著者
橋本 俊哉
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.8, no.2, pp.116-125, 1993
被引用文献数
2

This research is aimed at clarifying the behavior of pedestrians in unfamiliar surroundings, during recreational activities, with particular emphasis on their trash disposal behavior. Primarily, in order to reach the objective, the author attempted to analyze the characteristics of trash disposal behavior at a highway service area. Based on the results, garbage cans were systematically arranged according to the characteristics of trash disposal behavior. This rearrangement resulted in a more effective disposal pattern in which pedestrians' distinguishing between flammable and non-flammable garbage increased, and correct trash can use ratios increased significantly. From the on-going research the author was able to extract the following pedestrian behavioral traits: 1) a tendency towards cleanliness, 2) a tendency to minimize energy, and finally, 3) a tendency to shorten the distance.
著者
佐藤 浩輔 大沼 進
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.29, no.2, pp.94-103, 2013-11

The current study investigates the influence of social factors, such as self-interest and involvement, on trust and its determinants, in the context of public decision-making in government, through two scenario experiments. In both experiments, participants'involvement (high/low) and, subsequent interest in the high- involvement condition (agreed/opposed) were manipulated and two trust models were compared: a tradi- tional model, which regards expectation about intention and competence as the component of trust; and an SVS model, which regards perceived salient value similarity as the primary determinant of trust. Two hypotheses were tested: 1)conflict of interest diminishes trust and value similarity; 2) expectation of the government's intention consistently predicts trust in government, regardless of self-interest. The results supported both hypotheses. Implications of value similarity in the context of public decision-making are discussed. 本研究の目的は、公共的意思決定場面における行政主体への信頼とその規定因に対して利害の一致・不一致や当事者性といった社会的要因がもたらす影響を、実験的手法を用いて明らかにすることにある。参加者の当事者性(高低)、および当事者性が高い場合の利害の方向(一致・対立)を操作し、シナリオ実験により、信頼が意図と能力への期待からなるという伝統的な信頼モデルと、主要な価値の類似が信頼の主要な規定因だとする主要価値類似性モデルの知見に立脚しつつ、2つの仮説を検討した:1)政策との利害の方向性は信頼および価値類似性の評価に影響を与える、2)意図への期待は評価者の立場によらず一貫して信頼を説明する。2つの実験結果からはほぼ一貫して仮説が支持される結果が得られ、公共的決定場面における価値類似性の位置づけについて考察した。
著者
小池 はるか 高木 彩 北折 充隆
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.30, no.1, pp.57-64, 2014-08-18

In this study, a survey was conducted concerning the use of rear-seat belts, which had been made obligatory by the Road Traffic Law of 2008. The research involved a longitudinal study using five points in time, from before the use of rear-seat belts became obligatory until the 2010 crackdown on failure to use them. Rates of use of rear-seat belts and awareness of their importance (risk estimation) were both raised after the law went into effect. For all items, the main effects were seen by seat position, and for two items by period.
著者
野口 聡一 木下 冨雄
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.30, no.1, pp.1-10, 2014-08-18

The purpose of this study is to investigate how a microgravity environment affects spatial orientation, the cognitive system, and interpersonal relationships, hence changes in gravity reference frames. After leaving the terrestrial globe, astronauts experience drastic perceptual disturbances (temporary loss of the senses of spatial- and self-orientation). However, they gradually learn to adapt to the novel environment by developing new erceptual and behavioral skills. First, we examined video clips of an astronaut's body movement inside the International Space Station (ISS) by using a motion video analysis technique. We discovered that a microgravity environment definitely affects spatial orientation. Second, we analyzed how social hierarchy organization, metaphorical expression, and psychological stabilization were affected by space adaptation.
著者
西川 正之
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.13, no.1, pp.13-22, 1997

The purpose of this research was to clarify helping behavior of housewives in everyday life from both viewpoints of the help-seeker and the help-giver. Based on the results of factor analysis, their helping behaviors were theoretically categorized into four types: 1) informal helping in urgent situations, 2) formal helping in urgent situations, 3) informal helping in non-urgent situations, and 4) formal helping in non-urgent situations. The housewives more frequently gave help to neighbors than they themselves required from neighbors. The closer the relationship between the seeker and the giver of help the more frequently helping was required and given. The effects of age on helping was not constant.
著者
樋口 匡貴
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.16, no.2, pp.103-113, 2000
被引用文献数
1 5

