著者
相川 充 高本 真寛 杉森 伸吉 古屋 真
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.27, no.3, pp.139-150, 2012

The purpose of this study was to develop a scale to measure individual teamwork competency in a group. In Study 1, we constructed a preliminary version of the teamwork competency scale consisting of five subscales: communication, team orientation, back up, monitoring, and leadership. Undergraduate students (N=409) answered these preliminary subscales. Based on the results of item analysis, a final and reliable version of the five subscales was constructed. The validity of these subscales was confirmed by confirmatory factor analysis, structural equation modeling, and multiple population analysis. In Study 2, members (N=58) of university student clubs answered these subscales. The self-evaluated scores of the members whose teamwork behavior was highly evaluated by the club leader were statistically higher than those with a lower evaluation. Study 3 addressed industrial workers (N= 76) in a company whose scores of these subscales had a moderately positive or negative correlation with other measures, including self-rated and peer-rated teamwork behavior. It was concluded that these five subscales measure different aspects of teamwork competency with a certain validity.
著者
相川 充 藤田 正美 田中 健吾
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.23, no.1, pp.95-103, 2007

The present study investigated the validity for Japanese students of a vulnerability model of social skills deficits proposed by Segrin (1996). According to the model, it was assumed that social skills deficits were not causes or consequences of depression, loneliness, and social anxiety. Rather, they constituted vulnerability factors, and it was the interaction of social skills deficits and negative life events that predicted the development of depression, loneliness, and social anxiety. Two hundred and fifty-three students recorded scales of social skills, depression, loneliness, and social anxiety three times at intervals of three months. Results indicated that the interaction of social skills deficits and negative life events predicted the development of depression, loneliness, and social anxiety significantly in some cases, but social skills deficits alone were also significant in their prediction. It was considered that the method of using a multiple regression analysis following Segrin (1996, 1999) would not be appropriate for proving the model. The validity of lumping depression, loneliness, and social anxiety together and applying them to the same model was discussed.
著者
相川 充 佐藤 正二 佐藤 容子 高山 巌
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.8, no.1, pp.44-55, 1993
被引用文献数
4

The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between the degree of self-reported loneliness and the conversational skills observed in the interaction between strangers. The subjects were 48 university students who obtained high, medium, or low scores on the Japanese version of the UCLA Loneliness Scale. Each of these three groups included 8 males and 8 females students. The interpersonal interactions between the subjects and the confederate of the same sex were recorded by video cameras. These records were analyzed quantitatively by the raters who were blind to the subject's state of loneliness. Other raters made the qualitative analysis of the subject's conversational skills. The subjects also rated themselves and the confederate during the conversation. The results revealed some unique characteristics of highly lonely students in terms of quality but not in terms of quantity. The highly lonely students tended to lack the social skills indispensable to establish intimate interpersonal relationships. They also tended to negatively rate both themselves and the other party following interpersonal interactions.
著者
吉野 優香 相川 充
出版者
公益社団法人 日本心理学会
雑誌
心理学研究 (ISSN:00215236)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.88.16044, (Released:2017-11-10)
参考文献数
37
被引用文献数
1

When receiving help, the beneficiary feels both emotional gratitude and emotional indebtedness towards the benefactor, highlighting the close relationship between the two feelings. In this study, we tried to create a single integrated model of emotional gratitude and emotional indebtedness. Additionally, based on our model, we tested the effects of emotional gratitude and emotional indebtedness on the intention of reciprocal behavior towards the benefactor. All participants (N = 330) were asked to answer questions after reading vignettes describing a situation in which they received help. As a result of the analysis, we were able to propose a new model in which benefit appraisal mediates the relationship between trait gratitude and emotional gratitude, as well as the relationship between trait indebtedness and emotional indebtedness. We also demonstrated that emotional gratitude and emotional indebtedness affected the intention of reciprocal behavior towards the benefactor; however, their interaction effect was not significant.
著者
相川 充 吉森 護
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.11, no.1, pp.63-72, 1995

