著者
山口 智史 佐々木 司
出版者
一般社団法人 日本学校保健学会
雑誌
学校保健研究 (ISSN:03869598)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.60, no.3, pp.150-153, 2018-08-20 (Released:2019-12-20)
参考文献数
24

Background: Emphasis on importance of evidence-based educational practices has been recently increasing. The US government, for example, has announced that they would not financially support new educational practices which are not evidence-based. Most of schools, however, may not acknowledge its importance and only few evidence-based practices have been developed or conducted in schools.Objective: To examine reasons why the evidence-based practices have not been prevailing in schoolsMethods: We reviewed studies addressing how often teachers participate in educational research and employ evidence from educational research in their practices. Studies about impressions and thoughts which teachers have on the research were also reviewed.Results: Only few teachers have engaged in educational research, and evidence from the research is rarely utilized in educational programs and practices. Teachers tend to think that research is not helpful or useful in practical situations. They also seem to have an impression that research is conducted without considering real-world situations of school settings. An intervention study has, however, observed that improving teachers’ access to educational research might help teachers to consider educational research helpful in schools. Researchers should respect practical situations in schools when they conduct educational research. Careful explanations of the results of research including feed-backs to teachers may be important to increase teachers’attention on, and practical use of evidence from, research in schools. In addition, pre-service teachers should be taught methodology of research and how to employ evidence from educational research.Conclusion: School teachers in general may not have positive impressions on, or use evidence from, educational research, which could be improved by researchers’attention and careful respects to schools and teachers. Curriculum for teacher education may also need to be improved.
著者
野井 真吾 千竃 健人 鹿野 晶子 田中 良 田邊 弘祐 山田 直子 渡辺 晃
出版者
一般社団法人 日本学校保健学会
雑誌
学校保健研究 (ISSN:03869598)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.62, no.3, pp.166-177, 2020-08-20 (Released:2020-09-11)
参考文献数
32

Background: In Japan, the sales of energy drinks (ED) are growing rapidly. This has led to concerns that consumption of ED could have a negative health impact for individuals, including children.Objective: The purpose of this study was to confirm the intake of ED, the characteristics of consumers' physical symptoms/behaviors, and the perception of ED based on the results of a questionnaire survey for school children.Methods: The subjects were 5,984 children from 5th grade of elementary schools to 3rd grade of high school in 16 schools (5 elementary schools, 6 junior high schools, 5 high schools) at 6 rural and metropolitan Japanese prefectures. All investigations were conducted from May 2018 to March 2019. The questionnaire used in this study gathered information regarding ED intake, physical symptoms/behaviors, and the perception of ED.Results: The main results in this study were as follows. 1) Older students were more consume ED than younger students, and boys were more than girls to consume ED (elementary school: 45.5% boys, 27.9% girls, junior high school: 58.0% boys, 32.8% girls, and high school: 67.6% boys, 45.4% girls). 2) The analysis of the relationship between the ED intake frequency and physical symptoms indicated that the complaints of physical symptoms such as ‘headache (OR=1.573, 95% CI=1.281-1.931),' ‘stomachache (OR=1.545, 95% CI=1.224-1.949),' ‘appetite loss (OR=1.629, 95% CI=1.293-2.053),' ‘nausea (OR=1.667, 95% CI=1.251-2.222),' ‘tiredness (OR=1.285, 95% CI=1.023-1.614),' ‘lethargy (OR=1.382, 95% CI=1.120-1.706),' ‘dizziness (OR=1.369, 95% CI=1.108-1.692),' ‘fogginess (OR=1.621, 95% CI=1.231-2.134),' ‘cardiac pain (OR=1.537, 95% CI=1.168-2.021)' and ‘malaise (OR=1.557, 95% CI=1.267-1.915)' were higher in the group who consumed ED habitually (more than once a week). Similarly, in the analysis of the relation between the ED intake frequency and behaviors, ‘late bedtime (OR=1.338, 95% CI=1.092-1.640),' ‘bad sleep onset (OR=1.649, 95% CI=1.311-2.074),' ‘wake after sleep onset (OR=2.056, 95% CI=1.528-2.766)' and ‘lack of breakfast (OR=3.453, 95% CI=2.546-4.684)' were also higher in the habitual ED intake group. 3) The four factors, ‘vitality', ‘vogue,' ‘ineptness' and ‘distrust' were extracted regarding students' perception of ED held by children. Additionally, it was confirmed that the habitual ED intake group had higher factor scores of ‘vitality' and ‘vogue,' while their factor scores of ‘ineptness' and ‘distrust' were also significantly lower.Conclusion: In this study, we were able to show the real state of ED intake, the characteristics of consumers' physical symptoms/behaviors, and the perception of ED. Therefore, social countermeasures were considered necessary.
著者
横嶋 敬行 内山 有美 内田 香奈子 山崎 勝之
出版者
一般社団法人 日本学校保健学会
雑誌
学校保健研究 (ISSN:03869598)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.62, no.3, pp.187-193, 2020-08-20 (Released:2020-09-11)
参考文献数
26

