著者
相川 充 高本 真寛 杉森 伸吉 古屋 真
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.27, no.3, pp.139-150, 2012

The purpose of this study was to develop a scale to measure individual teamwork competency in a group. In Study 1, we constructed a preliminary version of the teamwork competency scale consisting of five subscales: communication, team orientation, back up, monitoring, and leadership. Undergraduate students (N=409) answered these preliminary subscales. Based on the results of item analysis, a final and reliable version of the five subscales was constructed. The validity of these subscales was confirmed by confirmatory factor analysis, structural equation modeling, and multiple population analysis. In Study 2, members (N=58) of university student clubs answered these subscales. The self-evaluated scores of the members whose teamwork behavior was highly evaluated by the club leader were statistically higher than those with a lower evaluation. Study 3 addressed industrial workers (N= 76) in a company whose scores of these subscales had a moderately positive or negative correlation with other measures, including self-rated and peer-rated teamwork behavior. It was concluded that these five subscales measure different aspects of teamwork competency with a certain validity.
著者
相川 充 藤田 正美 田中 健吾
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.23, no.1, pp.95-103, 2007

The present study investigated the validity for Japanese students of a vulnerability model of social skills deficits proposed by Segrin (1996). According to the model, it was assumed that social skills deficits were not causes or consequences of depression, loneliness, and social anxiety. Rather, they constituted vulnerability factors, and it was the interaction of social skills deficits and negative life events that predicted the development of depression, loneliness, and social anxiety. Two hundred and fifty-three students recorded scales of social skills, depression, loneliness, and social anxiety three times at intervals of three months. Results indicated that the interaction of social skills deficits and negative life events predicted the development of depression, loneliness, and social anxiety significantly in some cases, but social skills deficits alone were also significant in their prediction. It was considered that the method of using a multiple regression analysis following Segrin (1996, 1999) would not be appropriate for proving the model. The validity of lumping depression, loneliness, and social anxiety together and applying them to the same model was discussed.
著者
相川 充 佐藤 正二 佐藤 容子 高山 巌
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.8, no.1, pp.44-55, 1993
被引用文献数
4 or 0

The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between the degree of self-reported loneliness and the conversational skills observed in the interaction between strangers. The subjects were 48 university students who obtained high, medium, or low scores on the Japanese version of the UCLA Loneliness Scale. Each of these three groups included 8 males and 8 females students. The interpersonal interactions between the subjects and the confederate of the same sex were recorded by video cameras. These records were analyzed quantitatively by the raters who were blind to the subject's state of loneliness. Other raters made the qualitative analysis of the subject's conversational skills. The subjects also rated themselves and the confederate during the conversation. The results revealed some unique characteristics of highly lonely students in terms of quality but not in terms of quantity. The highly lonely students tended to lack the social skills indispensable to establish intimate interpersonal relationships. They also tended to negatively rate both themselves and the other party following interpersonal interactions.
著者
吉野 優香 相川 充
出版者
公益社団法人 日本心理学会
雑誌
心理学研究 (ISSN:00215236)
巻号頁・発行日
(Released:2017-11-10)
参考文献数
37

When receiving help, the beneficiary feels both emotional gratitude and emotional indebtedness towards the benefactor, highlighting the close relationship between the two feelings. In this study, we tried to create a single integrated model of emotional gratitude and emotional indebtedness. Additionally, based on our model, we tested the effects of emotional gratitude and emotional indebtedness on the intention of reciprocal behavior towards the benefactor. All participants (N = 330) were asked to answer questions after reading vignettes describing a situation in which they received help. As a result of the analysis, we were able to propose a new model in which benefit appraisal mediates the relationship between trait gratitude and emotional gratitude, as well as the relationship between trait indebtedness and emotional indebtedness. We also demonstrated that emotional gratitude and emotional indebtedness affected the intention of reciprocal behavior towards the benefactor; however, their interaction effect was not significant.
著者
相川 充 吉森 護
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.11, no.1, pp.63-72, 1995

Three studies were conducted to construct a scale to measure sensibilities to indebtedness and to examine the reliability and validity of the scale. In Study I, university students and adult non-students completed an original version of the Indebtedness Scale along with some other scales assessing tendencies theoretically correlated with sensibilities to indebtedness. Through item analyses, 18 items were selected as the final version of Indebtedness Scale (IS-18). The IS-18 showed a high internal consistency (α = .850) and a high test-retest reliability (r=.778). In Study I and Study II, significant correlations were observed between the IS-18 score and the measures of self-consciousness, formality ideology, social skills, and self-esteem. There was no correlation between the score and Social Desirability Scale. In Study III, university students placed themselves in the role of hypothetical students confronted with 7 different situations in which they had been helped from others. They answered a question regarding the magnitude of indebtedness in each situation. The total score of the magnitude of indebtedness in 7 situations was positively correlated with IS-18 score.
著者
長峯 聖人 外山 美樹 三和 秀平 湯 立 黒住 嶺 相川 充
出版者
公益社団法人 日本心理学会
雑誌
心理学研究 (ISSN:00215236)
巻号頁・発行日
(Released:2018-01-15)
参考文献数
28