Three studies were conducted to construct a scale to measure sensibilities to indebtedness and to examine the reliability and validity of the scale. In Study I, university students and adult non-students completed an original version of the Indebtedness Scale along with some other scales assessing tendencies theoretically correlated with sensibilities to indebtedness. Through item analyses, 18 items were selected as the final version of Indebtedness Scale (IS-18). The IS-18 showed a high internal consistency (α = .850) and a high test-retest reliability (r=.778). In Study I and Study II, significant correlations were observed between the IS-18 score and the measures of self-consciousness, formality ideology, social skills, and self-esteem. There was no correlation between the score and Social Desirability Scale. In Study III, university students placed themselves in the role of hypothetical students confronted with 7 different situations in which they had been helped from others. They answered a question regarding the magnitude of indebtedness in each situation. The total score of the magnitude of indebtedness in 7 situations was positively correlated with IS-18 score.
著者
長峯 聖人 外山 美樹 三和 秀平 湯 立 黒住 嶺 相川 充
出版者
公益社団法人 日本心理学会
雑誌
心理学研究 (ISSN:00215236)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.88.17301, (Released:2018-01-15)
参考文献数
28

Research has suggested that regulatory fit creates value. In this study, the regulatory fit was defined as the fit between the regulatory focus and the advertising messages. We investigated the effects of regulatory fit on the evaluation of messages when familiarity with the message was low. This hypothesis was supported by two observations; when the familiarity with a message was low, regulatory fit was not observed among participants with a prevention focus. In contrast, regulatory fit was observed among participants with a promotion focus, with a higher preference for two-sided advertising. The significance of familiarity on the effects of regulatory fit and value is discussed.
著者
相川 充
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.14, no.2, pp.95-105, 1999
被引用文献数
2

This study investigated the effects of social skills training on reducing loneliness. the 18 female students reporting the highest degree of self-reported loneliness were randomly assigned to a social skills training (SST) group or a no training control (NTC) group in the first experiment. Subjects in the SST group received eight 40-minute sessions over a 4-week period individually. Although subjects in the NTC group participated the same 1st and 8th sessions as those in the SST group did, they performed six tasks unrelated to social skills from the 2nd to 7th sessions. All subjects were asked to complete a self-reported questionnaire including measures of loneliness and social skills before and after the training sessions. Their behavior in hypothetical interpersonal situations were recorded in videotapes, and were rated by independent scorers in terms of social skills before and after the training. The second experiment was a follow-up test of the training effects 6 months later. The SST group was found to significantly higher in social skills and lower in the self-reported loneliness than the NTC group immediately after the training but not in the follow-up test.
著者
相川 充 大城 トモ子 横川 和章
出版者
公益社団法人 日本心理学会
雑誌
心理学研究 (ISSN:00215236)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.54, no.3, pp.200-203, 1983-08-30 (Released:2010-07-16)
参考文献数
11

The present study was designed to examine the effect of personalistic attribution and the intimacy level of disclosure on interpersonal attraction and reciprocity of self-disclosure. Two subjects were exposed to a disclosure of low (medium, high) intimacy level by a partner (confederate). In order to manipulate personalistic attribution, she (confederate) was asked in advance to choose whether to talk (disclose herself) to one or both of the subjects. Results confirmed a curvilinear relationship between the intimacy level of disclosure and interpersonal attraction. Reciprocity was higher when self-disclosure was at the medium level. However, no particular effect of personalistic attribution was confirmed.
著者
栗林 克匡 相川 充
出版者
The Japanese Group Dynamics Association
雑誌
実験社会心理学研究 (ISSN:03877973)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.35, no.1, pp.49-56, 1995-07-30 (Released:2010-06-04)
参考文献数
16

本研究では, 特性シャイネスが対人認知に及ぼす効果を検討した。被験者は, 特性シャイネス尺度の得点に基づいて選出され, 高シャイネス群は27名, 低シャイネス群は24名の計51名であった。被験者は未知の異性 (サクラ) との1対1の会話を行い, その後で相手の印象評定と「自分に対する相手の認知」の推測を行った。また各被験者は, 会話の相手であるサクラと, 第3者である評定者によって印象を評定された。その結果, シャイな被験者ほど, 社交性や積極性などを含む力本性の次元について相手の人物をネガティブに認知していた。また, シャイな被験者は全ての認知次元において相手からそれほどポジティブに認知されているとは思っていなかった。そして, 個人的親しみやすさおよび社会的望ましさの認知次元において, 被験者の推測と評定者の評定との問にはズレがあることが分かった。つまり, シャイな人は第3者の評定よりもネガティブに自分を捉えていた。これらのことから, シャイな人の行う対人認知にはネガティブな方向へのバイアスが存在している可能性が示唆された。
著者
外山 美樹 湯 立 長峯 聖人 三和 秀平 相川 充
出版者
公益社団法人 日本心理学会
雑誌
心理学研究 (ISSN:00215236)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.90.17059, (Released:2019-06-20)
参考文献数
42

