著者
高口 央 坂田 桐子 藤本 光平
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.22, no.3, pp.245-257, 2007
被引用文献数
1

The purpose of this study was to determine whether a situation moderates the effects on group members of leadership and prototypicality. Prototypicality is a concept defined as recognition of the standpoint between individuals who reflect the meta contrast ratio of an ingroup and outgroup, and this prototypicality relates to an evaluation of the leader's effectiveness by the group members (e.g., Hains et al, 1997). In this article, we examined whether a leaders' prototypicality strongly influences group activity. In study 1, we conducted an investigation on 205 members of 18 groups of university students. The results showed that prototypicality increased group morale when the activity was a competition with an outgroup. In study 2, group members' judgment relative to the instructions of the leader was examined using the scenario assumption method. Results revealed that only in a situation of conflict with an outgroup did the leaders' prototypicality become the group members' judgment standard. The two studies suggest that a leader's prototypicality influences group members only when there is clear conflict with an outgroup.
著者
村井 健祐
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.1, no.2, pp.1-3, 1986

In psychology it is common to use the term "crisis" when describing human behavior in any extreme situation. The term "crisis", however, is not infrequently used in such a way as "identity crisis" or "growth crisis". It is noted from this that the conception of "crisis" does not always apply to sudden critical situations in which body and mind suffer acute danger or suspense. It is, therefore, advisable to avoid the confusion of the concept by using the phrase "extreme situation" as distinguished from "crisis" in the studies of these fields. Various studies have been made so far about extreme situations studies on disaster psychology, prisoners' psychology and other special studies as well as experimental basic studies. All these studies aim at understanding human behavior in extreme situations, but they are not yet fully interrelated to one another. We would like to propose that, in future, we should make efforts toward systematizing all these studies into one synthesis under the denotation of "Extremity Psychology".
著者
清成 透子 山岸 俊男
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.15, no.2, pp.100-109, 1999
被引用文献数
2 1

The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between general trust and trustworthiness. According to the traditional psychological as well as economic approaches, trust has been regarded as simple reflection of trustworthiness. On the other hand, Yamagishi's (1998) "emancipation theory of trust" assigns trust significance of its own, beyond simple reflection of trustworthiness. We developed a device, which we call "game of enthronement," to measure trustful behavior independently from trustworthy behavior, and used it to compare the levels of trust and trustworthiness between American and Japanese Ss. The results show a higher level of trust among American than Japanese Ss, whereas no difference was found in the level of trustworthy behavior between the two samples, implying that trust has its own significance beyond simple reflection of trustworthiness.
著者
田中 佑子
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.12, no.1, pp.43-53, 1996
被引用文献数
1 2

This study examined the effects of family separation on tanshin-funin employees' organizational commitment and family commitment, and of both commitments on their primary appraisal and stress reactions. Subjects were 247 tanshin-funin employees, who transferred without the accompaniment of their family, 239 taido-funin employees, who transferred taking their family, and 225 non-transferees. Factor analysis found four factors for organizational commitment; "continuance commitment", "work willingness", "value acceptance" and "utilitarian commitment". Four factors were found for family commitment: "mental bonding", "work willingness", "group orientation", "reason-ability of family" and "utilitarian commitment". Two factors were found for a primary appraisal: "their own problem" and "a family and domestic problem". The results indicated that: (1) "work willingness for organization" and mental bonding" became stronger due to family separation. (2) Tanshin-funin employees' "value acceptance" "group orientation" and both "utilitarian commitments" significantly influenced stress reactions through "their own problem" or "a family and domestic problem".
著者
福島 治 大渕 憲一 小嶋 かおり
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.22, no.2, pp.103-115, 2006