Background: Self-Esteem is a crucial characteristic to enhance mental health and adaptive behaviors at schools. One of the most famous scales to measure self-esteem is the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES). However, recent studies have revealed that the RSES for adults measures both adaptive and nonadaptive aspects of self-esteem. Therefore, the difficulties of utilizing the RSES in clinical and educational intervention research are indicated. On the other hand, there is little research for children to examine if the RSES includes both adaptive and nonadaptive self-esteem.Objective: The main purpose of current study is examining whether the RSES for children measures adaptive and nonadaptive self-esteem.Methods: Participants were 581 children from 4th to 6th grades and 20 homeroom teachers in elementary schools. The RSES for Children (RSES-C) that includes 10 items was developed for this study, considering the content validity and comprehensibility for children. The results were compared between three groups (adaptive and nonadaptive high self-esteem, and low SE) nominated by the homeroom teachers.Results:The main results were as follows: 1) The results of factor analyses showed that the RSES-C consists of one factor with eight items, in which item number 2 and 8 were excluded due to low factor loadings. Cronbach's alpha coefficients for internal consistency illustrated adequate levels of scores (overall: α=.81, males: α=.80, females: α=.82). 2) Gender difference and grade difference were examined through two-way analysis of variance (grade and sex). The results revealed that there were no significant main effects with in interaction effect. 3) The scores in the groups of adaptive and nonadaptive self-esteem were not different and higher than the low self-esteem group. This finding suggested that what the children version measures is similar to what the adult one does.Conclusion: Through these results, it was suggested that the RSES-C measures both adaptive and nonadaptive self-esteem, like the adult version of the RSES. The RSES-C needs to be carefully utilized in assessing adaptive self-esteem for the evaluation of intervention programs at schools.
著者
疋田哲也
雑誌
学校保健研究
巻号頁・発行日
vol.34, pp.364-373, 1992
被引用文献数
1
著者
我部 杏奈 高倉 実 宮城 政也 喜屋武 享
出版者
一般社団法人 日本学校保健学会
雑誌
学校保健研究 (ISSN:03869598)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.62, no.1, pp.4-10, 2020