In order to clarify groups of emotions that compose shame, 309 university students were asked to rate 27 emotional items in accordance with their past shameful experience. The factor analysis revealed six groups of emotions composing shame, namely "Confusional Fear", "Emotion of Self-abnegation", "Basic Shame", "Emotion of Self-reproaching Shrink", "Awkwardness", and "Bashfulness". In another survey, the rated scores of 161 university students were examined in order to elucidate the relationship of the six groups of shame emotions with the multiple situational categories of shame, e.g. 'Public Shame' and 'Private Shame', which, prior studies had considered. "Emotion of Self-abnegation" was felt with the most intensity in both 'Public Shame' and 'Private Shame', while in the other situational categories of shame, it marked the least intensity. Since 'Public Shame' and 'Private Shame' were found to be the typical situations of shame, these results suggested that "Emotion of Self-abnegation" could distinguish between a typical shame situation from those that are not.
著者
小城 英子
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.15, no.1, pp.22-33, 1999
被引用文献数
1

In May of 1997 an atrocious murder occurred in Kobe's Suma district. The purpose of this study is to analyze the published comments made by experts concerning this murder, and to investigate the role of the experts in news reporting. Experts' comments published before the arrest of the suspected murderer, were taken from four daily newspapers (Asahi, Mainichi, Yomiuri, Kobe), and analyzed by a quantitative method within the Framework of 3 roles- "interpretation of the matter", "reduction of apprehension" and "persuation for self-defense". The analysis revealed that experts were expected principally the first roles in this case.
著者
池内 裕美 藤原 武弘
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.19, no.3, pp.184-194, 2004

"A transitional object" is the first possession that an infant places a special attachment toward, which is not part of him/herself. Typical examples are towels, blankets and teddy bears. The purpose of this study was to investigate the determinants of appearance and disappearance of transitional objects with a special focus on the two factors of "nursing environment" and "marital stress." Two-hundred-and-eleven mothers were asked to complete a questionnaire survey through personal interviews. The main findings were as follows : (1) Transitional objects appeared in bottle-fed infants more often than breast-fed infants ; (2) Infants with younger siblings parted with their transitional objects later than those with older siblings and those without any siblings ; (3) Most transitional objects tended to appear simultaneously with the mothers' stopping breastfeeding ; (4) Transitional objects tended to appear in infants whose mothers had a stressful relationship with their husbands, relative to those who did not. Based on these findings, the "Transitional Object Acquiring Process Model" was presented.
著者
西田 公昭 黒田 文月
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.18, no.3, pp.192-203, 2003
被引用文献数
2

The purpose of this study was to examine the psychological problems experienced after leaving destructive cults and the effects of the progress period after leaving and non-professional counseling. The study analyzed the psychological problems by using a questionnaire survey administrated to 157 former cult members from two different cults. The results of factor analysis revealed the following eleven factors for psychological problems: 1) tendencies for depression and anxiety, 2) loss of self esteem, 3) remorse and regret, 4) friendship building and socializing difficulties, 5) family relationship difficulties, 6) floating, 7) fear of sexual contact, 8) emotional instability, 9) tendency for psychosomatic disease, 10) concealment of past life, and 11) anger toward the group. The results of an analysis of variance showed that tendencies for depression and anxiety, tendency for psychosomatic disease, and concealment of past life decreased during the progress period after leaving the group and counseling, while loss of self-esteem and anger toward the group increased by counseling.
著者
田崎 勝也 二ノ宮 卓也
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.29, no.2, pp.75-85, 2013

The aim of this study is to identify response styles among Japanese participants. Response style research has had a methodological concern that biased responses defined by the number of counts responding to certain category options run the risk of being confounded with item contents. Thus, following the approach delineated and outlined by Billiet and McClendon (2000), this study identifies response styles with the aid of structural equation modeling. Based on the premise that stable tendencies in response behavior are related to personality traits, the impact of response styles is partialed out from item responses by modeling a "style factor." Confirmatory factor analyses on two distinctive psychological scales found a significant effect of the acquiescence response style (ARS) on item responses. On the other hand, strong evidence of the (in) extreme response style (ERS) and the mid-point response style (MRS), often mentioned as Japanese response styles, was not identified.
著者
浦 光博 南 隆男 稲葉 昭英
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.4, no.2, pp.78-90, 1989
被引用文献数
3

