著者
三浦 麻子 楠見 孝 小倉 加奈代
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.32, no.1, pp.10-21, 2016

<p>This study examined chronological changes in attitudes towards foodstuffs from the areas contaminated by the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster, using citizens' data (<i>n</i>=1,752) from the panel surveys conducted in 4 waves between September 2011 and March 2014. Using the dual process theory of decision-making, the study attempts an empirical examination that includes the interaction of two factors: (1) anxiety regarding the radiation risks of the nuclear accident, which is hypothesized to lead to negative emotional decision-making following the formation of relevant attitudes, and (2) knowledge, higher-order literacy, and critical thinking, which are hypothesized to promote logical decision-making. Until three years after the nuclear accident, there was no large chronological variation in either anxiety regarding the radiation risks of the nuclear accident or attitudes toward foodstuffs from affected areas. The tendency regarding the latter was particularly strong in areas far from the location of the disaster. Negative attitudes regarding foodstuffs from affected areas were reduced through the possession of appropriate knowledge regarding the effects of radiation on the human body. However, the belief of possessing such knowledge may, conversely, hinder careful consideration with appropriate understanding.</p>
著者
津村 健太 村田 光二
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.32, no.1, pp.1-9, 2016

<p>After being socially excluded, people try to reconnect with others. Previous research indicated that excluded people show an enhanced ability to distinguish between-category differences relative to within-category differences of group members. It is important that excluded people distinguish in-group members from out-group members to avoid making an unnecessary effort for social reconnection or further ostracism, because in-group members afford more opportunities to reconnect compared with out-group members. We hypothesized that this perceptual change would heighten the perception of the similarity of group members. Participants were included or excluded by Cyberball (a ball-tossing computer game) and constructed imagined histograms of the perceived distribution of members of four groups across a trait dimension. As predicted, social exclusion heightened the participants' perception of the similarity of group members.</p>
著者
二木 望 渡辺 匠 櫻井 良祐 唐沢 かおり
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.0879, (Released:2016-09-12)
参考文献数
24

The present research examined the effects of perceived entitativity on attitudes toward elderly people stereotyped as “warm but incompetent.” Previous research demonstrated that “warm but incompetent” stereotypes elicit active facilitation and passive harm and emotions mediate these links. Extending previous research, we predicted that entitativity would moderate these effects because of its polarizing effect. In a study (N=74), we manipulated the perceived entitativity of elderly people and a relative salience of stereotypes (e.g., a relative salience of their warmth) by presenting scenarios. The results showed that when perceived entitativity is high, warmth elicits active facilitation and lack of competence elicits passive harm. Furthermore, admiration mediates warmth and active facilitation. On the other hand, when perceived entitativity is low, stereotypes and behavioral intentions are not associated. The findings suggest that entitativity determines the process by which stereotypes elicit behaviors.
著者
白岩 祐子 小林 麻衣子 唐沢 かおり
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.32, no.1, pp.41-51, 2016-08-25 (Released:2016-08-25)
参考文献数
44

In desperation to learn the details of their case and to achieve the right to know, the families of crime victims in Japan have been taking action to implement the victim participant system in criminal trials. Focusing on the victim participant system, which began in 2008, the present study examined whether or not family members of victims who actually participated in criminal trials felt that their demands to know were fulfilled through the process. We administered a survey targeting 173 individuals whose family member has been the victim of a crime such as murder. The results revealed that their demands were fulfilled as they had expected only when they participated in the trial. Furthermore, we found that such sufficiency level led to their satisfaction with the justice system, while insufficient fulfillment of demands led to an increase in people’s willingness to act toward changing the system. We discussed the social consequences of judicially guaranteeing a victim’s right to know.
著者
毛 新華 大坊 郁夫
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.32, no.1, pp.22-40, 2016-08-25 (Released:2016-08-25)
参考文献数
47