We examined the effects of multiple goals on verbal responses in an interpersonal conflict situation. Participants who had high or low levels of concern for the personal resource talked with an experimental actor and were made to believe that trained observers would evaluate his or her ability to cooperate or to be assertive based on their conversation. Then, they experienced a conflict resulting from an irrational demand that the actor expressed either politely or impolitely. Participants chose an integrative strategy in the presence of any two of the following conditions: low levels of participants' own concern for the personal resource, observers who would evaluate participants' ability to cooperate, and the actor's use of polite expression. When the opposite conditions applied the participants chose a distributive strategy. In addition, it was found that when a participant's level of concern for the personal resource was high, the use of a polite expression increased the likelihood of a mitigating strategy being adopted whereas the use of an impolite expression increased the likelihood of a hostile strategy being adopted. The results are discussed in light of tactical decision-making processes proposed by the multiple goals theory.
著者
橋本 剛
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.13, no.1, pp.64-75, 1997
被引用文献数
2

This study purported to analyze and clarify factors that cause interpersonal stress, conflicts, inferiority complex and dislocation in adolescence. Study I identified three categories of interpersonal stress: (1) interpersonal conflict, (2) interpersonal inferiority complex, and (3) interpersonal dislocation. Study II examined correlations between personality trait scales and these three categories. These correlations were analyzed according to stressfulness and frequency of events. As a result, validity of the three categories was supported, and it was suggested that different strategies were necessary for intervention in order to reduce the impact of stress.
著者
村本 由紀子 遠藤 由美
出版者
The Japanese Society of Social Psychology
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.30, no.3, pp.213-233, 2015

This micro-ethnographic research focuses on a traditional custom on Toshi Island, in Japan. When first-born sons on the island graduate from junior high school, they form a small group of <i>neya-ko</i> (quasi-brothers) and sleep over at the house of their <i>neya-oya</i> (quasi-parents) every night until they reach the age of 26. They maintain the quasi-family relationship and help each other all their lives. Why does the <i>neya</i> custom still continue on this island, while most similar customs have already disappeared in other parts of Japan? To answer this question, we conducted participant observations and unstructured interviews. The results suggest that the ecological environment of the island has exerted an important influence on the <i>neya</i> custom. In spite of recent drastic social and economic changes in the islanders' lives, the <i>neya</i> custom still plays a key role in building sustainability in the community. Based on these findings, we discuss how the multi-layered environments of the island interact with this specific custom that has been fostered through the years.
著者
大坪 庸介
出版者
The Japanese Society of Social Psychology
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.30, no.3, pp.191-212, 2015

This article attempts to obtain a better understanding of human reconciliation processes by integrating the social psychological perspective with an evolutionary perspective. The evolutionary literature on reconciliation suggests that benefits accruing from one's association with a partner (relationship value) and uncertainty about the partner's intention (intentional ambiguity) are two crucial determinants of reconciliation processes. Empirical evidence confirms the importance of these two factors. First, research on forgiveness from the victim's perspective showed that relationship value increases forgiveness, whereas intentional ambiguity (<i>i.e.</i>, whether the perpetrator intends to exploit the victim again) decreases forgiveness. Second, research on apology perception from the victim's perspective showed that costly apologies, as compared to no-cost apologies, reduce intentional ambiguity and thereby effectively convince the victim of the perpetrator's benign intent. Third, research on apology-making from the perpetrator's perspective revealed that relationship value and intentional ambiguity (<i>i.e.</i>, whether the victim intends to continue/terminate the relationship) increases the probability of costly apology-making. These three lines of research provide support for evolutionary hypotheses about human reconciliation processes.
著者
尾崎 拓 中谷内 一也
出版者
The Japanese Society of Social Psychology
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.30, no.3, pp.175-182, 2015

A recent controversy in the literature on protection behavior is whether individuals' heightened risk perception boosts precautionary behavior toward disasters. We conducted a preliminary experiment (<i>n</i>=108) where risk perception and response efficacy were manipulated based on protection motivation theory (PMT). Contrary to the prediction of PMT, neither variable prompted actual preparedness behavior. In the main experiment (<i>n</i>=113), we examined the effects of two social factors (an informational variable and a relational variable) on preparedness behavior. Descriptive norms, defined as information about majority behavior, were manipulated as the informational variable. The possibility of exchanging stored food was manipulated as the relational variable. Descriptive norms influenced actual food storage behavior, but potential for food exchange did not. Participants' attitude and intention to store food were not influenced by the two variables, suggesting that descriptive norms directly influence preparedness behaviors.
著者
松本 隆信 塩見 哲郎 中谷内 一也
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.20, no.3, pp.201-207, 2005
被引用文献数
2