Correlations between the type of regulatory focus orientation and performance levels were investigated from the perspective of conserving cognitive resources. University students (N = 64) participated in the experiment. They were induced to have a promotion- or prevention-focused orientation and were required to conduct a lower priority task followed by a higher priority task. Results indicated that when the prevention-focused orientation was activated, participants did not spend much effort to achieve lower priority tasks and the performance level was lower compared to when the promotion-focused orientation was activated. It was considered that the intention for conserving cognitive resources increased because the prevention-focused participants knew that they would be engaging in a higher priority task in the future. Conversely, these same participants demonstrated higher performance in higher priority tasks implemented later, compared to when the promotion-focused orientation was activated. The above results suggest that cognitive resources are allocated intentionally under prevention-focused conditions.
著者
長峯 聖人 外山 美樹 湯 立 肖 雨知 海沼 亮 三和 秀平 相川 充
出版者
公益社団法人 日本心理学会
雑誌
心理学研究 (ISSN:00215236)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.91.19315, (Released:2020-07-30)
参考文献数
20

Tormala and Clarkson (2007) demonstrated the effects of assimilation and contrast with two consecutive messages. We investigated the effects of regulatory focus on assimilation and contrast in a multiple message situation in an experimental study. We hypothesized that the effect of assimilation would be observed among people with a promotion focus and the effect of contrast would be observed among people with a prevention focus. The results partially supported our hypothesis. There was a contrast effect in people with a prevention focus when evaluating the perceived credibility of the message. Moreover, the effect of assimilation was observed mostly in people with a promotion focus when evaluating the perceived credibility of the message, although this effect was not statistically significant. Finally, possible explanations for why our hypothesis regarding the evaluations of attitudes about the message was not supported are discussed.
著者
外山 美樹 長峯 聖人 湯 立 肖 雨知 三和 秀平 相川 充
出版者
公益社団法人 日本心理学会
雑誌
心理学研究 (ISSN:00215236)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.91.19022, (Released:2020-05-22)
参考文献数
42

This study focused on the relationship between regulatory focus and creative performance. We investigated the effects of ego involvement on enhancing motivation in task performance. We hypothesized that there are no differences in creativity based on the degree of ego involvement in promotion-focused individuals, whereas creativity would be higher in prevention-focused individuals with higher ego involvement. University students (N = 128) participated in the study. The results supported the hypothesis. When ego involvement was high, there were no differences in creativity between promotion-focused and prevention-focused individuals on three indicators of creativity. Based on these three indicators, prevention-focused individuals were more creative than promotion-focused individuals. Moreover, prevention-focused individuals who worked on a task patiently and persistently achieved equal or better creative performance than promotion-focused individuals.
著者
外山 美樹 長峯 聖人 湯 立 三和 秀平 黒住 嶺 相川 充
出版者
一般社団法人 日本教育心理学会
雑誌
教育心理学研究 (ISSN:00215015)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.65, no.4, pp.477-488, 2017 (Released:2018-02-21)
参考文献数
40
被引用文献数
8 8