Research has suggested that regulatory fit creates value. In this study, the regulatory fit was defined as the fit between the regulatory focus and the advertising messages. We investigated the effects of regulatory fit on the evaluation of messages when familiarity with the message was low. This hypothesis was supported by two observations; when the familiarity with a message was low, regulatory fit was not observed among participants with a prevention focus. In contrast, regulatory fit was observed among participants with a promotion focus, with a higher preference for two-sided advertising. The significance of familiarity on the effects of regulatory fit and value is discussed.
著者
相川 充
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.14, no.2, pp.95-105, 1999
被引用文献数
2 or 0

This study investigated the effects of social skills training on reducing loneliness. the 18 female students reporting the highest degree of self-reported loneliness were randomly assigned to a social skills training (SST) group or a no training control (NTC) group in the first experiment. Subjects in the SST group received eight 40-minute sessions over a 4-week period individually. Although subjects in the NTC group participated the same 1st and 8th sessions as those in the SST group did, they performed six tasks unrelated to social skills from the 2nd to 7th sessions. All subjects were asked to complete a self-reported questionnaire including measures of loneliness and social skills before and after the training sessions. Their behavior in hypothetical interpersonal situations were recorded in videotapes, and were rated by independent scorers in terms of social skills before and after the training. The second experiment was a follow-up test of the training effects 6 months later. The SST group was found to significantly higher in social skills and lower in the self-reported loneliness than the NTC group immediately after the training but not in the follow-up test.
著者
長峯 聖人 外山 美樹 三和 秀平 湯 立 黒住 嶺 相川 充
出版者
公益社団法人 日本心理学会
雑誌
心理学研究
巻号頁・発行日
2018

<p>Research has suggested that regulatory fit creates value. In this study, the regulatory fit was defined as the fit between the regulatory focus and the advertising messages. We investigated the effects of regulatory fit on the evaluation of messages when familiarity with the message was low. This hypothesis was supported by two observations; when the familiarity with a message was low, regulatory fit was not observed among participants with a prevention focus. In contrast, regulatory fit was observed among participants with a promotion focus, with a higher preference for two-sided advertising. The significance of familiarity on the effects of regulatory fit and value is discussed.</p>
著者
外山 美樹 長峯 聖人 湯 立 三和 秀平 黒住 嶺 相川 充
出版者
公益社団法人 日本心理学会
雑誌
心理学研究 (ISSN:00215236)
巻号頁・発行日
(Released:2017-05-10)
参考文献数
17

According to the regulatory fit theory (Higgins, 2000), when people engage in goal pursuit in a manner that fits their orientation (e.g., promotion/eager or prevention/vigilance), they experience regulatory fit and engage more strongly in the pursuit, leading to better outcomes. The present research investigated the influence of regulatory fit on performance by considering the type of performance (speed or accuracy) and the kind of regulatory fit (promotion/eager, or prevention/vigilance). In Study 1, 85 university students were induced to hold a promotion or prevention orientation. In Study 2, 90 university students were assessed for individual differences in regulatory orientation. The results indicated that speed performance was best when there was promotion/eager regulatory fit, whereas accuracy performance was best when there was prevention/vigilance regulatory fit. These findings suggest that the performance effects of regulatory fit are not identical, but differ according to the types of regulatory fit.
著者
相川 充
出版者
公益社団法人 日本心理学会
雑誌
心理学研究 (ISSN:00215236)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.58, no.6, pp.366-372, 1988-02-29 (Released:2010-07-16)
参考文献数
18
被引用文献数
2 or 1

Greenberg (1980) proposed that the magnitude of indebtedness (I) was a function of the recipient's benefits (B) from the aid attempt plus the donor's costs (C). This relationship is expressed by the equation I=x1B+x2C, x1>x2, where x1 and x2 are empirically determined weights. The present study examined the validity of this equation. The subjects, 272 university students, were asked to place themselves in the role of a hypothetical student confronted with each of 32 different situations in which the student needed some aid from others, and to answer a series of questions regarding their reactions. A multiple regression analysis validated the equation in 23 out of the 32 situations. In situations in which the outcome of the aid attempt was successful with low cost for the donor, there was a tendency for the subjects to estimate x1 to be smaller than x2(x1<x2).
著者
藤井 勉 澤海 崇文 相川 充
出版者
The Japanese Psychological Association
雑誌
心理学研究 (ISSN:00215236)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.86, no.4, pp.361-367, 2015

The Implicit Association Test of Shyness (Shyness IAT: Aikawa & Fujii, 2011) provides an indirect assessment of shyness by measuring associations of self (vs. other) with shyness-related (vs. sociability-related) words. In this study we examined the test–retest reliability of the Shyness IAT. Thirty-five participants responded twice to the Shyness IAT with a time lag of one month. The correlation coefficient between the two time points was .54 (<i>p</i> = .001), confirming an adequate level of test-retest reliability. Indeed, changes in explicit and implicit shyness between the two time points were not related to sociable behavior during the one month period. Implications of the results for the assessment of personalities using IATs as well as relevant future directions are discussed.