This article contains two parts. In the first part, we review recent studies on social support and define three new trends in the area of social support research. The first trend is recent increment of studies examining the relationship between social support concepts and some other concepts in social psychology. The second trend is a series of studies re-examining social support process from the viewpoint of more general features of social interaction process. The third trend is the emphasis of roles of various ecological factors in social support processes. All of these three trends are considered to have impacts on future directions of this area of research. In the second part, we report results of the studies in which we examined the relationship between social support and family stress and individual stress in a situation of job-induced separation. This examination is considered to be related with the third trend reported in the first part. The results revealed that the social support, on the one hand, buffer negative effects of stressful life events on family and individual adaptation, but on the other hand, the buffering effects may have a limitation.
著者
湯川 進太郎 吉田 富二雄
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.13, no.3, pp.159-169, 1998

This study investigated the effect of the presence of other person on cognition, emotion, and aggressive behavior elicited by media violence. In experiment 1, sixty undergraduate students (30 males and 30 females) were first exposed to a violent video either with the same-gender person or alone. Then, subjects described what they were thinking about while watching the video, and rated their affect about the video. Heart rate and eye blink rate were recorded continuously while watching the video. Results showed that the presence of other person while exposed to media violence inhibited negative affect and facilitated positive thoughts and affect. In experiment 2, sixty undergraduate students (30 males and 30 females)were exposed to a violent video either with the samegender person who reacted positively to the video or with the one who reacted negatively. Unlike the experiment 1, aggressive behavior was measured on the Taylor (1967) paradigm. Results showed that the presence of other person who reacted positively to media violence facilitated aggressive behavior.
著者
湯川 進太郎 吉田 富二雄
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.18, no.2, pp.127-136, 2003

he purpose of this study is to examine the effects of the expressive and contextual characteristics of violent videos on affective reactions. Expressive characteristics are concerned with the way by which violence is represented visually, and contextual characteristics are concerned with the story in which violence happens. Fifty undergraduates (male=24, female=26) evaluated their impressions of 20 violent videos and rated their affective reactions to these videos. Two judges evaluated each contextual characteristic. Results showed that although the expressive characteristics influenced viewers' affective reactions, the contextual characteristics did not. The effects of violent videos on aggressive behavior were discussed from two perspectives, one associated with the affective effects of the expressive characteristics on hostile aggression and the other with the learning effects of the contextual characteristics on imitative aggression.
著者
出口 拓彦 吉田 俊和
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.21, no.2, pp.160-169, 2005

The purpose of the present research was to investigate the relationships among normative consciousness, individual traits, and the frequency of private conversations, in the form of whispering, amongst students during a college lecture. In the first study, the relationships among normative consciousness against whispering, perspective taking, social skills, and the frequency of whispering were examined through a questionnaire survey consisting of 251 respondents. The results showed that students who whispered frequently indicated high perspective taking or social skills. In the second study, the relationships among the goals of college life, normative consciousness, and the frequency of whispering were focused upon. The relationships between whispering and feelings of adjustment were also investigated. A questionnaire survey was conducted, and 369 responses were obtained. The results showed the following. (1) Despite having a high normative consciousness, students who valued the development of interpersonal relationships during college life were more likely to have conversations irrelevant to the lecture. (2) There were positive relationships between whispering and feelings of interpersonal adjustment.
著者
奥田 秀宇 沙 蓮香
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.6, no.1, pp.33-41, 1990

The present study explored the effects of cooperative or competitive situations, sex differences, and the cultural differences between Japan and China on the allocation choices of a reward, and the effects of these variables on interpersonal attraction for allocators. Eighty male and fourty female undergraduate students in both countries answered the question which asked the subjects' own allocation choices and the liking for allocators, after they read the description of a game situation. The game was either group or individual task, and the allocators chose either equal or equitable allocation. The results suggested that there were differences between both countries in the subjects' own allocation choices, while there were similar tendencies between them in the liking for allocators. In both, interpersonal attraction is affected by both altruism and fairness of the allocators, and fairness judgment is affected mainly by allocation similarity.
著者
今城 周造
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.6, no.2, pp.88-97, 1991