本研究の目的は,制御適合の観点から,制御焦点が学業パフォーマンスに及ぼす影響について検討することであった。具体的には,制御焦点(促進焦点と防止焦点)と学習方略(熱望方略と警戒方略)が適合した時に,高い学業パフォーマンスを収めるのかどうかを検討した。分析対象者は大学生100名であった。学習方略は,マクロ理解方略,ミクロ理解方略,拡散学習方略,そして,暗記方略を取りあげ,学業パフォーマンスは,授業の定期試験(空所補充型テスト,記述式テスト)の成績をその指標として用いた。本研究の結果より,促進焦点の傾向が高い人と防止焦点の傾向が高い人のどちらが優れた学業成績を示すのかではなく,高い学業成績につながる目標の追求の仕方が,両者では異なることが明らかとなった。促進焦点の傾向が高い人は,マクロ理解方略を多く使用している場合に,記述式テストにおいて高い学業成績を収めていた。一方,防止焦点の傾向が高い人は,ミクロ理解方略を多く使用している場合に,空所補充型テストにおいて高い学業成績を収めていた。制御適合に関する一連の研究(Higgins, 2008)で示されている通り,促進焦点の傾向が高い人は熱望方略を使用する時に,かたや防止焦点の傾向が高い人は,警戒方略を使用する時に制御適合が生じることによって,それらに合致したパフォーマンスが向上すると考えられた。
著者
高本 真寛 相川 充
出版者
公益社団法人 日本心理学会
雑誌
心理学研究 (ISSN:00215236)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.83, no.2, pp.108-116, 2012
被引用文献数
1

This study developed the Coping Scale for Interpersonal Stress Events, and evaluated its validity. This scale is composed of the following subscales based on the goals of the coping: problem-focused coping, emotion-focused behavioral coping, and emotion-focused cognitive coping. Based on previous research, a pilot study was used to construct scale items, considering the goals of coping to reduce measurement error. In Study 1 (<I>N</I> = 348), the validity of the scale was examined using several statistical analyses. Study 2 (<I>N</I> = 182) and Study 3 (<I>N</I> = 161) report correlations between the Coping Scale for Interpersonal Stress Events and several theoretically relevant scales. Based on these results, it was concluded that the scale and subscales are valid for measuring interpersonal stress coping.
著者
藤枝 静暁 相川 充
出版者
一般社団法人 日本教育心理学会
雑誌
教育心理学研究 (ISSN:00215015)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.49, no.3, pp.371-381, 2001-09-30 (Released:2013-02-19)
参考文献数
38
被引用文献数
9 1

本研究の目的は, 学級単位の社会的スキル訓練 (Classwide Social Skills Training: CSST) を実施し, それが社会的スキルの程度の低い児童の社会的スキルの上昇に及ぼす効果を実験的に検証することであった。実験学級と統制学級を設定し, 各学級内の社会的スキルの程度の低い児童 (各10名) を対象とし, 彼らの社会的スキルを測定するために,(a) 社会的スキルの児童自己評定尺度,(b) 社会的スキルの教師評定尺度,(c) 5つの目標スキルの児童自己評定尺度を実施した。(a) と (b) は同一項目で構成され, 攻撃性・向社会性・引っ込み思案の3因子から構成されていた。これらの尺度は, CSST開始前から終了後まで計4回実施した。(c) は各目標スキルのCSST実施1週間前と1週間後に行った。(a) の結果からは, CSSTの有意な効果は証明されなかった。(b) の結果からは, CSSTの有意な効果が証明された。(c) の結果からは,「じょうずなたのみ方」スキル,「あたたかいことわり方」スキルにおいてのみ, CSSTの有意な効果が証明された。よって, 本研究ではCSSTの効果が明確に実証されたとは言い難かった。明確な効果が実証されなかった理由として, CSSTの実施方法, 目標スキルの選定方法, 夏休み期間中の児童への働きかけの欠如などが考察された。
著者
長峯 聖人 外山 美樹 三和 秀平 湯 立 黒住 嶺 相川 充
出版者
公益社団法人 日本心理学会
雑誌
心理学研究 (ISSN:00215236)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.88, no.6, pp.587-593, 2018

<p>Research has suggested that regulatory fit creates value. In this study, the regulatory fit was defined as the fit between the regulatory focus and the advertising messages. We investigated the effects of regulatory fit on the evaluation of messages when familiarity with the message was low. This hypothesis was supported by two observations; when the familiarity with a message was low, regulatory fit was not observed among participants with a prevention focus. In contrast, regulatory fit was observed among participants with a promotion focus, with a higher preference for two-sided advertising. The significance of familiarity on the effects of regulatory fit and value is discussed.</p>