan Reisetsu 弘安礼節, a manual of style approved by imperial order in 1285, can be traced back to the 10th century work Saikyuki 西宮記, which first outlined a framework for such procedures (called shajorei 車上礼). This framework was further developed into provisions about how bureaucrats were to conduct themselves in the presence of members of the imperial family, which are contained in the early Kamakura era collection of secret traditions, Sanjo Nakayama Kuden. It was through these traditions that rotorei was either directly or indirectly compiled into the official manual, Koan Reisetsu. Since rotorei was made necessary by the Japanese social elite's use of oxen-drawn carriages, vehicles which were not used among its counterparts in China, there are no provisions in the ritsu-ryo 律令 codes regarding their use or decorum. This is why the compilers of the Koan Reisetsu were forced to turn to various Japanese folk customs to systemize rotorei practices; as one Nanbokucho era summary of the Saikyuki laments, "there are no established rules, so we should rely on what is opportune at the moment to avoid any embarrassment." Here we notice a clear contrast between rules of decorum, like rotorei, that had to be systemized from indigenous custom and those, like bajorei 馬上礼 (horsemanship decorum), which were derived from the ritsuryo codes (especially those of the Tang Dynasty). In the former, we find detailed provisions about what to do in many different situations, like whether or not the oxen have been unhitched, clearly showing that in the case of any trouble, the parties involved would have use their own imaginations, a rule of thumb that also characterizes the manual of style regarding personal correspondence. We also find oral tradition and actual incidents from diaries, etc. being examined as precedents for conduct regarding such aspects as "backing the carriage,""unhitching the oxen,""positioning the step,""deboarding,""climbing down postures" and "bowing (prostrating) after deboarding." Such rules of deportment and the degree to which they were respected may add to a better understanding of the circumstances surrounding such incidents as Taira-no-Nobukane's arrow attack on Fujiwara-no-Yorinaga's carriage procession during the Hogen Civil War.