Risk communication is defined as a reciprocal information process between experts and the public concerning some type of risk. Previous studies have not adequately addressed the evaluation of risk communication made by the information source and experts of risk management organizations. The present study examined the evaluations of communication dealing with the risk of nuclear power generation by of public relations officers at a power company. The results showed that messages which elaborated on not only the benefits, but also risk involved in nuclear power, were evaluated as being more fair, honest and self-assuring than those which described only the benefits. Furthermore, two-sided messages were expected to elicit sympathy and trust from the receiver of the messages. These results demonstrated empirically that information sources regard the risk communication as being necessary and useful.
著者
橋本 俊哉
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.8, no.2, pp.116-125, 1993
被引用文献数
2

This research is aimed at clarifying the behavior of pedestrians in unfamiliar surroundings, during recreational activities, with particular emphasis on their trash disposal behavior. Primarily, in order to reach the objective, the author attempted to analyze the characteristics of trash disposal behavior at a highway service area. Based on the results, garbage cans were systematically arranged according to the characteristics of trash disposal behavior. This rearrangement resulted in a more effective disposal pattern in which pedestrians' distinguishing between flammable and non-flammable garbage increased, and correct trash can use ratios increased significantly. From the on-going research the author was able to extract the following pedestrian behavioral traits: 1) a tendency towards cleanliness, 2) a tendency to minimize energy, and finally, 3) a tendency to shorten the distance.
著者
佐藤 浩輔 大沼 進
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.29, no.2, pp.94-103, 2013-11

The current study investigates the influence of social factors, such as self-interest and involvement, on trust and its determinants, in the context of public decision-making in government, through two scenario experiments. In both experiments, participants'involvement (high/low) and, subsequent interest in the high- involvement condition (agreed/opposed) were manipulated and two trust models were compared: a tradi- tional model, which regards expectation about intention and competence as the component of trust; and an SVS model, which regards perceived salient value similarity as the primary determinant of trust. Two hypotheses were tested: 1)conflict of interest diminishes trust and value similarity; 2) expectation of the government's intention consistently predicts trust in government, regardless of self-interest. The results supported both hypotheses. Implications of value similarity in the context of public decision-making are discussed. 本研究の目的は、公共的意思決定場面における行政主体への信頼とその規定因に対して利害の一致・不一致や当事者性といった社会的要因がもたらす影響を、実験的手法を用いて明らかにすることにある。参加者の当事者性(高低)、および当事者性が高い場合の利害の方向(一致・対立)を操作し、シナリオ実験により、信頼が意図と能力への期待からなるという伝統的な信頼モデルと、主要な価値の類似が信頼の主要な規定因だとする主要価値類似性モデルの知見に立脚しつつ、2つの仮説を検討した:1)政策との利害の方向性は信頼および価値類似性の評価に影響を与える、2)意図への期待は評価者の立場によらず一貫して信頼を説明する。2つの実験結果からはほぼ一貫して仮説が支持される結果が得られ、公共的決定場面における価値類似性の位置づけについて考察した。
著者
小池 はるか 高木 彩 北折 充隆
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.30, no.1, pp.57-64, 2014-08-18

In this study, a survey was conducted concerning the use of rear-seat belts, which had been made obligatory by the Road Traffic Law of 2008. The research involved a longitudinal study using five points in time, from before the use of rear-seat belts became obligatory until the 2010 crackdown on failure to use them. Rates of use of rear-seat belts and awareness of their importance (risk estimation) were both raised after the law went into effect. For all items, the main effects were seen by seat position, and for two items by period.
著者
野口 聡一 木下 冨雄
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.30, no.1, pp.1-10, 2014-08-18

The purpose of this study is to investigate how a microgravity environment affects spatial orientation, the cognitive system, and interpersonal relationships, hence changes in gravity reference frames. After leaving the terrestrial globe, astronauts experience drastic perceptual disturbances (temporary loss of the senses of spatial- and self-orientation). However, they gradually learn to adapt to the novel environment by developing new erceptual and behavioral skills. First, we examined video clips of an astronaut's body movement inside the International Space Station (ISS) by using a motion video analysis technique. We discovered that a microgravity environment definitely affects spatial orientation. Second, we analyzed how social hierarchy organization, metaphorical expression, and psychological stabilization were affected by space adaptation.
著者
西川 正之
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.13, no.1, pp.13-22, 1997