The cognitive and behavioral effectiveness of a social skills training (SST) program involving uniquely Chinese cultural characteristics was investigated through self- and others’ assessment. Chinese undergraduates (N=39) were divided into a control group and an SST group. The SST group participated a brief SST program that was developed by incorporating cross-cultural social skills and unique Chinese cultural characteristics. The control group participated in a program that bears no relationship to social skills. In order to examine the behavioral effectiveness of the program, a series of conversational and observational experiments was conducted. The results indicated that Chinese, cross-cultural, and Japanese social skills’ scores of the SST group increased significantly after the program compared with the control group. This suggested the effectiveness of the program on participants’ cognition. The scales for evaluating participants’ behaviors from self-observations and those of other observers also showed significant changes in the SST group. It is concluded that the program was effective for changing participants’ behaviors in addition to their cognition. Simultaneous changes in Chinese and Japanese skill factors suggested the possibility that cultural factors are connected to each other.
著者
和田 実 山口 雅敏
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.15, no.2, pp.125-136, 1999

The purpose of this paper was to reveal the relationships between social exchanges and the quality of a romantic relationship from various social exchange perspectives, analyzing the couple as a unit. Subjects were 92 couples. Major findings were as follows: 1. Perceptions of equity and equality within the romantic dyad weren't related. On the other hand, the values of maximizing own outcome model, maximizing other's outcome model, maximizing joint outcome model, and investment model were positively related. 2. The lesser the discrepancy between the couple's self-outcome and that of equity model were, the greater the couple's satisfaction was. The lesser the discrepancy between the couples' investment model was, the greater the couple's commitment was.
著者
篠原 一光 三浦 麻子
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.14, no.3, pp.144-154, 1999
被引用文献数
4

The formation process of electronic communities on WWW bulletin boards was observed for 6 months. Subjects were 106 Internet users were unacquainted with one another. They communicated freely on a WWW bulletin board. Based on time course change of the number of remarks, participants were classified into 3 groups; high-participation group, low-participation group, and early high-participation group, members of which made remarks only in the early days. Compared with the other groups, subjects in the high-paticipation group tended to more frequently use the network for sending information (e.g. making remarks on Netnews), and had higher communication skills, which formed a sub-structure of social skills. The results suggest that social skills were related to active participation in electronic communities.
著者
山本 明
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.20, no.2, pp.152-164, 2004
被引用文献数
3

The purpose of this paper was to investigate the effects of mass media reports on risk perception and images of victims. Study 1, which examined newspaper articles about human deaths, revealed that: (1) the ages of dead persons tended to be reported in headlines when they were very young or very old, and (2) suicides were reported more, while murders were reported less relative to actual rate of occurrence per population. Study 2 conducted through a survey revealed that: (1) the main information source of traffic accidents, fires, suicides, and murders was the mass media, and (2) more than half of respondents had some personal experiences with traffic accidents (more than 80%) and fire (more than 50%). Also, it was apparent that (3) the respondent's estimates and the amount of exposure to mass media reports about the distribution of dead persons over a lifetime period were correlated. The implications of these findings and future problems to be solved were discussed.
著者
藤本 学 大坊 郁夫
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.23, no.1, pp.23-32, 2007
被引用文献数
1

This study aimed to examine participants' predication patterns in small group communications. Distinctive prediction patterns from utterance data were extracted from two experiments which were different in acquaintanceship, controlled situations and group size. Specific patterns were related to personal traits. The interesting difference of the predication patterns between Study 1 and Study 2 was the presence or absence of "listeners." In Study 1, which has conversations by three persons, the participants needed to be actively involved in conversations to establish communication. In contrast, the participants in large groups were able to participate passively in conversation. Therefore, the notion of "listener" as a predication pattern was extracted from Study 2, which has conversations by five persons.
著者
林 洋一郎
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.22, no.3, pp.305-330, 2007