<p><b>Background:</b> Dental caries is the most prevalent lifestyle-related disease worldwide for children. A low socio-economic status (SES) is significantly associated with a higher risk of having dental caries. Since children spend most of their day at schools and are susceptible to the school context, oral health promotion activities in schools are recommended. Tooth-brushing after school lunch, which is one of the oral health programs in school, may help prevent dental caries regardless of their SES level.</p><p><b>Objectives:</b> The purpose of this study was to examine the association between dental caries, SES and the time of tooth-brushing after school lunch among elementary school students.</p><p><b>Methods:</b> The cross-sectional study was conducted of 43 public elementary schools under the jurisdiction of two education board offices in Okinawa, Japan in 2018. The participants were 1,248 students of fifth graders who had obtained consent from their parents or caregivers. The students' dental caries experiences were extracted from personal dental records of medical checkup in the schools. The indicator of SES was the financial assistance for education by the municipalities. The data of dental caries and SES was provided by the schools. We confirmed with school nurse teachers at each school whether tooth-brushing after school lunch was conducted or not. In addition, a self-administered anonymous questionnaire was conducted for students to obtain information on socio-demographics, lifestyles, and family relationships. Using multi-level logistic regression models, the association of SES and tooth-brushing after school lunch with dental caries were analyzed. In that case, SES, socio-demographic variables, and lifestyles were used as the individual-level variables; tooth-brushing after school lunch was used as the school-level variable.</p><p><b>Results: </b> Students with lower SES were more likely to experience dental caries than those with higher SES (OR: 1.7, 95%CI: 1.24-2.38). Students in the schools not carrying out tooth-brushing after school lunch were more likely to experience dental caries than those in the schools doing it (OR: 1.8, 95%CI: 1.05-3.02). Adjusted for the individual-level and school-level variables, these findings were in the same direction.</p><p><b>Conclusions:</b> This study showed that dental caries of students were associated with SES. Additionally, toothbrushing at schools may contribute to the prevention of caries in all students attending schools.</p>
著者
高倉 実 宮城 政也 喜屋武 享
出版者
一般社団法人 日本学校保健学会
雑誌
学校保健研究 (ISSN:03869598)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.62, no.1, pp.43-51, 2020

<p><b>Background:</b> The leading causes of death,disease, and academic failure among youth are strongly associated with health-risk behaviors. These behaviors are started and established during childhood and adolescence, and extend into adulthood. It is important to monitor the prevalence and trends in health-risk behaviors in order to plan, implement, and assess effective prevention efforts.</p><p><b>Objectives:</b> The aim of this study was to estimate trends in health-risk behaviors among Japanese high school students in Okinawa prefecture from 2002 to 2016.</p><p><b>Methods:</b> The study samples were 2,852 students from 25 public high schools in 2002, 2,892 students from 25 public high schools in 2005, 3,248 students from 29 public high schools in 2008, 3,386 students from 30 public high schools in 2012, and 3,441 students from 30 public high schools in 2016. Data from self-administered anonymous surveys were analyzed to assess trends in the proportion of students who engaged in selected health-risk behaviors. Behaviors studied included those that contribute to injuries, cigarette use, alcohol and other drug use, sexual behaviors, dietary behaviors, and physical activity and sedentary behaviors.</p><p><b>Results: </b> There was a significant increase in motorcycle helmet use and in seatbelt use and decrease in a ride with drinking driver. In boys, having been in a physical fight showed a significant decrease. Lifetime cigarette use, early initiation of cigarette use, current cigarette use, current frequent cigarette use, and smoking more than 10 cigarettes per day decreased. Lifetime alcohol use, early initiation of alcohol use, current alcohol use, and episodic heavy drinking also decreased. Girls who have been offered, sold, or given an illegal drug by someone decreased. A significant decrease in sexual experience was detected. Those having drunk alcohol or used drugs before last sexual intercourse also decreased. The prevalence of condom use during their last sexual intercourse increased. Girls who had first sexual intercourse before age 13 years decreased. Those having described themselves as overweight decreased. Those who have eaten vegetables during the 7 days before the survey increased, but boys who have eaten fruits during the 7 days before the survey decreased. In girls, unhealthy weight control behaviors such as the use of diet pills and forcing oneself to vomit decreased, but going without eating for over a day increased. Those watching TV for 3 hours or more per day decreased, but playing computer games or using a computer for 3 hours or more per day increased.</p><p><b>Conclusions:</b> This study shows that many health-risk behaviors among high school students in Okinawa improved between 2002 and 2016. Conversely, sedentary behavior using computer and computer games, having eaten fruits among boys, and fasting among girls deteriorated over this period.</p>
著者
大家 さとみ 藤林 武史
出版者
日本学校保健学会
雑誌
学校保健研究 (ISSN:03869598)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.41, no.6, pp.552-560, 2000-02-20
被引用文献数
4