The purpose of this research was to clarify helping behavior of housewives in everyday life from both viewpoints of the help-seeker and the help-giver. Based on the results of factor analysis, their helping behaviors were theoretically categorized into four types: 1) informal helping in urgent situations, 2) formal helping in urgent situations, 3) informal helping in non-urgent situations, and 4) formal helping in non-urgent situations. The housewives more frequently gave help to neighbors than they themselves required from neighbors. The closer the relationship between the seeker and the giver of help the more frequently helping was required and given. The effects of age on helping was not constant.
著者
樋口 匡貴
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.16, no.2, pp.103-113, 2000
被引用文献数
1 5

In order to clarify groups of emotions that compose shame, 309 university students were asked to rate 27 emotional items in accordance with their past shameful experience. The factor analysis revealed six groups of emotions composing shame, namely "Confusional Fear", "Emotion of Self-abnegation", "Basic Shame", "Emotion of Self-reproaching Shrink", "Awkwardness", and "Bashfulness". In another survey, the rated scores of 161 university students were examined in order to elucidate the relationship of the six groups of shame emotions with the multiple situational categories of shame, e.g. 'Public Shame' and 'Private Shame', which, prior studies had considered. "Emotion of Self-abnegation" was felt with the most intensity in both 'Public Shame' and 'Private Shame', while in the other situational categories of shame, it marked the least intensity. Since 'Public Shame' and 'Private Shame' were found to be the typical situations of shame, these results suggested that "Emotion of Self-abnegation" could distinguish between a typical shame situation from those that are not.
著者
小城 英子
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.15, no.1, pp.22-33, 1999
被引用文献数
1

In May of 1997 an atrocious murder occurred in Kobe's Suma district. The purpose of this study is to analyze the published comments made by experts concerning this murder, and to investigate the role of the experts in news reporting. Experts' comments published before the arrest of the suspected murderer, were taken from four daily newspapers (Asahi, Mainichi, Yomiuri, Kobe), and analyzed by a quantitative method within the Framework of 3 roles- "interpretation of the matter", "reduction of apprehension" and "persuation for self-defense". The analysis revealed that experts were expected principally the first roles in this case.
著者
池内 裕美 藤原 武弘
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.19, no.3, pp.184-194, 2004

"A transitional object" is the first possession that an infant places a special attachment toward, which is not part of him/herself. Typical examples are towels, blankets and teddy bears. The purpose of this study was to investigate the determinants of appearance and disappearance of transitional objects with a special focus on the two factors of "nursing environment" and "marital stress." Two-hundred-and-eleven mothers were asked to complete a questionnaire survey through personal interviews. The main findings were as follows : (1) Transitional objects appeared in bottle-fed infants more often than breast-fed infants ; (2) Infants with younger siblings parted with their transitional objects later than those with older siblings and those without any siblings ; (3) Most transitional objects tended to appear simultaneously with the mothers' stopping breastfeeding ; (4) Transitional objects tended to appear in infants whose mothers had a stressful relationship with their husbands, relative to those who did not. Based on these findings, the "Transitional Object Acquiring Process Model" was presented.
著者
田崎 勝也 二ノ宮 卓也
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.29, no.2, pp.75-85, 2013

The aim of this study is to identify response styles among Japanese participants. Response style research has had a methodological concern that biased responses defined by the number of counts responding to certain category options run the risk of being confounded with item contents. Thus, following the approach delineated and outlined by Billiet and McClendon (2000), this study identifies response styles with the aid of structural equation modeling. Based on the premise that stable tendencies in response behavior are related to personality traits, the impact of response styles is partialed out from item responses by modeling a "style factor." Confirmatory factor analyses on two distinctive psychological scales found a significant effect of the acquiescence response style (ARS) on item responses. On the other hand, strong evidence of the (in) extreme response style (ERS) and the mid-point response style (MRS), often mentioned as Japanese response styles, was not identified.