This article reviews the literature on social justice with an emphasis on the subjective properties of justice. The author contends that there are four major perspectives for understanding past research into the history of justice and its future directions: a) the antecedents of justice which identify the criteria and factors of perceptions of fairness, b) the consequences of justice which focus on the effect of fairness perceptions on individual responses, c) the motives for justice which discuss why people are sensitive to fairness, and d) the concerns of justice that highlight the internal and/or external conditions driving people to fairness. The author reviews the vast amount of theoretical and empirical research that underlies each of the 4 approaches mentioned above. Important directions of future research are also discussed.
著者
仁科 信春
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.7, no.3, pp.163-171, 1992
被引用文献数
2

The purpose of this study is to make clear the attitudes toward dwelling life held by the residents in Housing and Urban Development Corporation Estate as the basic data for the rebuilding plan and to get full information about the living way of the urban residents in the future. The subjects of this study are the residents in three H.U.D.C. estates for rent in the metropolitan area. Thirty-two items of the attitude toward dwelling life and life style are analyzed by the third method of quantification. The attitudes toward dwelling life are categorized to "commute and facility", "dwelling unit size and environment" and "house rent". Life style is generally divided into 2 types which are similar to "other-directedness" and "inner-directedness".
著者
今井 芳昭
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.1, no.2, pp.35-41, 1986
被引用文献数
1 3

The purpose of the present study was to find out the bases of social power in the parent-adolescent relationship. The subjects were three hundred and seven male and female students in two private universities. They evaluated how strongly they thought that their parents had each of six bases of social power (referent, expert, legitimate, reward, coercive, and attraction power), and how strongly they would obey their parents' influences in relation to the personal, familial, and social matters. The main findings were as follows: 1) The factor analysis based on the bases of social power revealed the following. They were termed "referent-expert power", "reward-coercive power", and "attraction power". 2) According to the path analysis, the paths which ran from "referent expert power" and "attraction power" to "the obedience to the parents' influences" had significant path coefficients. This result means that an adolescent tends to obey his parents when he identifies with them, perceives their expertness, and likes them.
著者
高口 央 坂田 桐子 藤本 光平
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.22, no.3, pp.245-257, 2007
被引用文献数
1

The purpose of this study was to determine whether a situation moderates the effects on group members of leadership and prototypicality. Prototypicality is a concept defined as recognition of the standpoint between individuals who reflect the meta contrast ratio of an ingroup and outgroup, and this prototypicality relates to an evaluation of the leader's effectiveness by the group members (e.g., Hains et al, 1997). In this article, we examined whether a leaders' prototypicality strongly influences group activity. In study 1, we conducted an investigation on 205 members of 18 groups of university students. The results showed that prototypicality increased group morale when the activity was a competition with an outgroup. In study 2, group members' judgment relative to the instructions of the leader was examined using the scenario assumption method. Results revealed that only in a situation of conflict with an outgroup did the leaders' prototypicality become the group members' judgment standard. The two studies suggest that a leader's prototypicality influences group members only when there is clear conflict with an outgroup.
著者
村井 健祐
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.1, no.2, pp.1-3, 1986

In psychology it is common to use the term "crisis" when describing human behavior in any extreme situation. The term "crisis", however, is not infrequently used in such a way as "identity crisis" or "growth crisis". It is noted from this that the conception of "crisis" does not always apply to sudden critical situations in which body and mind suffer acute danger or suspense. It is, therefore, advisable to avoid the confusion of the concept by using the phrase "extreme situation" as distinguished from "crisis" in the studies of these fields. Various studies have been made so far about extreme situations studies on disaster psychology, prisoners' psychology and other special studies as well as experimental basic studies. All these studies aim at understanding human behavior in extreme situations, but they are not yet fully interrelated to one another. We would like to propose that, in future, we should make efforts toward systematizing all these studies into one synthesis under the denotation of "Extremity Psychology".
著者
清成 透子 山岸 俊男
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.15, no.2, pp.100-109, 1999
被引用文献数
2 1