The purpose of this paper was to examine the effects of asserting obviousness of the advocated position, which had been used as threat to attitudinal freedom. Most of the subjects held an initial position, which was consistent with the advocated position. The high threat communication was sprinkled with statements such as "there is no question about it," or "I think it's obvious that ・・・." The low threat form simply omitted the threatening statements. Subjects were asked post-communication belief and were told to list all thoughts that occurred to them during the communication and to classify them. Firstly, the no-question statements were perceived as no threat to attitudinal freedom, and increased belief change toward the advocated position among the subjects who had strongly agreeded it (compliance effect). Secondly, the no-question statements were perceived as threat to freedom to question, and increased doubts and counterarguments among the subjects who had expected freedom to question (reactance effect). These results suggested that the effects of no-question statements could be different from those which reactance theory had originally predicted.
著者
広瀬 幸雄
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.10, no.1, pp.44-55, 1994
被引用文献数
28

The purpose of this article is to propose a tentative model of environment-conscious behavior, to review relevant researches on energy and water conservation, recycling, and detergents-using behavior on the basis of our model, and to clarify determinants of these behaviors. The decision making of environment-consicious behavior is hypothesized to consist of two phases. The first phase is to decide on a general goal intention of a pro-environmental lifestyle. The second is to decide on a specific behavior intention of environment-conscious behavior consistent with the general goal intention previously determined. The main conclusions of this review are as follows. The facilitating factors of the goal intention were the three main beliefs about the environmental problems; the perceived seriousness of environmental problems, the ascription of responsibility for environmental problems, and the belief in the effectiveness of an proenvironmental lifestyle. The main inhibiting or facilitating factors of the behavior intention were the three evaluations of this behavior; the feasibility evaluation, the costbenefit evaluation, and its social norm evaluation.
著者
田中 堅一郎
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.16, no.1, pp.13-26, 2000

The purpose of the study was to create a Japanese version of Pryor (1987) "Likelihood to Sexual Harassment scale" (LSH scale) and to assess its reliability and determinants. The scale meas ures differences among individuals regarding their likelihood of carrying out sexual harassment. Japanese male undergraduate students (N=192) completed questionnaires on the LSH scale and sexual attitudes (i.e., sex role stereotyping, adversarial sexual beliefs, sexual conservatism, and acceptance of interpersonal violence). The results of principal component analysis and alpha coefficients showed the high reliability of the scale. Japanese male participants who had hostile attitudes to women produced high scores of the LSH scale. In addition, the LSH scores were higher in male participants who evaluated as trivial, rather than severe, behaviors that considered as sexual harassment in Japan and who anticipated sexual attraction to be women's sex role.
著者
広瀬 弘忠 Slovic Paul 石塚 智一
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.9, no.2, pp.114-122, 1994
被引用文献数
3

A Cross-cultural questionnaire survey on the perception of sixteen risks was carried out in Tokyo, Japan and Eugene, Oregon, USA in 1991. The sixteen risk items consisted of environmental risks, technological risks, epidemics, natural disasters, societal risks and political-economic risks. Samples were collected from male and female college students in both cities. Although both Japanese and American samples judged war and nuclear power plant accidents among the risks for which it was most urgent to avoid harm, other perceptions differed considerably between the two samples. The Japanese were most concerned with the global environmental risks such as global warming, destruction of forests and acid rain. The Americans rated risks such as AIDS and illegal drugs as the most serious risks in their country. The former risk orientation was global and the latter one was somewhat more localized. Females tended to have more confidence than did males in the effectiveness of efforts put forth to reduce these risk.
著者
山中 一英
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.13, no.2, pp.93-102, 1998
被引用文献数
1

The purpose of this study was to investigate same-sex friendship development within a small group of three male and eight female freshmen by the case study method. The subjects completed a questionnaire four times over a three-month period. The questionnaire included the following scales: (1) the rating of each of the group members on a 21-point-scale measuring liking; (2) the rating of the frequency with which the subjects interacted with each member on a 6-point-scale. In addition, the questionnaire included open-ended questions, in which the subjects were asked to describe each member's noticeable behavioral events, personality, and so on. Major findings obtained were as follows. The group structure based on "liking" found at the early stage did not prevail. That is, the number of persons whom the subjects liked increased as the time passed. On the contrary, the group structure based on "interaction frequency" continued for three months. In effect, the persons whom the subjects liked best were different from those whom they were always together with. It suggested that they had "doubled friendships".