The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between general trust and trustworthiness. According to the traditional psychological as well as economic approaches, trust has been regarded as simple reflection of trustworthiness. On the other hand, Yamagishi's (1998) "emancipation theory of trust" assigns trust significance of its own, beyond simple reflection of trustworthiness. We developed a device, which we call "game of enthronement," to measure trustful behavior independently from trustworthy behavior, and used it to compare the levels of trust and trustworthiness between American and Japanese Ss. The results show a higher level of trust among American than Japanese Ss, whereas no difference was found in the level of trustworthy behavior between the two samples, implying that trust has its own significance beyond simple reflection of trustworthiness.
著者
田中 佑子
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.12, no.1, pp.43-53, 1996
被引用文献数
1 2

This study examined the effects of family separation on tanshin-funin employees' organizational commitment and family commitment, and of both commitments on their primary appraisal and stress reactions. Subjects were 247 tanshin-funin employees, who transferred without the accompaniment of their family, 239 taido-funin employees, who transferred taking their family, and 225 non-transferees. Factor analysis found four factors for organizational commitment; "continuance commitment", "work willingness", "value acceptance" and "utilitarian commitment". Four factors were found for family commitment: "mental bonding", "work willingness", "group orientation", "reason-ability of family" and "utilitarian commitment". Two factors were found for a primary appraisal: "their own problem" and "a family and domestic problem". The results indicated that: (1) "work willingness for organization" and mental bonding" became stronger due to family separation. (2) Tanshin-funin employees' "value acceptance" "group orientation" and both "utilitarian commitments" significantly influenced stress reactions through "their own problem" or "a family and domestic problem".
著者
福島 治 大渕 憲一 小嶋 かおり
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.22, no.2, pp.103-115, 2006

We examined the effects of multiple goals on verbal responses in an interpersonal conflict situation. Participants who had high or low levels of concern for the personal resource talked with an experimental actor and were made to believe that trained observers would evaluate his or her ability to cooperate or to be assertive based on their conversation. Then, they experienced a conflict resulting from an irrational demand that the actor expressed either politely or impolitely. Participants chose an integrative strategy in the presence of any two of the following conditions: low levels of participants' own concern for the personal resource, observers who would evaluate participants' ability to cooperate, and the actor's use of polite expression. When the opposite conditions applied the participants chose a distributive strategy. In addition, it was found that when a participant's level of concern for the personal resource was high, the use of a polite expression increased the likelihood of a mitigating strategy being adopted whereas the use of an impolite expression increased the likelihood of a hostile strategy being adopted. The results are discussed in light of tactical decision-making processes proposed by the multiple goals theory.
著者
橋本 剛
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.13, no.1, pp.64-75, 1997
被引用文献数
2

This study purported to analyze and clarify factors that cause interpersonal stress, conflicts, inferiority complex and dislocation in adolescence. Study I identified three categories of interpersonal stress: (1) interpersonal conflict, (2) interpersonal inferiority complex, and (3) interpersonal dislocation. Study II examined correlations between personality trait scales and these three categories. These correlations were analyzed according to stressfulness and frequency of events. As a result, validity of the three categories was supported, and it was suggested that different strategies were necessary for intervention in order to reduce the impact of stress.
著者
村本 由紀子 遠藤 由美
出版者
The Japanese Society of Social Psychology
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.30, no.3, pp.213-233, 2015

This micro-ethnographic research focuses on a traditional custom on Toshi Island, in Japan. When first-born sons on the island graduate from junior high school, they form a small group of <i>neya-ko</i> (quasi-brothers) and sleep over at the house of their <i>neya-oya</i> (quasi-parents) every night until they reach the age of 26. They maintain the quasi-family relationship and help each other all their lives. Why does the <i>neya</i> custom still continue on this island, while most similar customs have already disappeared in other parts of Japan? To answer this question, we conducted participant observations and unstructured interviews. The results suggest that the ecological environment of the island has exerted an important influence on the <i>neya</i> custom. In spite of recent drastic social and economic changes in the islanders' lives, the <i>neya</i> custom still plays a key role in building sustainability in the community. Based on these findings, we discuss how the multi-layered environments of the island interact with this specific custom that has been fostered through the years.